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Abhilash Ravikumar, Gregor Kladnik, Moritz Müller, Albano Cossaro, Gregor Bavdek, Laerte L Patera, Daniel Sánchez-Portal, Latha Venkataraman, Alberto Morgante, Gian Paolo Brivio, Dean Cvetko, Guido Fratesi
We compare the ultrafast charge transfer dynamics of molecules on epitaxial graphene and bilayer graphene grown on Ni(111) interfaces through first principles calculations and X-ray resonant photoemission spectroscopy. We use 4,4'-bipyridine as a prototypical molecule for these explorations as the energy level alignment of core-excited molecular orbitals allows ultrafast injection of electrons from a substrate to a molecule on a femtosecond timescale. We show that the ultrafast injection of electrons from the substrate to the molecule is ∼4 times slower on weakly coupled bilayer graphene than on epitaxial graphene...
April 18, 2018: Nanoscale
Meriem Chadli, Ofelia Maniti, Christophe Marquette, Bruno Tillier, Sandra Cortès, Agnès Girard-Egrot
A new prototype of a membrane protein biochip is presented in this article. This biochip was created by the combination of novel technologies of peptide-tethered bilayer lipid membrane (pep-tBLM) formation and solid support micropatterning. Pep-tBLMs integrating a membrane protein were obtained in the form of microarrays on a gold chip. The formation of the microspots was visualized in real-time by surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) and the functionality of a GPCR (CXCR4), reinserted locally into microwells, was assessed by ligand binding studies...
April 18, 2018: Analyst
Johanne Mattie, Angie Wong, Danny Leland, Jaimie Borisoff
A "kneeling" ultralight wheelchair prototype has been developed that allows users to adjust seat position "on the fly" for different activities throughout the day. The wheelchair includes independent adjustment functions for rear seat height, front seat height ("kneeling") and backrest angle.  Aim: This work aimed to gather feedback about the wheelchair's functionality and performance through end user evaluation trials.  Methods: Eight manual wheelchair users evaluated the prototype Kneeling Wheelchair for a range of activities...
April 18, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
Xuanxuan Chen, Chun Zhou, Shuang-Jun Chen, Gordon S W Craig, Paulina Rincon-Delgadillo, Takahiro Dazai, Ken Miyagi, Takaya Maehashi, Akiyoshi Yamazaki, Roel Gronheid, Mark Stoykovich, Paul F Nealey
Polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) is one of the prototypical block copolymers (BCPs) in directed self-assembly (DSA) research and development, with standardized protocols in place for processing on industrially relevant 300 mm wafers. Scaling of DSA patterns to pitches below 20 nm using PS-b-PMMA, however, is hindered by the relatively low Flory-Huggins interaction parameter,χ. Here we investigate the approach of adding small amounts of ionic liquids (IL) into PS-b-PMMA, which selectively segregates into the PMMA domain and effectively increases the χ parameter and thus the pattern resolution...
April 18, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Cheng Peng, Chengzhi Guan, Jun Lin, Shiyu Zhang, Hongliang Bao, Yu Wang, Guoping Xiao, George Zheng Chen, Jianqiang Wang
The energy and power density of conventional batteries are far lower than their theoretical expectations, primarily because of the slow reaction kinetics in the battery that is often working under ambient conditions. Here we describe a low-cost and high-temperature rechargeable iron-oxygen battery containing a cascade bi-phase electrolyte of molten carbonate and solid oxide. This new design merges the merits of solid oxide fuel cell and molten metal-air battery, offering significantly improved battery reaction kinetics and hence the power capability without compromising the energy capacity...
April 17, 2018: ChemSusChem
Tsutomu Iwasa, Ryu Nakadate, Shinya Onogi, Yasuharu Okamoto, Jumpei Arata, Susumu Oguri, Haruei Ogino, Eikichi Ihara, Kenoki Ohuchida, Tomohiko Akahoshi, Tetsuo Ikeda, Yoshihiro Ogawa, Makoto Hashizume
BACKGROUND: Difficulties in endoscopic operations and therapeutic procedures seem to occur due to the complexity of operating the endoscope dial as well as difficulty in performing synchronized movements with both hands. We developed a prototype robotic-assisted flexible endoscope that can be controlled with a single hand in order to simplify the operation of the endoscope. The aim of this study was to confirm the operability of the robotic-assisted flexible endoscope (RAFE) by performing endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD)...
April 17, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
Junfeng Zhang, Weiyu Xie, Michael L Agiorgousis, Duk-Hyun Choe, Vincent Meunier, Xiaohong Xu, Jijun Zhao, Shengbai Zhang
Two-dimensional (2D) junction devices have recently attracted considerable attention. Here, we show that most 2D junction structures, whether vertical or lateral, act as a lateral monolayer-bilayer-monolayer junction in their operation. In particular, a vertical structure cannot function as a vertical junction as having been widely believed in the literature. Due to a larger electrostatic screening, the bilayer region in the junction always has a smaller bandgap than its monolayer counterpart. As a result, a potential well, aside from the usual potential barrier, will form universally in the bilayer region to affect the hole or electron quantum transport in the form of transmission or reflection...
April 18, 2018: Nanoscale
Byunghun Lee, Mukhesh K Koripalli, Yaoyao Jia, Joshua Acosta, M S E Sendi, Yoonsu Choi, Maysam Ghovanloo
A new study with rat sciatic nerve model for peripheral nerve interfacing is presented using a fully-implanted inductively-powered recording and stimulation system in a wirelessly-powered standard homecage that allows animal subjects move freely within the homecage. The Wireless Implantable Neural Recording and Stimulation (WINeRS) system offers 32-channel peripheral nerve recording and 4-channel current-controlled stimulation capabilities in a 3 × 1.5 × 0.5 cm3 package. A bi-directional data link is established by on-off keying pulse-position modulation (OOK-PPM) in near field for narrow-band downlink and 433 MHz OOK for wideband uplink...
April 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jonas Denk, Simon Kretschmer, Jacob Halatek, Caroline Hartl, Petra Schwille, Erwin Frey
Protein patterning is vital for many fundamental cellular processes. This raises two intriguing questions: Can such intrinsically complex processes be reduced to certain core principles and, if so, what roles do the molecular details play in individual systems? A prototypical example for protein patterning is the bacterial Min system, in which self-organized pole-to-pole oscillations of MinCDE proteins guide the cell division machinery to midcell. These oscillations are based on cycling of the ATPase MinD and its activating protein MinE between the membrane and the cytoplasm...
April 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Pradnya P Samant, Mark R Prausnitz
Although interstitial fluid (ISF) contains biomarkers of physiological significance and medical interest, sampling of ISF for clinical applications has made limited impact due to a lack of simple, clinically useful techniques that collect more than nanoliter volumes of ISF. This study describes experimental and theoretical analysis of ISF transport from skin using microneedle (MN) patches and demonstrates collection of >1 µL of ISF within 20 min in pig cadaver skin and living human subjects using an optimized system...
April 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Kerem Pekkan, Ibrahim Basar Aka, Ece Tutsak, Erhan Ermek, Haldun Balim, Ismail Lazoglu, Riza Turkoz
BACKGROUND: Palliative repair of single ventricle defects involve a series of open-heart surgeries where a single-ventricle (Fontan) circulation is established. As the patient ages, this paradoxical circulation gradually fails, because of its high venous pressure levels. Reversal of the Fontan paradox requires an extra subpulmonic energy that can be provided through mechanical assist devices. The objective of this study was to evaluate the hemodynamic performance of a totally implantable integrated aortic-turbine venous-assist (iATVA) system, which does not need an external drive power and maintains low venous pressure chronically, for the Fontan circulation...
March 11, 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Thorsten Deilmann, Kristian Sommer Thygesen
Vertically stacked two-dimensional materials form an ideal platform for controlling and exploiting light-matter interactions at the nanoscale. As a unique feature, these materials host electronic excitations of both intra- and interlayer type with distinctly different properties. In this Letter, using first-principles many-body calculations, we provide a detailed picture of the most prominent excitons in bilayer MoS2 , a prototypical van der Waals material. By applying an electric field perpendicular to the bilayer, we explore the evolution of the excitonic states as the band alignment is varied from perfect line-up to staggered (Type II) alignment...
April 19, 2018: Nano Letters
Robert Murphy, David P Walsh, Charles A Hamilton, Sally-Ann Cryan, Marc In Het Panhuis, Andreas Heise
We present a star copolypeptide based hydrogel ink capable of structural microfabrication using 3D extrusion printing. The material comprises an amphiphilic block copolymer structure of poly(benzyl-L-glutamate-b-L-valine), which spontaneously form hydrogels through hydrophobic interaction. The chemical design allows the bulk phase of the hydrogel to remain intact after application of shear due to its self-recovery behavior. It is demonstrated that the composition of the materials is ideally suited for 3D printing; with scaffolds capable of maintaining structural cohesion after extrusion...
April 17, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Benjamin C Streifel, Jeffrey G Lundin, Allix M Sanders, Karli A Gold, Thomas S Wilems, Sierra J Williams, Elizabeth Cosgriff-Hernandez, James H Wynne
A novel hemostatic and absorbent wound dressing material compatible with 3D printing is developed to address deficiencies in current wound dressing protocol. The design involves an open celled, microporous hydrogel foam via a high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) template with biocompatible components and tunable hemostatic character by kaolin loading, the viscosity and cure kinetics of which are tailored for 3D printing applications. The use of nontoxic mineral oil organic phase results in cytocompatability with human dermal fibroblasts...
April 17, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Svetlozar Haralanov, Evelina Haralanova, Emil Milushev, Diana Shkodrova, Claus-Frenz Claussen
Psychiatry is the only medical specialty that lacks clinically applicable biomarkers for objective evaluation of the existing pathology at a single-patient level. On the basis of an original translational equilibriometric method for evaluation of movement patterns, we have introduced in the everyday clinical practice of psychiatry an easy-to-perform computerized objective quantification of the individual locomotor behaviour during execution of the Unterberger stepping test. For the last 20 years, we have gradually collected a large database of more than 1000 schizophrenic patients, their relatives, and matched psychiatric, neurological, and healthy controls via cross-sectional and longitudinal investigations...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
Jana Striova, Chiara Ruberto, Marco Barucci, Jan Blažek, Diane Kuzman, Alice Dal Fovo, Enrico Pampaloni, Raffaella Fontana
A concise insight into the outputs provided by the latest prototype of visible-near infrared (VIS-NIR) multispectral scanner (National Research Council-National Institute of Optics, CNR-INO, Italy) is presented. The analytical data acquired on an oil painting Madonna of the Rabbit by É. Manet are described. In this work, the VIS-NIR data were complemented with X-ray fluorescence (XRF) mapping for the chemical and spatial characterization of several pigments. The spatially registered VIS-NIR data facilitated their processing with spectral correlation mapping (SCM) and artificial neural network (ANN) algorithm respectively for pigment mapping and improved visibility of pentimenti and of underdrawing style...
April 17, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Jiawei Lai, Xin Liu, Junchao Ma, Qinsheng Wang, Kenan Zhang, Xiao Ren, Yinan Liu, Qiangqiang Gu, Xiao Zhuo, Wei Lu, Yang Wu, Yuan Li, Ji Feng, Shuyun Zhou, Jian-Hao Chen, Dong Sun
Photodetectors based on Weyl semimetal promise extreme performance in terms of highly sensitive, broadband and self-powered operation owing to its extraordinary material properties. Layered Type-II Weyl semimetal that break Lorentz invariance can be further integrated with other two-dimensional materials to form van der Waals heterostructures and realize multiple functionalities inheriting the advantages of other two-dimensional materials. Herein, we report the realization of a broadband self-powered photodetector based on Type-II Weyl semimetal Td -MoTe2 ...
April 17, 2018: Advanced Materials
Lin Zhang, Baojun Lin, Bo Hu, Xianbin Xu, Wei Ma
Blade-coating serving as a prototype tool for slot-die coating can be very compatible with large-area roll-to-roll coating. Using blade-coating in an ambient environment, an average power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 10.03% is achieved in nonfullerene organic solar cells, which is higher than that of the optimal spin-coated device with a PCE of 9.41%. It is demonstrated that blade-coating can induce a higher degree of molecular packing for both conjugated polymer donors and small-molecular acceptors as it helps to produce a seeding film containing numerous crystal grains, subsequently providing nucleation sites for the residual solution when the motion of the blade exposes a liquid front...
April 17, 2018: Advanced Materials
Sang Jin Kim, Jianlong Yang, Gangjun Liu, David Huang, J Peter Campbell
Incontinentia pigmenti (IP) is a rare X-linked dominant disorder that can cause retinal nonperfusion, neovascularization, and retinal detachment. Evaluation of the peripheral retinal vasculature and appropriate treatment can reduce the risk of blindness. The authors report the use of a handheld prototype optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and ultra-widefield OCT (UWF-OCT) during exam under anesthesia of a 2-year-old with a history of severe early onset IP. UWF-OCT and OCTA may be used as noninvasive imaging modalities for IP and similar retinal vascular disorders in supine young children...
April 1, 2018: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
Samaneh Davoudi, Damla Duriye Sevgi, Cagla Yasa, Inês Laíns, Nazanin Ebrahimiadib, Ramak Roohipoor, Evangelia Papavasilieou, Jason Comander, Lucia Sobrin
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The authors evaluated adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AO-SLO) in a simulated real-life clinical setting to identify factors that impact its reliability in this setting. PATIENTS AND METHODS: For this prospective study, macular cones were imaged in five healthy eyes using an AO-SLO prototype machine. Multilevel mixed-effect regression was used to compare the cone densities across different analysis parameters. Intergrader, intragrader, interphotographer, and intersession reliabilities were determined with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs)...
April 1, 2018: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
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