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Janette L Vardy, Haryana Mary Dhillon, Gregory R Pond, Corrinne Renton, Stephen J Clarke, Ian F Tannock
Background: Inflammation promotes the development of malignancy, while a variety of systemic markers of inflammation predict for worse cancer outcomes including recurrence and survival. Here, we evaluate the prognostic impact of cytokine concentrations, full blood count (FBC) differential ratios, cognitive function and fatigue on survival in patients with localised colorectal cancer (CRC). Patients and methods: Data are from a prospective longitudinal study comparing cognitive function and fatigue in patients with CRC who did (n=173) and did not (n=116) receive adjuvant/neoadjuvant chemotherapy...
2018: ESMO Open
Pei Lin Zhuang, Li Xia Yu, Juan Kun Liao, Yan Zhou, Huan Cai Lin
BACKGROUND: The VicRK two-component signalling system regulates virulence and cariogenicity in Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). The purpose of this study was to explore the genetic polymorphisms of the vicR and vicK genes, which are associated with dental caries in children with S. mutans. METHODS: In this study, 121 (from each group) clinical S. mutans strains were isolated from caries-free children and children with high-severity caries to sequence the vicR and vicK genes...
March 12, 2018: BMC Oral Health
Laura J Schmertmann, Kathryn Stalder, Donald Hudson, Patricia Martin, Mariano Makara, Wieland Meyer, Richard Malik, Mark B Krockenberger
Disseminated cryptococcosis caused by Cryptococcus gattii (molecular type VGI) was diagnosed in an adult free-ranging female koala (Phascolarctos cinereus). Subclinical cryptococcosis was later diagnosed in this koala's joey. In the adult koala, a pathological fracture of the tibia was associated with the bone lysis of marked focal cryptococcal osteomyelitis. Limb-sparing orthopedic intervention, in the setting of disseminated cryptococcosis, was judged to have a poor prognosis, and the adult koala was euthanized...
February 24, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Pavel Cejnar, Stepanka Kuckova, Ales Prochazka, Ludmila Karamonova, Barbora Svobodova
RATIONALE: Explorative statistical analysis of mass spectrometry data is still a time-consuming step. We analyzed critical factors for application of principal component analysis in mass spectrometry and focused on two whole spectrum based normalization techniques and their application in analysis of registered peak data and, in comparison, in full spectrum data analysis. We used this technique to identify different metabolic patterns in the bacterial culture of Cronobacter sakazakii, an important foodborne pathogen...
March 9, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Lu Yin, Yingnan Wu, Zheng Yang, Vinitha Denslin, Xiafei Ren, Ching Ann Tee, Zhangxing Lai, Chwee Teck Lim, Jongyoon Han, Eng Hin Lee
Current clinical approaches for articular cartilage repair have not been able to restore the tissue with zonal architecture, and its biomechanical and functional properties. Mimicking the zonal organization of articular cartilage in neo-tissue by implanting zonal chondrocyte subpopulations in multilayer construct could enhance the functionality of the graft, engineering of stratified tissue has not yet been realized due to lack of efficient and specific zonal chondrocyte isolation protocol. We show that by using a spiral microchannel device, the superficial, middle and deep zone chondrocytes can be separated based on cell size, and enriched from full thickness porcine cartilage in a high-throughput, label-free manner...
March 1, 2018: Biomaterials
Daniel F Alamidi, Amir Smailagic, Abdel W Bidar, Nicole S Parker, Marita Olsson, Paul D Hockings, Kerstin M Lagerstrand, Lars E Olsson
BACKGROUND: Lung T1 is a potential translational biomarker of lung disease. The precision and repeatability of variable flip angle (VFA) T1 mapping using modern 3D ultrashort echo time (UTE) imaging of the whole lung needs to be established before it can be used to assess response to disease and therapy. PURPOSE: To evaluate the feasibility of regional lung T1 quantification with VFA 3D-UTE and to investigate long- and short-term T1 repeatability in the lungs of naive mice...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Helena Banning, Monika Stelling, Stephan König, Ronny Schoenberg, Thomas Neumann
Selenium (Se) is an important micronutrient but also a strong toxin with a narrow tolerance range for many organisms. As such, a globally heterogeneous Se distribution in soils is responsible for various disease patterns (i.e. Se excess and deficiency) and environmental problems, whereby plants play a key role for the Se entrance into the biosphere. Selenium isotope variations were proved to be a powerful tracer for redox processes and are therefore promising for the exploration of the species dependent Se metabolism in plants and the Se cycling within the Critical Zone...
2018: PloS One
Minta Chaiprasongsuk, Chi Zhang, Ping Qian, Xinlu Chen, Guanglin Li, Robert N Trigiano, Hong Guo, Feng Chen
Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), gibberellins (GAs), salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) exist in methyl ester forms in plants in addition to their free acid forms. The enzymes that catalyze methylation of these carboxylic acid phytohormones belong to a same protein family, the SABATH methyltransferases. While the genes encoding these enzymes have been isolated from a small number of flowering plants, little is known about their occurrence and evolution in non-flowering plants. Here, we report the systematic characterization of the SABATH family from Norway spruce (Picea abies), a gymnosperm...
March 1, 2018: Phytochemistry
Zhiyong Zhang, Michael Lustig, Lucio Frydman
PURPOSE: To develop a rapid, non-CPMG high-resolution volumetric imaging approach, exhibiting a speed and in-plane resilience to field inhomogeneities comparable to RARE/turbo-spin-echo (TSE) while endowed with unique downsampling characteristics. METHODS: A multi-scan extension of cross-term spatiotemporal encoding (xSPEN) is introduced and analyzed. The method simultaneously yields ky /kz data containing low and high frequency components, as well as transposed, low-resolution z/y images...
March 1, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Xue Xiao, Dandan Dong, Wenjing He, Linhong Song, Qiao Wang, Jun Yue, Lan Xie
OBJECTIVE: The role of mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency in ovarian cancer (OC) pathogenesis and its association with other clinicopathologic features, such as microsatellite instability (MSI) and expression of checkpoint proteins, remain largely elusive. METHODS: We performed Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2 on full-section slides from 419 OCs to assess the MMR status. The clinical relevance of MMR deficiency was analyzed in combination with clinical data...
February 26, 2018: Gynecologic Oncology
Linda Irvine, Iain K Crombie, Vivien Swanson, Elena D Dimova, Ambrose J Melson, Tracey M Fraser, Rosaline Barbour, Peter M Rice, Sheila Allan
BACKGROUND: Young women frequently drink alcohol in groups and binge drinking within these natural drinking groups is common. This study describes the design of a theoretically and empirically based group intervention to reduce binge drinking among young women. It also evaluates their engagement with the intervention and the acceptability of the study methods. METHODS: Friendship groups of women aged 18-35 years, who had two or more episodes of binge drinking (>6 UK units on one occasion; 48g of alcohol) in the previous 30 days, were recruited from the community...
2018: PloS One
M M Erdaw, R A Perez-Maldonado, P A Iji
A 3 × 3 + 1 factorial, involving three levels of protease (0, 15,000 or 30,000 PROT/kg) and three levels of phytase (1,000, 2,000 or 3,000 FYT/kg), was used to evaluate the effect of replacing commercial soybean meal (SBM) with raw, full-fat soybean (RFSB) at 75 g/kg of diet for broilers. A control diet was used for comparison. Each treatment was replicated six times, with nine birds per replicate. The concentration of trypsin inhibitors (TIs) in the test diets was approximately 10,193.4 TIU/kg. Regardless of enzyme supplementation, feed intake (FI) and body weight gain (BWG) of birds in the control group were superior to those on the test diets...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
M Vera-Rodriguez, A Diez-Juan, J Jimenez-Almazan, S Martinez, R Navarro, V Peinado, A Mercader, M Meseguer, D Blesa, I Moreno, D Valbuena, C Rubio, C Simon
STUDY QUESTION: What is the origin and composition of cell-free DNA in human embryo spent culture media? SUMMARY ANSWER: Cell-free DNA from human embryo spent culture media represents a mix of maternal and embryonic DNA, and the mixture can be more complex for mosaic embryos. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: In 2016, ~300 000 human embryos were chromosomally and/or genetically analyzed using preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidies (PGT-A) or monogenic disorders (PGT-M) before transfer into the uterus...
February 20, 2018: Human Reproduction
Swati Agrawal, Thomas Tapmeier, Nilufer Rahmioglu, Shona Kirtley, Krina Zondervan, Christian Becker
BACKGROUND: Endometriosis is a common disorder of the reproductive age group, characterised by the presence of ectopic endometrial tissue. The disease not only causes enormous suffering to the affected women, but also brings a tremendous medical and economic burden to bear on society. There is a long lag phase between the onset and diagnosis of the disease, mainly due to its non-specific symptoms and the lack of a non-invasive test. Endometriosis can only be diagnosed invasively by laparoscopy...
February 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Mehmet Akif Cakmak, Hakan Cinal, Ensar Zafer Barin, Muhammed Sedat Sakat, Harun Karaduman, Onder Tan
Free flaps based on static slings principles cannot provide esthetic and functional outcomes at a desired level in total or close to total lip loss. Therefore, dynamic methods have become a current issue in recent years and especially the idea of functional gracilis free muscle flap has been suggested. In this study, we present a case of a successful total lower lip repair with this flap.In a 78-year-old female patient who was diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma involving the entire lower lip, bilateral modified radical neck dissection and full-thickness total resection with 1 cm surgical margin so as to include both commissures of the tumor were performed and then a free gracilis muscle flap was transferred from the same side...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Walaa A Abdel Wahab, Eman A Karam, Mohammed E Hassan, Amany L Kansoh, Mona A Esawya, Ghada E A Awad
Pectinase produced by a honey derived from the fungus Aspergillus awamori KX943614 was covalently immobilized onto gel beads made of alginate and agar. Polyethyleneimine, glutaraldehyde, loading time and enzyme's units were optimized by 24 full factorial central composite design (CCD). The immobilization process increased the optimal working pH for the free pectinase from 5 to a broader range of pH 4.5-5.5 and the optimum operational temperature from 55 °C to a higher temperature, of 60 °C, which is favored to reduce the enzyme's microbial contamination...
February 16, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
(no author information available yet)
A series of full-scale testing was performed at the City of Lathrop Consolidated Treatment Facility to determine the "concentration times time" (Ct) value for free chlorine disinfection of nitrified membrane bioreactor (MBR) effluent to achieve more than 5-log virus inactivation. The full-scale testing consisted of tracer study, chlorine decay study, and virus seeding study. The virus seeding study was performed at a flow rate of 1 million gallons/day (3,800 m3/min), which corresponded to a theoretical contact time of 117 min in the chlorine contact basin...
February 12, 2018: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
Paola Italiani, Maria Laura Manca, Francesca Angelotti, Daniela Melillo, Federico Pratesi, Ilaria Puxeddu, Diana Boraschi, Paola Migliorini
BACKGROUND: Dysregulated production of cytokines has a critical role in systemic lupus. The aim of this work is to identify, by a comprehensive analysis of IL-1 family cytokines and receptors in serum, correlation between cytokines/receptors' levels and the clinical and serological features of the disease. METHODS: A full clinical evaluation was performed in 74 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). C3, C4, anti-dsDNA and anti-C1q antibodies were measured...
February 8, 2018: Arthritis Research & Therapy
Lucy Victoria Rosby, Jerome I Rotgans, Gerald Tan, Naomi Low-Beer, Silvia Mamede, Laura Zwaan, Henk Schmidt
PURPOSE: Diagnostic reasoning literature debates the significance of "dual-process theory" and the importance of its constituent types of thinking: System-1and System-2. This experimental study aimed to determine whether novice medical students could be trained to utilize System-1 thinking when making diagnoses based on chest X-rays. METHOD: Second-year medical students were recruited and presented with a series of eight online chest X-rays cases. Participants were shown half of the cases repeatedly during a training phase and the other half only twice...
February 8, 2018: Medical Teacher
Stuart McTaggart, Clifford Nangle, Jacqueline Caldwell, Samantha Alvarez-Madrazo, Helen Colhoun, Marion Bennie
Background: Efficient generation of structured dose instructions that enable researchers to calculate drug exposure is central to pharmacoepidemiology studies. Our aim was to design and test an algorithm to codify dose instructions, applied to the NHS Scotland Prescribing Information System (PIS) that records about 100 million prescriptions per annum. Methods: A natural language processing (NLP) algorithm was developed that enabled free-text dose instructions to be represented by three attributes - quantity, frequency and qualifier - specified by three, three and two variables, respectively...
February 6, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
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