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Michele Antonio De Riggi, Nicola Rocco, Giulio Gherardini, Emanuela Esposito, Massimiliano D'Aiuto
INTRODUCTION: One-stage implant-based breast reconstruction using titanium-coated polypropylene mesh is a novel approach widely used in Europe. Complication rates in breast reconstruction with the use of titanium-coated meshes seem to be comparable to those in patients with implant-based breast reconstruction alone. However, the use of synthetic meshes in implant-based breast reconstructive surgery leads to new clinical scenarios with the need for the breast surgeon to face new complications...
October 20, 2016: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
Laura Laguna, Grace Farrell, Michael Bryant, Ardian Morina, Anwesha Sarkar
This study aims to investigate the relationship between rheological and tribological properties of commercial full fat and fat-free/low fat versions of liquid and soft solid colloidal systems (milk, yoghurt, soft cream cheese) with their sensory properties. Oscillatory measurements (strain, frequency), flow curves and tribological measurements (lubrication behaviour using Stribeck analysis) were conducted. Oral condition was mimicked using artificial saliva at 37 (○)C. Discrimination test was conducted by 63 untrained consumers, followed by a qualitative questionnaire...
September 22, 2016: Food & Function
Angel Lago-Rodriguez, R Chris Miall
Prolonged exposure to movement perturbations leads to creation of motor memories which decay towards previous states when the perturbations are removed. However, it remains unclear whether this decay is due only to a spontaneous and passive recovery of the previous state. It has recently been reported that activation of reinforcement-based learning mechanisms delays the onset of the decay. This raises the question whether other motor learning mechanisms may also contribute to the retention and/or decay of the motor memory...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Sunshin Kim, HeeJung Jung, Sung Hee Han, SeungJae Lee, JeongSub Kwon, Min Gyun Kim, Hyungsik Chu, Kyudong Han, Hwanjong Kwak, Sunghoon Park, Hee Jae Joo, Minae An, Jungsu Ha, Kyusang Lee, Byung Chul Kim, Hailing Zheng, Xinqiang Zhu, Hongliang Chen, Jong Bhak
BACKGROUND: Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) using massively parallel sequencing of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is increasingly being used to predict fetal chromosomal abnormalities. However, concerns over erroneous predictions which occur while performing NIPT still exist in pregnant women at high risk for fetal aneuploidy. We performed the largest-scale clinical NIPT study in Korea to date to assess the risk of false negatives and false positives using next-generation sequencing. METHODS: A total of 447 pregnant women at high risk for fetal aneuploidy were enrolled at 12 hospitals in Korea...
October 3, 2016: BMC Medical Genomics
Marina Macchiagodena, Giordano Mancini, Marco Pagliai, Vincenzo Barone
In this contribution we show that it is possible to build accurate force fields for small organic molecules allowing the reliable reproduction of a large panel of bulk properties, which are seldom addressed in the same context. Starting from the results obtained in recent studies, we developed a protocol for charge estimation and virtual site generation for the amide class of molecules. The parametrization of electrostatic properties is based on population analysis and orbital localization of quantum mechanical computations rooted in density functional theory and the polarizable continuum model, without any additional external information...
September 14, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Federico Bella, Gianmarco Griffini, Juan-Pablo Correa-Baena, Guido Saracco, Michael Grätzel, Anders Hagfeldt, Stefano Turri, Claudio Gerbaldi
Organometal halide perovskite solar cells have demonstrated high conversion efficiency but poor long-term stability against ultraviolet irradiation and water. We show that rapid light-induced free-radical polymerization at ambient temperature produces multifunctional fluorinated photopolymer coatings that confer luminescent and easy-cleaning features on the front side of the devices, while concurrently forming a strongly hydrophobic barrier toward environmental moisture on the back contact side. The luminescent photopolymers re-emit ultraviolet light in the visible range, boosting perovskite solar cells efficiency to nearly 19% under standard illumination...
October 14, 2016: Science
Aurélie Chopard, Benoît Plante, Mostafa Benzaazoua, Hassan Bouzahzah, Philippe Marion
Predicting the water quality at mine sites is of significant importance for developing mines with respect for the environment. Acid mine drainage (AMD) occurs when sulfides are in contact with oxygen and water, and several parameters and mechanisms influence final drainage quality. Galvanic interactions influence the reactivity of sulfide minerals, which act as semi-conductors. These galvanic interactions have been insufficiently studied in the context of AMD generation. In this study, the influence of pyrite on the reactivity of sphalerite and chalcopyrite was investigated...
January 2017: Chemosphere
James M Green, Alyssa Olenick, Caroline Eastep, Lee Winchester
Caffeine (CAF) blunts estimated ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) but the effects on RPE production are unclear. This study examined effects of acute caffeine ingestion during treadmill exercise where participants exercised at prescribed RPE 4 and 7. Recreational runners (maximal oxygen consumption = 51.4 ± 9.8 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) (n = 16) completed a maximal treadmill test followed by trials where they selected treadmill velocity (VEL) (1% grade) to produce RPE 4 and RPE 7 (10 min each). RPE production trials followed CAF (6 mg·kg(-1)) or placebo (PLA) (counterbalanced) ingestion...
June 30, 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
M Schiavon, M Francescon, D Drigo, G Salloum, R Baraziol, J Tesei, E Fraccalanza, F Barbone
BACKGROUND: INTEGRA(®) Dermal Regeneration Template is a well-known and widely used acellular dermal matrix. Although it helps to solve many challenging problems in reconstructive surgery, the product cost may make it an expensive alternative compared to other reconstruction procedures. This retrospective study aims at comparing INTEGRA-based treatment to flap surgery in terms of cost and benefit. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We considered only patients treated for scalp defects with bone exposure in order to obtain two groups as homogeneous as possible...
October 3, 2016: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
Patricia Dolan Mullen, Lara S Savas, Łucja T Bundy, Regine Haardörfer, Mel Hovell, Maria E Fernández, Jo Ann A Monroy, Rebecca S Williams, Matthew W Kreuter, David Jobe, Michelle C Kegler
BACKGROUND: Replication of intervention research is reported infrequently, limiting what we know about external validity and generalisability. The Smoke Free Homes Program, a minimal intervention, increased home smoking bans by United Way 2-1-1 callers in randomised controlled trials in Atlanta, Georgia and North Carolina. OBJECTIVE: Test the programme's generalisability-external validity in a different context. METHODS: A randomised controlled trial (n=508) of English-speaking callers from smoking-discordant households (≥1 smoker and ≥1 non-smoker)...
October 2016: Tobacco Control
Yuanyuan Ma, Anne Nolan
The use of direct out-of-pocket payments to finance general practitioner (GP) care by the majority of the population in Ireland is unusual in a European context. Currently, approximately 40% of the population have means-tested access to free GP care, while the remainder must pay the full out-of-pocket cost. In this paper, we use data from The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) to examine the impact of the current system of public healthcare entitlements on GP utilisation among the older population. Using difference-in-difference propensity score matching methods, we find significant effects of changes in public healthcare entitlements on GP utilisation (i...
October 3, 2016: Health Economics
F H Green, M C Veale, M D Wilson, P Seller, J Scuffham, S Pani
In mammography, the reduction of scattered x-rays is vital due to the low contrast or small dimension of the details that are searched for. The typical method of doing so in current conventional mammography is the anti-scatter grid. The disadvantage of this method is the absorption of a proportion of the primary beam and therefore an increase in dose is required to compensate for the loss of counts. An alternative method is proposed, using quasi-monochromatic beams and a pixellated spectroscopic detector. As Compton-scattered x-rays lose energy in the scattering process, they are detected at a lower energy in the spectrum...
October 3, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Jayant S Vaidya, Frederik Wenz, Max Bulsara, Jeffrey S Tobias, David J Joseph, Christobel Saunders, Chris Brew-Graves, Ingrid Potyka, Stephen Morris, Hrisheekesh J Vaidya, Norman R Williams, Michael Baum
BACKGROUND: Based on our laboratory work and clinical trials we hypothesised that radiotherapy after lumpectomy for breast cancer could be restricted to the tumour bed. In collaboration with the industry we developed a new radiotherapy device and a new surgical operation for delivering single-dose radiation to the tumour bed - the tissues at highest risk of local recurrence. We named it TARGeted Intraoperative radioTherapy (TARGIT). From 1998 we confirmed its feasibility and safety in pilot studies...
September 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
Martin Tickle, Ciaran O'Neill, Michael Donaldson, Stephen Birch, Solveig Noble, Seamus Killough, Lynn Murphy, Margaret Greer, Julie Brodison, Rejina Verghis, Helen V Worthington
BACKGROUND: Dental caries is the most common disease of childhood. The NHS guidelines promote preventative care in dental practices, particularly for young children. However, the cost-effectiveness of this policy has not been established. OBJECTIVE: To measure the effects and costs of a composite fluoride intervention designed to prevent caries in young children attending dental services. DESIGN: The study was a two-arm, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial, with an allocation ratio of 1 : 1...
September 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
Kentaro Morita, Kenichiro Miura, Michiko Fujimoto, Hidenaga Yamamori, Yuka Yasuda, Masao Iwase, Kiyoto Kasai, Ryota Hashimoto
AIM: Studies have shown that eye movement abnormalities are possible neurophysiological biomarkers for schizophrenia. The aim of this study is to investigate the utility of eye movement abnormalities in identifying patients with schizophrenia from healthy controls. METHODS: Eighty-five patients with schizophrenia and 252 healthy controls participated in this study. Eye movement measures were collected from free viewing, fixation stability, and smooth pursuit tests...
September 27, 2016: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Patricia M Lambert, Martin H Welker
OBJECTIVES: Bioarchaeological research has documented a general decline in health with the transition from foraging to farming, primarily with respect to changing patterns of morbidity. Less is known about changes in injury risk, an aspect of health more obviously tied to particular landscapes and behaviors associated with different subsistence regimes. The purpose of this research is to evaluate several hypotheses emerging from the ideal free distribution model (Fretwell & Lucas, ) that predict injury risk based on subsistence-specific practices and land use patterns...
September 27, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Patrick Grabowski, John Wilson, Alyssa Walker, Dan Enz, Sijian Wang
OBJECTIVE: Demonstrate implementation, safety and feasibility of multimodal, impairment-based physical therapy (PT) combining vestibular/oculomotor and cervical rehabilitation with sub-symptom threshold exercise for the treatment of patients with post-concussion syndrome (PCS). SETTING: University hospital outpatient sports medicine facility. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-five patients (12-20 years old) meeting World Health Organization criteria for PCS following sport-related concussion referred for supervised PT consisting of sub-symptom cardiovascular exercise, vestibular/oculomotor and cervical spine rehabilitation...
June 7, 2016: Physical Therapy in Sport
Antonio Ivan Lazzarino, Mark Hamer, David Gaze, Paul Collinson, Ann Rumley, Gordon Lowe, Andrew Steptoe
We have previously shown that there is a complex and dynamic biological interaction between acute mental stress and acute release of inflammatory factors into the blood stream in relation to heart disease. We now hypothesize that the presence of chronic psychosocial stress may modify the weight of single test results for inflammation as a predictor of heart disease. Using a cross-sectional design, 500 participants free from heart disease drawn from the Whitehall II study in UK in 2006-2008 were tested for plasma fibrinogen as an inflammatory factor, financial strain as a marker of chronic psychosocial stress, coronary calcification measured using computed tomography, and for plasma high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (HS-CTnT) as a marker of cardiac risk...
September 20, 2016: Preventive Medicine
Jian Li, Hui Ding, Wei Han, Lei Jin, Ling-Na Kong, Kang-Na Mao, Hong Wang, Jiang-Ping Wu, Ying Wu, Liu Yang, Yu Zhou, You-Xin Wang, Wei Wang, Adrian Loerbroks, Peter Angerer
OBJECTIVE: It has been suggested that the relationship between work stress and somatic symptoms (e.g., cardiopulmonary, gastrointestinal complaints, general pain, and fatigue) is particularly pronounced in women. As evidence from China is sparse, we used a large sample of Chinese working women to test those potential associations. METHODS: Data were obtained from a cross-sectional study of 6826 working women in five urban areas in China who were free from major clinical disease...
October 2016: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
André Mewes, Bennet Hensen, Frank Wacker, Christian Hansen
PURPOSE: In this article, we systematically examine the current state of research of systems that focus on touchless human-computer interaction in operating rooms and interventional radiology suites. We further discuss the drawbacks of current solutions and underline promising technologies for future development. METHODS: A systematic literature search of scientific papers that deal with touchless control of medical software in the immediate environment of the operation room and interventional radiology suite was performed...
September 19, 2016: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
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