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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147679/dense-fluidized-granular-media-in-microgravity
#1
Philip Born, Johannes Schmitz, Matthias Sperl
Handling and transport of granular media are inevitably governed by the settling of particles. Settling into a dense state is one of the defining characteristics of granular media, among dissipation and absence of thermal agitation. Hence, settling complicates the adaptation of microscopic theories from atomic, molecular, or colloidal media to granular media. It is desirable to provide experiments in which selectively one of the granular characteristics is tuned to test suitable adaptation of a theory. Here we show that gas fluidization of granular media in microgravity is a suitable approach to achieve steady states closer to thermally agitated systems free of settling...
2017: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125628/genomics-based-non-invasive-prenatal-testing-for-detection-of-fetal-chromosomal-aneuploidy-in-pregnant-women
#2
REVIEW
Mylène Badeau, Carmen Lindsay, Jonatan Blais, Leon Nshimyumukiza, Yemisi Takwoingi, Sylvie Langlois, France Légaré, Yves Giguère, Alexis F Turgeon, William Witteman, François Rousseau
BACKGROUND: Common fetal aneuploidies include Down syndrome (trisomy 21 or T21), Edward syndrome (trisomy 18 or T18), Patau syndrome (trisomy 13 or T13), Turner syndrome (45,X), Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY), Triple X syndrome (47,XXX) and 47,XYY syndrome (47,XYY). Prenatal screening for fetal aneuploidies is standard care in many countries, but current biochemical and ultrasound tests have high false negative and false positive rates. The discovery of fetal circulating cell-free DNA (ccfDNA) in maternal blood offers the potential for genomics-based non-invasive prenatal testing (gNIPT) as a more accurate screening method...
November 10, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112956/hiv-1-persistence-following-extremely-early-initiation-of-antiretroviral-therapy-art-during-acute-hiv-1-infection-an-observational-study
#3
Timothy J Henrich, Hiroyu Hatano, Oliver Bacon, Louise E Hogan, Rachel Rutishauser, Alison Hill, Mary F Kearney, Elizabeth M Anderson, Susan P Buchbinder, Stephanie E Cohen, Mohamed Abdel-Mohsen, Christopher W Pohlmeyer, Remi Fromentin, Rebecca Hoh, Albert Y Liu, Joseph M McCune, Jonathan Spindler, Kelly Metcalf-Pate, Kristen S Hobbs, Cassandra Thanh, Erica A Gibson, Daniel R Kuritzkes, Robert F Siliciano, Richard W Price, Douglas D Richman, Nicolas Chomont, Janet D Siliciano, John W Mellors, Steven A Yukl, Joel N Blankson, Teri Liegler, Steven G Deeks
BACKGROUND: It is unknown if extremely early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) may lead to long-term ART-free HIV remission or cure. As a result, we studied 2 individuals recruited from a pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) program who started prophylactic ART an estimated 10 days (Participant A; 54-year-old male) and 12 days (Participant B; 31-year-old male) after infection with peak plasma HIV RNA of 220 copies/mL and 3,343 copies/mL, respectively. Extensive testing of blood and tissue for HIV persistence was performed, and PrEP Participant A underwent analytical treatment interruption (ATI) following 32 weeks of continuous ART...
November 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091570/nusinersen-versus-sham-control-in-infantile-onset-spinal-muscular-atrophy
#4
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Richard S Finkel, Eugenio Mercuri, Basil T Darras, Anne M Connolly, Nancy L Kuntz, Janbernd Kirschner, Claudia A Chiriboga, Kayoko Saito, Laurent Servais, Eduardo Tizzano, Haluk Topaloglu, Már Tulinius, Jacqueline Montes, Allan M Glanzman, Kathie Bishop, Z John Zhong, Sarah Gheuens, C Frank Bennett, Eugene Schneider, Wildon Farwell, Darryl C De Vivo
BACKGROUND: Spinal muscular atrophy is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder that is caused by an insufficient level of survival motor neuron (SMN) protein. Nusinersen is an antisense oligonucleotide drug that modifies pre-messenger RNA splicing of the SMN2 gene and thus promotes increased production of full-length SMN protein. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled, phase 3 efficacy and safety trial of nusinersen in infants with spinal muscular atrophy...
November 2, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070709/increased-protein-consumption-during-the-day-from-an-energy-restricted-diet-augments-satiety-but-does-not-reduce-daily-fat-or-carbohydrate-intake-on-a-free-living-test-day-in-overweight-women
#5
Jess A Gwin, Kevin C Maki, Heather J Leidy
Background: Higher-protein (HP) energy-restriction diets improve weight management to a greater extent than normal-protein (NP) versions. Potential mechanisms of action with regard to assessment of eating behaviors across the day have not been widely examined during energy restriction.Objectives: The objectives of this study were to test whether the consumption of an HP energy-restriction diet reduces carbohydrate and fat intakes through improvements in daily appetite, satiety, and food cravings compared with NP versions and to test whether protein type within the NP diets alters protein-related satiety...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061138/the-evidence-base-for-circulating-tumour-dna-blood-based-biomarkers-for-the-early-detection-of-cancer-a-systematic-mapping-review
#6
Ian A Cree, Lesley Uttley, Helen Buckley Woods, Hugh Kikuchi, Anne Reiman, Susan Harnan, Becky L Whiteman, Sian Taylor Philips, Michael Messenger, Angela Cox, Dawn Teare, Orla Sheils, Jacqui Shaw
BACKGROUND: The presence of circulating cell-free DNA from tumours in blood (ctDNA) is of major importance to those interested in early cancer detection, as well as to those wishing to monitor tumour progression or diagnose the presence of activating mutations to guide treatment. In 2014, the UK Early Cancer Detection Consortium undertook a systematic mapping review of the literature to identify blood-based biomarkers with potential for the development of a non-invasive blood test for cancer screening, and which identified this as a major area of interest...
October 23, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060738/wearable-wireless-user-interface-cursor-controller-uic-c
#7
Nicholas Marjanovic, Kevin Kerr, Ricardo Aranda, Richard Hickey, Hananeh Esmailbeigi
Controlling a computer or a smartphone's cursor allows the user to access a world full of information. For millions of people with limited upper extremities motor function, controlling the cursor becomes profoundly difficult. Our team has developed the User Interface Cursor-Controller (UIC-C) to assist the impaired individuals in regaining control over the cursor. The UIC-C is a hands-free device that utilizes the tongue muscle to control the cursor movements. The entire device is housed inside a subject specific retainer...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048508/characterizing-human-immunodeficiency-virus-antiretroviral-therapy-interruption-and-resulting-disease-progression-using-population-level-data-in-british-columbia-1996-2015
#8
Linwei Wang, Jeong Eun Min, Xiao Zang, Paul Sereda, Richard P Harrigan, Julio S G Montaner, Bohdan Nosyk
Background: Suboptimal retention is among the biggest challenges to realize the full benefits of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART). We aimed to describe ART interruption patterns and identify determinants of disease progression while off ART in British Columbia, Canada. Methods: With population-level data on ART utilization and laboratory testing in British Columbia (1996-2015), we described the timing, frequency, and duration of ART interruptions (a gap of ≥90 days in ART dispensation records)...
October 16, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041444/vortex-topographic-microscopy-for-full-field-reference-free-imaging-and-testing
#9
Petr Bouchal, Lenka Štrbková, Zbyněk Dostál, Zdeněk Bouchal
Light vortices carry orbital angular momentum and have a variety of applications in optical manipulation, high-capacity communications or microscopy. Here we propose a new concept of full-field vortex topographic microscopy enabling a reference-free displacement and shape measurement of reflective samples. The sample surface is mapped by an array of light spots enabling quantitative reconstruction of the local depths from defocused wavefronts. Light from the spots is converted to a lattice of mutually uncorrelated double-helix point spread functions (PSFs) whose angular rotation enables depth estimation...
September 4, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036973/-predictive-value-of-cardiac-magnetic-resonance-derived-parameters-on-the-improvement-of-left-ventricular-function-in-patients-with-acute-viral-myocarditis
#10
H C Ouyang, F C Ouyang, L L Mai, Y Y Chen, Y Z Hu, H X Chen, W S Li
Objective: To evaluate the predictive value of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR)-derived parameters on the improvement of left ventricular function in patients with acute viral myocarditis. Methods: Forty patients, who referred for acute viral myocarditis in our hospital from September 2011 to September 2015, were prospectively enrolled in this study.All patients were examined by CMR during hospitalization for acute viral myocarditis (baseline) and after 12 months.The CMR sequences include: two dimension steady state free precession, 2D SSFP; triple inversion recovery, triple IR; early gadolinium enhancement; phase sensitive inversion recovery turbo field echo, PSIR TFE...
September 24, 2017: Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027235/low-dose-ct-for-the-detection-and-classification-of-metastatic-liver-lesions-results-of-the-2016-low-dose-ct-grand-challenge
#11
Cynthia H McCollough, Adam C Bartley, Rickey E Carter, Baiyu Chen, Tammy A Drees, Phillip Edwards, David R Holmes, Alice E Huang, Farhana Khan, Shuai Leng, Kyle L McMillan, Gregory J Michalak, Kristina M Nunez, Lifeng Yu, Joel G Fletcher
PURPOSE: Using common datasets, to estimate and compare the diagnostic performance of image-based denoising techniques or iterative reconstruction algorithms for the task of detecting hepatic metastases. METHODS: Datasets from contrast-enhanced CT scans of the liver were provided to participants in an NIH-, AAPM- and Mayo Clinic-sponsored Low Dose CT Grand Challenge. Training data included full-dose and quarter-dose scans of the ACR CT accreditation phantom and 10 patient examinations; both images and projections were provided in the training data...
October 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018320/virtual-balancing-for-studying-and-training-postural-control
#12
Daniela Buettner, Daniela Dalin, Isabella K Wiesmeier, Christoph Maurer
Postural control during free stance has been frequently interpreted in terms of balancing an inverted pendulum. This even holds, if subjects do not balance their own, but an external body weight. We introduce here a virtual balancing apparatus, which produces torque in the ankle joint as a function of ankle angle resembling the gravity and inertial effects of free standing. As a first aim of this study, we systematically modified gravity, damping, and inertia to examine its effect on postural control beyond the physical constraints given in the real world...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994668/correction-of-patient-motion-in-cone-beam-ct-using-3d-2d-registration
#13
Sarah Ouadah, Matthew W Jacobson, Joseph Webster Stayman, Tina Ehtiati, Clifford Raabe Weiss, Jeffrey H Siewerdsen
Cone-beam CT (CBCT) is increasingly common in guidance of interventional procedures but can be subject to artifacts arising from patient motion during fairly long (~5-60s) scan times. We present a fiducial-free method to mitigate motion artifacts using 3D-2D image registration that simultaneously corrects residual errors in the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of geometric calibration. The 3D-2D registration process registers each projection to a prior 3D image by maximizing gradient orientation using the covariance matrix adaptation-evolution strategy (CMA-ES) optimizer...
October 10, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993302/user-participation-and-engagement-with-the-see-me-smoke-free-mhealth-app-prospective-feasibility-trial
#14
Chris A Schmidt, James K Romine, Melanie L Bell, Julie Armin, Judith S Gordon
BACKGROUND: The See Me Smoke-Free (SMSF) mobile health (mHealth) app was developed to help women quit smoking by targeting concerns about body weight, body image, and self-efficacy through cognitive behavioral techniques and guided imagery audio files addressing smoking, diet, and physical activity. A feasibility trial found associations between SMSF usage and positive treatment outcomes. This paper reports a detailed exploration of program use among eligible individuals consenting to study participation and completing the baseline survey (participants) and ineligible or nonconsenting app installers (nonparticipants), as well as the relationship between program use and treatment outcomes...
October 9, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983282/binding-of-escherichia-coli-does-not-protect-tulane-virus-from-heat-inactivation-regardless-the-expression-of-hbga-like-molecules
#15
Qianqian Li, Dapeng Wang, David Yang, Lei Shan, Peng Tian
Histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) are considered as receptors/co-receptors for human norovirus (HuNoV). It has been reported that binding of HuNoV-derived virus-like particles (VLPs) to HBGA-like molecules-expressing bacteria increased the stability of VLPs to heat-denaturation (HD). In this study, we tested for HBGA-like-binding-conveyed protection against HD on viral replication using Tulane virus (TV) and Escherichia coli O86:H2 (O86:H2), with E. coli K-12 (K-12) used as a control. Expression of HBGA type B was confirmed by ELISA in O86:H2 but not in K-12...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970485/the-huc-mscs-cell-line-ccrc-1-represents-a-novel-safe-and-high-yielding-hdcs-for-the-production-of-human-viral-vaccines
#16
Ping Chen, Ke-Hua Zhang, Tao Na, Lin Wang, Wei-Dong Yin, Bao-Zhu Yuan, Jun-Zhi Wang
MRC-5 represents the most frequent human diploid cells (HDCs)-type cell substrate in the production of human viral vaccines. However, early-passage MRC-5 is diminishing and, due to both technical and ethical issues, it is extremely difficult to derive novel HDCs from fetal lung tissues, which are the common sources of HDCs. Our previous studies suggested that human umbilical cord may represent an alternative but convenient source of new HDCs. Here, we established a three-tiered cell banking system of a hUC-MSC line, designated previously as Cell Collection and Research Center-1 (CCRC-1)...
October 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968600/the-h-k-atpase-inhibitor-sch-28080-inhibits-insulin-secretion-and-induces-cell-death-in-ins-1e-rat-insulinoma-cells
#17
Martin Jakab, Nina Ketterl, Johannes Fürst, Marlena Beyreis, Michael Kittl, Tobias Kiesslich, Cornelia Hauser-Kronberger, Martin Gaisberger, Markus Ritter
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) of pancreatic β-cells involves glucose uptake and metabolism, closure of KATP channels and depolarization of the cell membrane potential (Vmem), activation of voltage-activated Ca2+ currents (ICav) and influx of Ca2+, which eventually triggers hormone exocytosis. Beside this classical pathway, KATP-independent mechanisms such as changes in intracellular pH (pHi) or cell volume, which also affect β-cell viability, can elicit or modify insulin release...
October 2, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964982/in-situ-sequestration-of-endogenous-pdgf-bb-with-an-ecm-mimetic-sponge-for-accelerated-wound-healing
#18
Qiu Li, Yiming Niu, Huajia Diao, Lintao Wang, Xiuping Chen, Yitao Wang, Lei Dong, Chunming Wang
Recapitulating the typical features of extracellular matrix (ECM) in engineered biomaterials is crucial for preparing a suitable niche to activate endogenous tissue repair. Here, we report the design and evaluation of an ECM-mimetic scaffold that successfully accelerated wound healing through enriching endogenous platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB). Specifically, we prepared a electrospun hydrogel sponge (EGS) comprising a PDGF-BB-binding polysaccharide (EUP3) and gelatin. The two polymers in concert exerted a 'retention-and-release' function: upon the application of EGS in vivo, EUP3 started to bind and sequester endogenous PDGF-BB at the wound site; gradually, gelatin was degraded to free the PDGF-BB/EUP3 complex that acted on the cells in situ...
December 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961493/removal-of-selected-emerging-ppcp-compounds-using-greater-duckweed-spirodela-polyrhiza-based-lab-scale-free-water-constructed-wetland
#19
Jianan Li, Qizhi Zhou, Luiza C Campos
Greater duckweed (Spirodela polyrhiza) based lab-scale free water constructed wetland (CW) was employed for removing four emerging pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) (i.e. DEET, paracetamol, caffeine and triclosan). Orthogonal design was used to test the effect of light intensity, aeration, E.coli abundance and plant biomass on the target compounds. Synthetic wastewater contaminated with the target compounds at concentration of 25 μg/L was prepared, and both batch and continuous flow experiments were conducted...
December 1, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955740/characterization-of-lipid-rafts-in-human-platelets-using-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-a-pilot-study
#20
Joshua F Ceñido, Boris Itin, Ruth E Stark, Yung-Yu Huang, Maria A Oquendo, J John Mann, M Elizabeth Sublette
Lipid microdomains ('lipid rafts') are plasma membrane subregions, enriched in cholesterol and glycosphingolipids, which participate dynamically in cell signaling and molecular trafficking operations. One strategy for the study of the physicochemical properties of lipid rafts in model membrane systems has been the use of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), but until now this spectroscopic method has not been considered a clinically relevant tool. We performed a proof-of-concept study to test the feasibility of using NMR to study lipid rafts in human tissues...
July 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
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