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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231635/in-vivo-structural-imaging-in-rats-reveals-neuroanatomical-correlates-of-behavioral-sub-dimensions-of-cocaine-addiction
#1
Nazzareno Cannella, Alejandro Cosa-Linan, Elena Büchler, Claudia Falfan-Melgoza, Wolfgang Weber-Fahr, Rainer Spanagel
Cocaine addiction is a multi-dimensional behavioral disorder characterized by a loss of control over cocaine taking despite of detrimental consequences. Structural MRI studies have revealed association between cocaine consumption and gray matter volume (GMV) in cocaine-addicted patients. However, the behavioral correlates of GMV in cocaine addiction are poorly understood. Here, we used a DSM-IV-based rat model of cocaine addiction with high face validity for structural imaging. According to three behavioral sub-dimensions of addiction, rats were separated into two groups showing either addict-like or non-addict-like behavior...
February 23, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231576/molecular-markers-involved-in-tumorigenesis-of-thyroid-carcinoma-focus-on-aggressive-histotypes
#2
Gustavo C Penna, Fernanda Vaisman, Mario Vaisman, Manuel Sobrinho-Simões, Paula Soares
Thyroid cancer derived from follicular cells (TCDFC) comprises well-differentiated (papillary and follicular) carcinoma, poorly differentiated carcinoma, and anaplastic carcinoma. Papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most common endocrine cancer, and its incidence is steadily increasing. Lethality and aggressiveness of TCDFC is inversely correlated with differentiation degree. In this review, an emphasis has been put on molecular markers involved in tumorigenesis of thyroid carcinoma with a focus on aggressive histotypes and the role of such biomarkers in predicting thyroid cancer outcome...
February 24, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231569/biomarkers-in-autoimmune-salivary-gland-disorders-a-review
#3
Benedikt Hofauer, Klaus Thuermel, Constanze Gahleitner, Andreas Knopf
Salivary glands are frequent sites of manifestations of autoimmune disorders in the head and neck. Sjögren syndrome, sarcoidosis, granulomatosis with polyangiitis, and IgG4-related sialadenitis represent the most important autoimmune salivary gland disorders. Due to the lack of specific symptoms, diagnosis of these conditions remains a challenge. Diagnosis is usually based on classification criteria involving clinical tests, histopathological evaluation, and serological examinations. Depending on the disease, biomarkers are of different value and have to be interpreted carefully...
February 24, 2017: ORL; Journal for Oto-rhino-laryngology and its related Specialties
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231541/endogenous-microrna-424-predicts-clinical-outcome-and-its-inhibition-acts-as-cancer-suppressor-in-human-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#4
Yu Wang, Zhenyang Lv, Junfeng Fu, Ze Wang, Zhe Fan, Ting Lei
PURPOSE: We examined the expression, clinical correlation and functional mechanisms of endogenous microRNA-424 (miR-424) in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: Expression pattern of endogenous miR-424 was examined by qRT-PCR in clinical samples obtained from 233 NSCLC patients. Correlations between differential miR-424 expression level (low vs. high) and NSCLC patients' clinicopathological parameters or survival were statistically examined. In in vitro NSCLC H596 and SW900 cells, miR-424 was either upregulated or downregulation by lentiviral transduction...
February 20, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231511/automated-diagnosis-of-congestive-heart-failure-using-dual-tree-complex-wavelet-transform-and-statistical-features-extracted-from-2s-of-ecg-signals
#5
Vidya K Sudarshan, U Rajendra Acharya, Shu Lih Oh, Muhammad Adam, Jen Hong Tan, Chua Kuang Chua, Kok Poo Chua, Ru San Tan
Identification of alarming features in the electrocardiogram (ECG) signal is extremely significant for the prediction of congestive heart failure (CHF). ECG signal analysis carried out using computer-aided techniques can speed up the diagnosis process and aid in the proper management of CHF patients. Therefore, in this work, dual tree complex wavelets transform (DTCWT)-based methodology is proposed for an automated identification of ECG signals exhibiting CHF from normal. In the experiment, we have performed a DTCWT on ECG segments of 2s duration up to six levels to obtain the coefficients...
February 7, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231508/regulating-dynamic-signaling-between-hematopoietic-stem-cells-and-niche-cells-via-a-hydrogel-matrix
#6
Bhushan P Mahadik, Narayanan A K Bharadwaj, Randy H Ewoldt, Brendan A C Harley
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) reside in unique bone marrow niches and are influenced by signals from surrounding cells, the extracellular matrix (ECM), ECM-bound or diffusible biomolecules. Here we describe the use of a three-dimensional hydrogel to alter the balance of HSC-generated autocrine feedback and paracrine signals generated by co-cultured niche-associated cells. We report shifts in HSC proliferation rate and fate specification in the presence of lineage positive (Lin(+)) niche cells. Hydrogels promoting autocrine feedback enhanced expansion of early hematopoietic progenitors while paracrine signals from Lin(+) cells increased myeloid differentiation...
February 14, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231490/lipid-droplet-growth-regulation-of-a-dynamic-organelle
#7
REVIEW
David Barneda, Mark Christian
Intracellular lipid droplets (LDs) are remarkably dynamic and complex organelles that enact regulated storage and release of lipids to fulfil their fundamental roles in energy metabolism, membrane synthesis and provision of lipid-derived signaling molecules. Although small LDs are observed in all types of eukaryotic cells, it is adipocytes that present the widest range of sizes up to the massive unilocular droplet of a white adipocyte. Our knowledge of the proteins and associated processes that control LD dynamics is improving...
February 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231488/the-value-of-elastpq-for-the-evaluation-of-liver-stiffness-in-patients-with-b-and-c-chronic-hepatopathies
#8
Ruxandra Mare, Ioan Sporea, Raluca Lupuşoru, Roxana Şirli, Alina Popescu, Mirela Danila, Corina Pienar
: The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of a point shear wave elastography using ARFI technique - ElastPQ, in patients with B and C chronic hepatopathies, using Transient Elastography (TE) as the reference method, since it is a validated method for liver fibrosis assessment. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: the study included 228 consecutive subjects with chronic hepatopathies (26% HBV, 74% HCV) from whom 51% had liver cirrhosis. Liver stiffness (LS) was evaluated in the same session by means of 2 elastographic methods: TE (FibroScan, EchoSens) and ElastPQ (Affinity, Philips) techniques...
February 9, 2017: Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231487/detecting-changes-in-ultrasound-backscattered-statistics-by-using-nakagami-parameters-comparisons-of-moment-based-and-maximum-likelihood-estimators
#9
Jen-Jen Lin, Jung-Yu Cheng, Li-Fei Huang, Ying-Hsiu Lin, Yung-Liang Wan, Po-Hsiang Tsui
The Nakagami distribution is an approximation useful to the statistics of ultrasound backscattered signals for tissue characterization. Various estimators may affect the Nakagami parameter in the detection of changes in backscattered statistics. In particular, the moment-based estimator (MBE) and maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) are two primary methods used to estimate the Nakagami parameters of ultrasound signals. This study explored the effects of the MBE and different MLE approximations on Nakagami parameter estimations...
February 9, 2017: Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231485/the-importance-of-teacher-support-differential-impacts-by-gender-and-sexuality
#10
Adrienne B Dessel, Alex Kulick, Laura J Wernick, Daniel Sullivan
Teachers play an important role in shaping the experiences of high school students with regard to patterns of heteronormativity and binary gender norms, particularly for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) students. A climate survey of high school students (n = 953) in the United States examined the association between students' well-being and their relationships with teachers. The sample was majority white (65.8%) and multiracial (14.1%). Cisgender (cis)-girls (49.6%), cis-boys (41...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231408/climbing-bloom-s-taxonomy-pyramid-lessons-from-a-graduate-histology-course
#11
Nikki B Zaidi, Charles Hwang, Sara Scott, Stefanie Stallard, Joel Purkiss, Michael Hortsch
Bloom's taxonomy was adopted to create a subject-specific scoring tool for histology multiple-choice questions (MCQs). This Bloom's Taxonomy Histology Tool (BTHT) was used to analyze teacher- and student-generated quiz and examination questions from a graduate level histology course. Multiple-choice questions using histological images were generally assigned a higher BTHT level than simple text questions. The type of microscopy technique (light or electron microscopy) used for these image-based questions did not result in any significant differences in their Bloom's taxonomy scores...
February 23, 2017: Anatomical Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231407/co-occurrence-and-hybridization-of-anther-smut-pathogens-specialized-on-dianthus-hosts
#12
Elsa Petit, Casey Silver, Amandine Cornille, Pierre Gladieux, Lisa Rosenthal, Emily Bruns, Sarah Yee, Janis Antonovics, Tatiana Giraud, Michael E Hood
Host specialization has important consequences for the diversification and ecological interactions of obligate pathogens. The anther-smut disease of natural plant populations, caused by Microbotryum fungi, has been characterized by specialized host-pathogen interactions, which contribute in part to the isolation among these numerous fungal species. This study investigated the molecular variation of Microbotryum pathogens within the geographic and host-specific distributions on wild Dianthus species in southern European Alps...
February 23, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231400/evaluation-of-the-combined-use-of-narrow-band-imaging-and-high-speed-imaging-to-discriminate-laryngeal-lesions
#13
Veronika Volgger, Axelle Felicio, Jörg Lohscheller, Anna S Englhard, Hanan Al-Muzaini, Christian S Betz, Maria E Schuster
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Laryngeal lesions are usually investigated by microlaryngoscopy, biopsy, and histopathology. This study aimed to evaluate the combined use of Narrow Band Imaging (NBI) and High-Speed Imaging (HSI) in the differentiation of glottic lesions in awake patients. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective diagnostic study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-six awake patients with 41 glottic lesions were investigated with both NBI and HSI, and the suspected diagnoses were compared to the histopathological results of tissue biopsies taken during subsequent microlaryngoscopies...
February 23, 2017: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231392/from-dendritic-cells-to-b-cells-dysfunctions-during-hiv-1-infection-tfh-at-the-cross-road
#14
REVIEW
Nicolas Ruffin, Lylia Hani, Nabila Seddiki
T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are essential for B cell differentiation and the subsequent antibody responses. Their numbers and functions are altered during human and simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV/SIV) infections. In lymphoid tissues, Tfh cells are present in germinal center, where they are the main source of replicative HIV-1 and represent a major reservoir. Paradoxically, Tfh numbers are increased in chronically infected individuals. Understanding the fate of Tfh cells in the course of HIV-1 infection is essential for the design of efficient strategies toward a protective HIV vaccine or a cure...
February 23, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231390/intraoperative-assessment-of-laryngeal-pathologies-with-optical-coherence-tomography-integrated-into-a-surgical-microscope
#15
Anna S Englhard, Tom Betz, Veronika Volgger, Eva Lankenau, Georg J Ledderose, Herbert Stepp, Christian Homann, Christian S Betz
OBJECTIVE: Endoscopic examination followed by tissue biopsy is the gold standard in the evaluation of lesions of the upper aerodigestive tract. However, it can be difficult to distinguish between healthy mucosa, dysplasia, and invasive carcinoma. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive technique which acquires high-resolution, cross-sectional images of tissue in vivo. Integrated into a surgical microscope, it allows the intraoperative evaluation of lesions simultaneously with microscopic visualization...
February 23, 2017: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231381/hippocampal-prefrontal-theta-phase-synchrony-in-planning-of-multi-step-actions-based-on-memory-retrieval
#16
Seiya Ishino, Susumu Takahashi, Masaaki Ogawa, Yoshio Sakurai
Planning of multi-step actions based on the retrieval of acquired information is essential for efficient foraging. The hippocampus (HPC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) may play critical roles in this process. However, in rodents, many studies investigating such roles utilized T-maze tasks that only require one-step actions (i.e., selection of one of two alternatives), in which memory retrieval and selection of an action based on the retrieval cannot be clearly differentiated. In monkeys, PFC has been suggested to be involved in planning of multi-step actions; however, the synchrony between HPC and PFC has not been evaluated...
February 23, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231377/evidence-based-s3-guidelines-for-diagnostics-and-treatment-of-venous-leg-ulcers-answer-to-dr-bertolini
#17
Martino Neumann
The differential diagnosis of a leg ulcer is broad with a great variety of diseases. Beside the well known as venous, arterial, mixed and diabetic most are rare. Prolidase deficiency is one of the rare causes.Nether the less it is an excellent suggestion to add also genetic diseases as prolidae deficiency to this Guideline. The committee will take this for the next revision.Martino Neumann, on behalf of the redaction of the EADF Guideline Diagnosis and Treatment of Venous Leg Ulcers This article is protected by copyright...
February 23, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231338/genes-encoding-two-theileria-parva-antigens-recognized-by-cd8-t-cells-exhibit-sequence-diversity-in-south-sudanese-cattle-populations-but-the-majority-of-alleles-are-similar-to-the-muguga-component-of-the-live-vaccine-cocktail
#18
Diaeldin A Salih, Roger Pelle, Joram M Mwacharo, Moses N Njahira, Wani L Marcellino, Henry Kiara, Agol K Malak, Abdel Rahim M El Hussein, Richard Bishop, Robert A Skilton
East Coast fever (ECF), caused by Theileria parva infection, is a frequently fatal disease of cattle in eastern, central and southern Africa, and an emerging disease in South Sudan. Immunization using the infection and treatment method (ITM) is increasingly being used for control in countries affected by ECF, but not yet in South Sudan. It has been reported that CD8+ T-cell lymphocytes specific for parasitized cells play a central role in the immunity induced by ITM and a number of T. parva antigens recognized by parasite-specific CD8+ T-cells have been identified...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231333/molecular-mechanisms-of-cooperative-binding-of-transcription-factors-runx1-cbf%C3%AE-ets1-on-the-tcr%C3%AE-gene-enhancer
#19
Kota Kasahara, Masaaki Shiina, Ikuo Fukuda, Kazuhiro Ogata, Haruki Nakamura
Ets1 is an essential transcription factor (TF) for several important physiological processes, including cell proliferation and differentiation. Its recognition of the enhancer region of the TCRα gene is enhanced by the cooperative binding of the Runx1-CBFβ heterodimer, with the cancelation of phosphorylation-dependent autoinhibition. The detailed mechanism of this interesting cooperativity between Ets1 and the Runx1-CBFβ heterodimer is still largely unclear. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of this cooperativity, by using molecular dynamics simulations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231332/the-moderating-role-of-absorptive-capacity-and-the-differential-effects-of-acquisitions-and-alliances-on-big-pharma-firms-innovation-performance
#20
K D S Fernald, H P G Pennings, J F van den Bosch, H R Commandeur, E Claassen
In the context of increased pharmaceutical innovation deficits and Big Pharma blockbusters' patent expirations, this paper examines the moderating role of firms' absorptive capacity in external innovation activities of Big Pharma firms. The study indicates a rising interest of Big Pharma in acquisitions of and alliances with biotechnology companies. Unfortunately, this increased interest is not reflected in the number of new drugs generated by Big Pharma. We find that acquisitions of biotech companies have negatively affected Big Pharma firms' innovation performance on average but these acquisitions might have a positive effect at higher levels of acquiring firms' absorptive capacity...
2017: PloS One
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