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Athul Sripad, Giovanny Sanchez, Mireya Zapata, Vito Pirrone, Taho Dorta, Salvatore Cambria, Albert Marti, Karthikeyan Krishnamourthy, Jordi Madrenas
Spiking Neural Networks (SNN) for Versatile Applications (SNAVA) simulation platform is a scalable and programmable parallel architecture that supports real-time, large-scale, multi-model SNN computation. This parallel architecture is implemented in modern Field-Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) devices to provide high performance execution and flexibility to support large-scale SNN models. Flexibility is defined in terms of programmability, which allows easy synapse and neuron implementation. This has been achieved by using a special-purpose Processing Elements (PEs) for computing SNNs, and analyzing and customizing the instruction set according to the processing needs to achieve maximum performance with minimum resources...
October 5, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
Barbara M Alexander, Eric J Esswein, Michael G Gressel, Jerry L Kratzer, H Amy Feng, Arthur L Miller, Emanuele Cauda, Graeham Heil
The OSHA final rule on respirable crystalline silica (RCS) will require hydraulic fracturing companies to implement engineering controls to limit workers' exposure to RCS. RCS is generated by pneumatic transfer of quartz-containing sand during hydraulic fracturing operations. Chronic inhalation of RCS can lead to serious disease, including silicosis and lung cancer. NIOSH research identified at least seven sources where RCS aerosols were generated at hydraulic fracturing sites. NIOSH researchers developed an engineering control to address one of the largest sources of RCS aerosol generation, RCS escaping from thief hatches on the top of sand movers...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Valère Plantevin, Abdenour Bouzouane, Sebastien Gaboury
The Internet of things has profoundly changed the way we imagine information science and architecture, and smart homes are an important part of this domain. Created a decade ago, the few existing prototypes use technologies of the day, forcing designers to create centralized and costly architectures that raise some issues concerning reliability, scalability, and ease of access which cannot be tolerated in the context of assistance. In this paper, we briefly introduce a new kind of architecture where the focus is placed on distribution...
October 20, 2017: Sensors
Andreas Horneff, Michael Eder, Erich Hell, Johannes Ulrici, Jorg Felder, Volker Rasche, Jens Anders
Developing custom-built MR coils is a cumbersome task, in which an a priori prediction of the coils' SNR performance, their sensitivity pattern and their depth of penetration helps to greatly speed up the design process by reducing the required hardware manufacturing iterations. The simulationbased design flow presented in this paper takes the entire MR imaging process into account. That is, it includes all geometric and material properties of the coil and the phantom, the thermal noise as well as the target MR sequences...
October 17, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Marco Chino, Linda Leone, Ornella Maglio, Daniele D'Alonzo, Fabio Pirro, Vincenzo Pavone, Flavia Nastri, Angela Lombardi
Metalloproteins utilize O₂ as an oxidant, and they often achieve a 4-electron reduction without H₂O₂ or oxygen radical release. Several proteins have been designed to catalyze one or two-electron oxidative chemistry, but the de novo design of a protein that catalyzes the net 4-electron reduction of O₂ has not been reported yet. We report here the construction of a diiron-binding four-helix bundle, made up of two different covalently linked α2 monomers, through click chemistry. Surprisingly, the prototype protein, DF-C1, showed a large divergence in its reactivity from earlier DFs...
October 20, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Marios E Myronakis, Rony Fueglistaller, Joerg Rottmann, Yue-Houng Hu, Adam Wang, Paul Baturin, Pascal Huber, Daniel Morf, Josh M Star-Lack, Ross I Berbeco
We assess the feasibility of clinical megavoltage (MV) spectral imaging for material and bone separation with a novel multi-layer imager (MLI) prototype. The MLI provides higher detective quantum efficiency and lower noise than conventional electronic portal imagers. Simulated experiments were performed using a validated Monte Carlo model of the MLI to estimate energy absorption and energy separation between the MLI components. Material separation was evaluated experimentally using solid water and aluminum (Al), copper (Cu) and gold (Au) for 2...
October 20, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Marta Haro, Vidyadhar Singh, Stephan Steinhauer, Evropi Toulkeridou, Panagiotis Grammatikopoulos, Mukhles Sowwan
A new approach on the synthesis of Si anodes for Li-ion batteries is reported, combining advantages of both nanoparticulated and continuous Si films. A multilayered configuration prototype is proposed, comprising amorphous Si arranged in nanostructured, mechanically heterogeneous films, interspersed with Ta nanoparticle scaffolds. Particular structural features such as increased surface roughness, nanogranularity, and porosity are dictated by the nanoparticle scaffolds, boosting the lithiation process due to fast Li diffusion and low electrode polarization...
October 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
C Liu, A Mafety, J A Queyroux, C W Wilson, H Zhang, K Béneut, G Le Marchand, B Baptiste, P Dumas, G Garbarino, F Finocchi, J S Loveday, F Pietrucci, A M Saitta, F Datchi, S Ninet
Water and ammonia are considered major components of the interiors of the giant icy planets and their satellites, which has motivated their exploration under high P-T conditions. Exotic forms of these pure ices have been revealed at extreme (~megabar) pressures, notably symmetric, ionic, and superionic phases. Here we report on an extensive experimental and computational study of the high-pressure properties of the ammonia monohydrate compound forming from an equimolar mixture of water and ammonia. Our experiments demonstrate that relatively mild pressure conditions (7...
October 20, 2017: Nature Communications
Jessalyn A DeVine, Marissa L Weichman, Benjamin Laws, Jing Chang, Mark C Babin, Garikoitz Balerdi, Changjian Xie, Christopher L Malbon, W Carl Lineberger, David R Yarkony, Robert W Field, Stephen T Gibson, Jianyi Ma, Hua Guo, Daniel M Neumark
Vinylidene-acetylene isomerization is the prototypical example of a 1,2-hydrogen shift, one of the most important classes of isomerization reactions in organic chemistry. This reaction was investigated with quantum state specificity by high-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy of the vinylidene anions H2CC- and D2CC- and quantum dynamics calculations. Peaks in the photoelectron spectra are considerably narrower than in previous work and reveal subtleties in the isomerization dynamics of neutral vinylidene, as well as vibronic coupling with an excited state of vinylidene...
October 20, 2017: Science
Qijun Li, Xiaoying Guan, Mengsuo Cui, Zhihong Zhu, Kai Chen, Haoyang Wen, Danyang Jia, Jian Hou, Wenting Xu, Xinggang Yang, Weisan Pan
Three dimensional (3D) extrusion-based printing is a paste-based rapid prototyping process, which is capable of building complex 3D structures. The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of 3D extrusion-based printing as a pharmaceutical manufacture technique for the fabrication of gastro-floating tablets. Novel low-density lattice internal structure gastro-floating tablets of dipyridamole were developed to prolong the gastric residence time in order to improve drug release rate and consequently, improve bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Amir Basir, Remco B Grobben, Maarten Jan Cramer, Joost A van Herwaarden, Aryan Vink, Gerard Pasterkamp, Jolanda Kluin, Paul F Gründeman
OBJECTIVES: Ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibres are flexible, have high tensile strength, and platelet and bacterial adhesion is low. Therefore, UHMWPE may overcome limitations of current mechanical valves and bioprostheses. In this study, the biocompatibility and functionality of prototype handmade stented valves from woven UHMWPE (U-valve) was assessed in a chronic sheep model with acetylsalicylic acid monotherapy. METHODS: Native pulmonary valves of 23 sheep were replaced by U-valves ( n  = 18) or Perimount bovine bioprostheses (reference group, n  = 5)...
July 26, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
Gerald Kidd
Purpose: Listeners with hearing loss, as well as many listeners with clinically normal hearing, often experience great difficulty segregating talkers in a multiple-talker sound field and selectively attending to the desired "target" talker while ignoring the speech from unwanted "masker" talkers and other sources of sound. This listening situation forms the classic "cocktail party problem" described by Cherry (1953) that has received a great deal of study over the past few decades. In this article, a new approach to improving sound source segregation and enhancing auditory selective attention is described...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Shameng Wen, Qingkun Meng, Chao Feng, Chaojing Tang
Network protocol vulnerability detection plays an important role in many domains, including protocol security analysis, application security, and network intrusion detection. In this study, by analyzing the general fuzzing method of network protocols, we propose a novel approach that combines network traffic analysis with the binary reverse engineering method. For network traffic analysis, the block-based protocol description language is introduced to construct test scripts, while the binary reverse engineering method employs the genetic algorithm with a fitness function designed to focus on code coverage...
2017: PloS One
Jinghua Liang, Huijun Liu, Dengdong Fan, Peiheng Jiang
Defects such as vacancies and impurities could have profound effects on the transport properties of thermoelectric materials. However, it is usually quite difficult to directly calculate the thermoelectric properties of defect-containing systems via first-principles methods since a very large supercell is required. In this work, based on the linear response theory and the kernel polynomial method, we present an efficient approach that can help to calculate the thermoelectric transport coefficients of a large system containing millions of atoms at arbitrary chemical potential and temperature...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
F Valeriani, G Gianfranceschi, M Vitali, C Protano, V Romano Spica
BACKGROUND: Hygiene and surveillance in swimming pools are established by WHO Guidelines and national laws. Progress in water management and pool construction is revolutionizing the field, introducing new materials, systems, disinfection procedures or monitoring markers. Innovation advances challenge the upgrading of safety and quality in pools and the appropriate implementation of guidelines. STUDY DESIGN: In order to provide a device for laboratory test, a prototype was realized and applied to study and compare swimming pool materials and treatments...
November 2017: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
Xiaoheng Wang, Qingsheng Xue
A new type of optical system for atmospheric detection is designed by using the principle of panoramic imaging. Compared to the traditional ones, this optical system can observe nadir view and omnidirectional limb view at the same time, thus improving the efficiency and accuracy of the observation data inversion. The optical system consists of a front lens group, a panoramic annular lens, a relay lens group, and a narrowband filter. The nadir view and limb view are shared with the panoramic annular lens and the relay lens group...
September 10, 2017: Applied Optics
Takashi Imazono
A Mo/Si multilayer-coated photodiode detector (MP) for beam intensity monitoring was prototyped and characterized using synchrotron radiation and X-ray laser (XRL) sources in order to perform polarization analysis of a laser-driven plasma soft XRL generated from nickel-like silver plasma. At a wavelength of 13.9 nm and an angle of incidence of 45°, the s-polarization reflectance is 0.525 and shows a strong positive correlation with the transmittance, corresponding to the photodiode current generated by the MP...
July 20, 2017: Applied Optics
Jie Cao, Yang Cheng, Peng Wang, Kaiyu Zhang, Yuqing Xiao, Kun Li, Yuxin Peng, Qun Hao
A novel autofocusing method combining active and passive techniques is proposed to improve autofocusing performance. The proposed method is divided into coarse and fine autofocusing stages. First, a laser ranging finder viewed as the active technique is used to obtain a reasonable initial position of the compensating lens group during the coarse autofocusing stage. Second, a retina-like sampling method is used to decrease the volume of processing data during the fine autofocusing stage. We developed a prototype and performed comparative experiments using different targets based on the proposed method and the traditional passive method (TPM)...
August 1, 2017: Applied Optics
Shoaib R Soomro, Hakan Urey
We propose and demonstrate a light-efficient 3D display using a highly transparent desktop-sized augmented reality screen. The display consists of a specially designed transparent retro-reflective screen and a pair of low-power pico-projectors positioned close to the viewer's eyes to provide stereo views. The transfer screen is an optically clear sheet partially patterned with retro-reflective microspheres for high optical gain. The retro-reflective material buried in the screen reflects incident light back towards the projectors with a narrow scattering angle and facilitates the viewer to perceive a very bright content...
August 1, 2017: Applied Optics
Julio E Posada-Roman, Hania Angelina, Borja Jerez, Marta Ruiz-LLata, Pablo Acedo
In this paper a new laser range finder approach is presented. It is based on a fan of beams of different optical frequencies that are projected to the target. The detected back-reflected beams contain frequency-encoded information about its reflection angles, which are used for the calculation of the range by means of triangulation methods. The fan of beams is generated from a fieldable electro-optic dual optical frequency comb generator and a diffractive optical system, without any moving parts. A proof-of-concept prototype of a range finder based on this approach was implemented and experimentally tested...
August 1, 2017: Applied Optics
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