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Dennis Toddenroth, Janakan Sivagnanasundaram, Hans-Ulrich Prokosch, Thomas Ganslandt
BACKGROUND: The difficulty of managing patient recruitment and documentation for clinical trials prompts a demand for instruments for closely monitoring these critical but unpredictable processes. Increasingly adopted Electronic Data Capture (EDC) applications provide novel opportunities to reutilize stored information for an efficient management of traceable trial workflows. In related clinical and administrative settings, so-called digital dashboards that continuously visualize time-dependent parameters have recently met a growing acceptance...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
Terrence R Tiersch, William T Monroe
Development of devices through design, prototyping, testing, and fabrication is especially necessary for enhancement of research and eventual application in cryobiology. The advent of 3-dimensional printing offers unique opportunities for this process, given that the materials involved are suitable for use in cryogenic temperatures. We report herein that 3-D printing with polylactic acid (PLA) thermoplastic is ideally suited for cryobiology device development. Devices that are designed and standardized in open-source fashion can be electronically distributed and created locally on increasingly affordable 3-D printers, and can accelerate cryobiology findings and improve reproducibility of results...
October 18, 2016: Cryobiology
Toshifumi Mori, Shinji Saito
Proteins involve motions over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. While the large conformational changes such as folding and functioning are slow and appear to occur in a highly cooperative manner, how the hierarchical dynamics over different timescales play a role during these slow transitions has been of great interest over the decades. Here we study the folding mechanism of the villin headpiece subdomain (HP35) to understand the molecular mechanism behind this prototypical fast-folding protein. The ~ 400 µs molecular dynamics (MD) trajectories obtained by Piana et al...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Narges Abdali, Jerry Matthew Parks, Keith Haynes, Julie L Chaney, Adam T Green, David Wolloscheck, John K Walker, Valentin V Rybenkov, Jerome Yves Baudry, Jeremy C Smith, Helen I Zgurskaya
Antibiotic resistance is a major threat to human welfare. Inhibitors of multidrug efflux pumps (EPIs) are promising alternative therapeutics that could revive activities of antibiotics and reduce bacterial virulence. Identification of new druggable sites for inhibition is critical for development of effective EPIs, especially in light of constantly emerging resistance. Here, we describe EPIs that interact with periplasmic membrane fusion proteins, critical components of efflux pumps that are responsible for the activation of the transporter and the recruitment of the outer-membrane channel...
October 21, 2016: ACS Infectious Diseases
Marta Gibert, Sonia Paytubi, Sergi Beltrán, Antonio Juárez, Carlos Balsalobre, Cristina Madrid
Plasmids of the incompatibility group HI1 (IncHI1) have been isolated from several Gram-negative pathogens and are associated with the spread of multidrug resistance. Their conjugation is tightly regulated and it is inhibited at temperatures higher than 30°C, indicating that conjugation occurs outside warm-blooded hosts. Using R27, the prototype of IncHI1 plasmids, we report that plasmid transfer efficiency in E. coli strongly depends on the physiological state of the donor cells. Conjugation frequency is high when cells are actively growing, dropping sharply when cells enter the stationary phase of growth...
October 21, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
Bavand Keshavarz, Eric C Houze, John R Moore, Michael R Koerner, Gareth H McKinley
The breakup and atomization of complex fluids can be markedly different than the analogous processes in a simple Newtonian fluid. Atomization of paint, combustion of fuels containing antimisting agents, as well as physiological processes such as sneezing are common examples in which the atomized liquid contains synthetic or biological macromolecules that result in viscoelastic fluid characteristics. Here, we investigate the ligament-mediated fragmentation dynamics of viscoelastic fluids in three different canonical flows...
October 7, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Lina Jaurigue, Eckehard Schöll, Kathy Lüdge
Many physical systems involve time-delayed feedback or coupling. In such delay systems, noise can give rise to undesirable oscillations at frequencies resonant to the delay times. We investigate how an additional feedback term can suppress noise-induced modulations in delay systems with self-feedback that exhibit deterministic oscillatory dynamics. A simple characteristic equation is derived to predict optimal delay times for the prototypical example of a Stuart-Landau oscillator subject to two feedback terms...
October 7, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Justin Chamberland, Annie Roy-Charland, Melanie Perron, Joël Dickinson
The perceptual-attentional limitation hypothesis posits that the confusion between emotional facial expressions of fear and surprise may be due to their visual similarity, with shared muscle movements. In Experiment 1 full face images of fear and surprise varying as a function of distinctiveness (mouth index, brow index or both indices) were displayed in a gender oddball task. Experiment 2, in a similar task, directed attention towards the eye or mouth region with a blurring technique. The current two studies used response time and event-related potentials (ERP) to test the perceptual-attentional limitation hypothesis...
October 21, 2016: Social Neuroscience
Iain A Sawyer, David Sturgill, Myong-Hee Sung, Gordon L Hager, Miroslav Dundr
Nuclear bodies contribute to non-random organization of the human genome and nuclear function. Using a major prototypical nuclear body, the Cajal body, as an example, we suggest that these structures assemble at specific gene loci located across the genome as a result of high transcriptional activity. Subsequently, target genes are physically clustered in close proximity in Cajal body-containing cells. However, Cajal bodies are observed in only a limited number of human cell types, including neuronal and cancer cells...
October 21, 2016: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
Naveen Kumar Thakral, Robert J Behme, Aktham Aburub, Jeffrey A Peterson, Timothy A Woods, Benjamin A Diseroad, Raj Suryanarayanan, Gregory A Stephenson
Disproportionation propensity of salts (HCl, HBr, hemi-napadisylate) and adipic acid co-crystal of corticotropin releasing hormone receptor-1 antagonist, was studied using model free kinetics. Using thermogravimetic weight loss profile or heat flow curves from differential scanning calorimetry, an activation energy plot for salts and co-crystal was generated based on model free kinetics. This activation energy of disproportionation provided qualitative information about the solid state salt stability. To ensure the stability throughout the shelf life, "prototype" formulations of salts and co-crystal in tablet form, were stored at 40 °C and several water vapor pressures...
October 21, 2016: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Jack E Henningfield, Tracy T Smith, Bethea A Kleykamp, Reginald V Fant, Eric C Donny
BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE: Steven R. Goldberg was a pioneering behavioral pharmacologist whose intravenous drug self-administration studies advanced the understanding of conditioned stimuli and schedules of reinforcement as determinants of pattern and persistence of drug-seeking behavior, and in particular, the importance of nicotine in tobacco use. His passing in 2014 led to invitations to contribute articles to psychopharmacology dedicated to his work. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this review are to summarize and put into historical perspective Goldberg's contributions to elucidate the reinforcing effects of nicotine and to summarize the implications of his research for medication development, tobacco regulation, and potential tobacco control policy options...
October 21, 2016: Psychopharmacology
Lis N Velásquez, M Ayelén Milillo, M Victoria Delpino, Aldana Trotta, Pablo Fernández, Roberto G Pozner, Roland Lang, Luciana Balboa, Guillermo H Giambartolomei, Paula Barrionuevo
Brucella abortus is an intracellular pathogen capable of surviving inside of macrophages. The success of B. abortus as a chronic pathogen relies on its ability to orchestrate different strategies to evade the adaptive CD4(+) T cell responses that it elicits. Previously, we demonstrated that B. abortus inhibits the IFN-γ-induced surface expression of MHC class II (MHC-II) molecules on human monocytes, and this phenomenon correlated with a reduction in antigen presentation. However, the molecular mechanisms, whereby B...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Julia Y Q Low, Robert L McBride, Kathleen E Lacy, Russell S J Keast
Sweetness is one of the 5 prototypical tastes and is activated by sugars and non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS). The aim of this study was to investigate measures of sweet taste function [detection threshold (DT), recognition threshold (RT), and suprathreshold intensity ratings] across multiple sweeteners. Sixty participants, 18-52 years of age (mean age in years = 26, SD = ±7.8), were recruited to participate in the study. DT and RT were collected for caloric sweeteners (glucose, fructose, sucrose, erythritol) and NNS (sucralose, rebaudioside A)...
October 20, 2016: Chemical Senses
Gregory A Fendley, Ina L Urbatsch, Roger B Sutton, Maria E Zoghbi, Guillermo A Altenberg
ATP-binding cassette proteins are ubiquitously present throughout all known genomes. Their basic functional unit possesses two transmembrane domains and two nucleotide-binding domains. The nucleotide-binding domains are responsible for ATP binding and hydrolysis, and their 3-dimensional structure is conserved across ATP-binding cassette proteins. Binding of ATP produces nucleotide-binding domain dimerization, a step necessary for hydrolysis. However, the possibility that nucleotide-binding domains bind and/or hydrolyze nucleotide triphosphates different from ATP has not been explored in detail...
October 17, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Hideki Ujiie, Tatsuya Kato, Hsin-Pei Hu, Suhaib Hasan, Priya Patel, Hironobu Wada, Daiyoon Lee, Kosuke Fujino, David M Hwang, Marcelo Cypel, Marc de Perrot, Andrew Pierre, Gail Darling, Thomas K Waddell, Shaf Keshavjee, Kazuhiro Yasufuku
BACKGROUND: Localization of small, nonvisible and nonpalpable nodules is challenging during video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. We evaluated the feasibility of using a new ultrasound thoracoscope to localize nodules in resected ex vivo human lungs. METHODS: The tumor was localized and measured in its greatest dimension with a prototype ultrasound thoracoscope (XLTF-UC180; Olympus Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) at different frequencies (5.0 to 12.0 MHz) and different lung specimen states (deflated, semiinflated)...
October 17, 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Mona Malakouti, Gabrielle E Brown, Argentina Leon, Eva Wang, April N Naegeli, Emily Edson-Heredia, Ethan Levin, John Y M Koo
INTRODUCTION: Patient-reported outcome measures are increasingly utilized in dermatology to assess the impact of skin disease on quality of life. Despite recognition of the influence of skin disease on intimate relationships, an instrument to assess intimacy has not been developed. The objective of this study was to create the Dermatologic Intimacy Scale (DIS) and administer the prototype to a patient population. METHODS: A group of healthcare providers at the University of California San Francisco created the DIS prototype...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
Thomas Briese, David T Williams, Vishal Kapoor, Sinead M Diviney, Andrea Certoma, Jianning Wang, Cheryl A Johansen, Rashmi Chowdhary, John S Mackenzie, W Ian Lipkin
The Mapputta group comprises antigenically related viruses indigenous to Australia and Papua New Guinea that are included in the family Bunyaviridae but not currently assigned to a specific genus. We determined and analyzed the genome sequences of five Australian viruses isolated from mosquitoes collected during routine arbovirus surveillance in Western Australia (K10441, SW27571, K13190, and K42904) and New South Wales (12005). Based on matching sequences of all three genome segments to prototype MRM3630 of Trubanaman virus (TRUV), NB6057 of Gan Gan virus (GGV), and MK7532 of Maprik virus (MPKV), isolates K13190 and SW27571 were identified as TRUV, 12005 as GGV, and K42904 as a Mapputta group virus from Western Australia linking GGV and MPKV...
2016: PloS One
Yunshun Zhang, Rencheng Zheng, Keisuke Shimono, Tsutomu Kaizuka, Kimihiko Nakano
The collection of clean power from ambient vibrations is considered a promising method for energy harvesting. For the case of wheel rotation, the present study investigates the effectiveness of a piezoelectric energy harvester, with the application of stochastic resonance to optimize the efficiency of energy harvesting. It is hypothesized that when the wheel rotates at variable speeds, the energy harvester is subjected to on-road noise as ambient excitations and a tangentially acting gravity force as a periodic modulation force, which can stimulate stochastic resonance...
October 17, 2016: Sensors
Markus Ostarek, Gabriella Vigliocco
Previous research has shown that processing words with an up/down association (e.g., bird, foot) can influence the subsequent identification of visual targets in congruent location (at the top/bottom of the screen). However, as facilitation and interference were found under similar conditions, the nature of the underlying mechanisms remained unclear. We propose that word comprehension relies on the perceptual simulation of a prototypical event involving the entity denoted by a word in order to provide a general account of the different findings...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Laiyuan Wang, Zhiyong Wang, Jinyi Lin, Jie Yang, Linghai Xie, Mingdong Yi, Wen Li, Haifeng Ling, Changjin Ou, Wei Huang
Most simulations of neuroplasticity in memristors, which are potentially used to develop artificial synapses, are confined to the basic biological Hebbian rules. However, the simplex rules potentially can induce excessive excitation/inhibition, even collapse of neural activities, because they neglect the properties of long-term homeostasis involved in the frameworks of realistic neural networks. Here, we develop organic CuPc-based memristors of which excitatory and inhibitory conductivities can implement both Hebbian rules and homeostatic plasticity, complementary to Hebbian patterns and conductive to the long-term homeostasis...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
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