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Intersex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073070/negotiating-intersex-a-case-for-revising-the-theory-of-social-diagnosis
#1
Tania M Jenkins, Susan E Short
The theory of social diagnosis recognizes two principles: 1) extra-medical social structures frame diagnosis; and 2) myriad social actors, in addition to clinicians, contribute to diagnostic labels and processes. The relationship between social diagnosis and (de)medicalization remains undertheorized, however, because social diagnosis does not account for how social actors can also resist the pathologization of symptoms and conditions-sometimes at the same time as they clamor for medical recognition-thereby shaping societal definitions of disease in different, but no less important, ways...
December 31, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069490/sexual-segregation-of-forage-patch-use-support-for-the-social-factors-and-predation-hypotheses
#2
Michael T Biggerstaff, Marcus A Lashley, M Colter Chitwood, Christopher E Moorman, Christopher S DePerno
Nearly all species of sexually dimorphic ungulates sexually segregate. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain this phenomenon, including the social-factors hypothesis (SFH) and the predation hypothesis (PH). Interestingly, previous studies have accepted and rejected each hypothesis within and across species but few studies have simultaneously tested both hypotheses in the same population. In August 2011 and 2012 using 7680 photographs taken with camera traps in standardized forage patches, we tested two predictions of the SFH: 1) foraging efficiency of both sexes would decrease when foraging rate in mixed-sex groups relative to single-sex groups, and 2) activity patterns (i...
January 6, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057709/when-parents-choose-gender-intersex-children-and-the-law
#3
Melanie Newbould
In England and Wales, it is usually lawful for those with parental responsibility to consent to treatment on children who have not acquired legal capacity, providing that they are acting in the child's best interests. Whilst in most instances this process is unproblematic and the decisions made are non-controversial, there are troubling examples where this is more problematic. The difficulties for a family with a child who has an intersex condition will be considered to illustrate that there may be cases of medical and surgical treatment where even though both parents and doctors agree on a course of action in good faith, the treatment administered may not necessarily be in the best interests of the child...
January 5, 2017: Medical Law Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026945/reduction-of-intersex-in-a-wild-fish-population-in-response-to-major-municipal-wastewater-treatment-plant-upgrades
#4
Keegan A Hicks, Meghan Lm Fuzzen, Emily K McCann, Maricor J Arlos, Leslie M Bragg, Sonya Kleywegt, Gerald R Tetreault, Mark E McMaster, Mark R Servos
Intersex in fish downstream of municipal wastewater treatment plants (MWWTPs) is a global concern. Consistent high rates of intersex in male rainbow darter (Etheostoma caeruleum) have been reported for several years in the Grand River, in southern Ontario, Canada, in close proximity to two MWWTPs. The larger MWWTP (Kitchener) recently underwent upgrades that included the conversion from a carbonaceous activated sludge to nitrifying activated sludge treatment process. This created a unique opportunity to assess whether upgrades designed to improve effluent quality could also remediate the intersex previously observed in wild fish...
December 27, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997231/transgender-health-new-zealand-s-innovative-statistical-standard-for-gender-identity
#5
Frank Pega, Sari L Reisner, Randall L Sell, Jaimie F Veale
The implementation of the New Zealand government's recently developed statistical standard for gender identity has led to, and will stimulate further, collection of gender identity data in administrative records, population surveys, and perhaps the census. This will provide important information about the demographics, health service use, and health outcomes of transgender populations to allow evidence-based policy development and service planning. However, the standard does not promote the two-question method, risking misclassification and undercounts; does promote the use of the ambiguous response category "gender diverse" in standard questions; and is not intersex inclusive...
February 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996180/non-lethal-laparoscopic-detection-of-intersex-testicular-oocytes-in-largemouth-bass-micropterus-salmoides-and-smallmouth-bass-micropterus-dolomieu
#6
Alexander H Macleod, Vicki S Blazer, Mark A Matsche, Lance T Yonkos
Intersex in wild fish populations has received considerable attention in the scientific literature and public media. Conventional detection of testicular oocytes (TO), the presence of immature oocytes within testis of male fish, employs transverse sectioning of excised testis and is lethal. This present study used a non-lethal laparoscopic technique to collect biopsies of testis from black bass, entering the body cavity via the genital pore. Detection of TO was compared between biopsy and conventional methods using 79 smallmouth bass (SMB) Micropterus dolomieu from 8 sites and 68 largemouth bass (LMB) M...
December 20, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940159/dmrt1-is-necessary-for-male-sexual-development-in-zebrafish
#7
Kaitlyn A Webster, Ursula Schach, Angel Ordaz, Jocelyn S Steinfeld, Bruce W Draper, Kellee R Siegfried
The dmrt1 (doublesex and mab-3 related transcription factor 1) gene is a key regulator of sex determination and/or gonadal sex differentiation across metazoan animals. This is unusual given that sex determination genes are typically not well conserved. The mechanisms by which zebrafish sex is determined have remained elusive due to the lack of sex chromosomes and the complex polygenic nature of sex determination in domesticated strains. To investigate the role of dmrt1 in zebrafish sex determination and gonad development, we isolated mutations disrupting this gene...
December 8, 2016: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938637/conducting-rigorous-research-with-subgroups-of-at-risk-youth-lessons-learned-from-a-teen-pregnancy-prevention-project-in-alaska
#8
Kathryn Hohman-Billmeier, Margaret Nye, Stephanie Martin
In 2010, Alaska Department of Health and Social Services (DHSS) received federal funding to test an evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention program. The grant required a major modification to an existing program and a randomized control trial (RCT) to test its effectiveness. As the major modifications, Alaska used peer educators instead of adults to deliver the program to youth aged 14-19 instead of the original curriculum intended age range of 12-14. Cultural and approach adaptations were included as well...
2016: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932634/a-narrative-review-of-the-literature-about-people-with-intellectual-disability-who-identify-as-lesbian-gay-bisexual-transgender-intersex-or-questioning
#9
Nathan J Wilson, Jemima Macdonald, Brenda Hayman, Alexandra M Bright, Patsie Frawley, Gisselle Gallego
This narrative review of the research literature presents a summary about the key issues facing people with intellectual disability (ID) who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex or questioning (LGBTIQ). The aim of this review was to consolidate research of the topic; to identify whether any pilot studies reporting social/sexual/educational interventions had been published; and to offer some perspective on the type of future research required to better inform policy, practice and theory that may lead to better outcomes for people with ID who identify as LGBTIQ...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities: JOID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885615/the-white-mullet-mugil-curema-as-biological-indicator-to-assess-environmental-stress-in-tropical-coastal-lagoons
#10
Alejandra García-Gasca, Julián Ríos-Sicairos, Rubí Hernández-Cornejo, Isabel Cunha, Jesús N Gutiérrez, Héctor Plascencia-González, Luz María García de la Parra, Selene Abad-Rosales, Miguel Betancourt-Lozano
Several coastal lagoons and estuaries in Mexico receive untreated domestic and industrial discharges which contain complex mixtures of contaminants. In order to assess the effects of chemical contamination, we used the White mullet (Mugil curema) as biological indicator. We worked in two estuaries located in Northwest Mexico: Urias (highly polluted) and Teacapan (less polluted, therefore used as reference site). We measured several endpoints at different levels of biological organization: vitellogenin transcription in males as biomarker of estrogenic contamination, as well as reproductive, morphological (deformities), morphometric, and meristic parameters...
December 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867855/laparoscopic-approach-for-gonadectomy-in-pediatric-patients-with-intersex-disorders
#11
REVIEW
Andres Calvo, Maria Escolino, Alessandro Settimi, Agnese Roberti, Maria Grazia Caprio, Ciro Esposito
The birth of a child with a disorder of sex development (DSD) prompts a long-term management strategy that involves a myriad of professionals working with the family. There has been progress in diagnosis, surgical techniques and in understanding psychosocial issues related to this condition. However, since these kinds of disorders are rare and have many anatomical variations, individual care is necessary, especially regarding surgical management. Gonadectomy is indicated in a number of intersex disorders with a Y chromosome to reduce the associated risk of cancer...
October 2016: Translational pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861489/characterizing-transcriptional-networks-in-male-rainbow-darter-etheostoma-caeruleum-that-regulate-testis-development-over-a-complete-reproductive-cycle
#12
Paulina A Bahamonde, Mark E McMaster, Mark R Servos, Christopher J Martyniuk, Kelly R Munkittrick
Intersex is a condition that has been associated with exposure to sewage effluents in male rainbow darter (Etheostoma caeruleum). To better understand changes in the transcriptome that are associated with intersex, we characterized annual changes in the testis transcriptome in wild, unexposed fish. Rainbow darter males were collected from the Grand River (Ontario, Canada) in May (spawning), August (post-spawning), October (recrudescence), January (developing) and March (pre-spawning). Histology was used to determine the proportion of spermatogenic cell types that were present during each period of testicular maturation...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823735/long-term-health-issues-related-to-disorders-or-differences-in-sex-development-intersex
#13
REVIEW
Jennifer M Beale, Sarah M Creighton
DSD (Disorders or Differences in Sex Development) and Intersex are terms used to describe a diverse group of congenital conditions where the development of the reproductive system is different from what is usually expected. These conditions usually present at birth or adolescence and the health implications are wide ranging and often life-long. Given the complexity of many of the conditions, health care input when required should be provided by a multidisciplinary team who have appropriate expertise. Holistic care should include the consideration of the risk of cancer, prevention of osteoporosis, advice on hormones, sexual health and fertility options, and ongoing support in order to optimise quality of life and wellbeing...
December 2016: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810492/molecular-initiating-events-of-the-intersex-phenotype-low-dose-exposure-to-17%C3%AE-ethinylestradiol-rapidly-regulates-molecular-networks-associated-with-gonad-differentiation-in-the-adult-fathead-minnow-testis
#14
April Feswick, Jennifer R Loughery, Meghan A Isaacs, Kelly R Munkittrick, Christopher J Martyniuk
Intersex, or the presence of oocytes in the testes, has been documented in fish following exposure to wastewater effluent and estrogenic compounds. However, the molecular networks underlying the intersex condition are not completely known. To address this, we exposed male fathead minnows to a low, environmentally-relevant concentration of 17alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2) (15ng/L) and measured the transcriptome response in the testis after 96h to identify early molecular initiating events that may proceed the intersex condition...
December 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785439/malignancy-in-disorders-of-sex-development
#15
REVIEW
Martin Kathrins, Thomas F Kolon
Disorders of sex development (DSD) represent a spectrum of conditions in which chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomic sex are atypical and affect 1 in 4,500-5,000 live births. The diagnosis of DSD raises concerns of tumor risk and treatment as well as future fertility preservation. We review the current understanding of the types of gonadal tumors that arise in DSD patients as well as possible markers and treatment. The goal is to inform the members of the DSD team (urologist, endocrinologist, geneticist, psychologist) of the latest findings regarding malignancy in DSD...
October 2016: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776151/an-assessment-of-the-spatial-and-temporal-variability-of-biological-responses-to-municipal-wastewater-effluent-in-rainbow-darter-etheostoma-caeruleum-collected-along-an-urban-gradient
#16
Meghan L M Fuzzen, Leslie M Bragg, Gerald R Tetreault, Paulina A Bahamonde, Rajiv N Tanna, Charles J Bennett, Mark E McMaster, Mark R Servos
Municipal wastewater effluent (MWWE) and its constituents, such as chemicals of emerging concern, pose a potential threat to the sustainability of fish populations by disrupting key endocrine functions in aquatic organisms. While studies have demonstrated changes in biological markers of exposure of aquatic organisms to groups of chemicals of emerging concern, the variability of these markers over time has not been sufficiently described in wild fish species. The aim of this study was to assess the spatial and temporal variability of biological markers in response to MWWE exposure and to test the consistency of these responses between seasons and among years...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749265/occurrence-of-intersex-in-wild-freshwater-fish-in-slovenian-rivers-a-histological-evaluation
#17
Milka Vrecl, Vlasta Jenčič
The aim of this preliminary research was to establish if there are intersex occurrences in wild freshwater fish in Slovenian rivers and streams. In the first study we evaluated all fish species of both sexes obtained from the river Ljubljanica from its source to mouth. In the second study we focused on the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brown trout (Salmo trutta m. fario) males from 30 rivers and streams in different parts of Slovenia. The male gonads were histologically assessed for the presence of oocytes to determine the frequency and degree of intersex...
September 1, 2016: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685752/editorial-being-responsive-promoting-lgbti-health-and-well-being
#18
Calvin Moorley, Stephen Neville, Joy Johnson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 29, 2016: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677267/syndrome-related-stigma-in-the-general-social-environment-as-reported-by-women-with-classical-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia
#19
Heino F L Meyer-Bahlburg, Jazmin A Reyes-Portillo, Jananne Khuri, Anke A Ehrhardt, Maria I New
Stigma defined as "undesired differentness" (Goffman, 1963) and subtyped as "experienced" or "enacted," "anticipated," and "internalized" has been documented for patients with diverse chronic diseases. However, no systematic data exist on the association of stigma with somatic intersexuality. The current report concerns women with classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), the most prevalent intersex syndrome, and provides descriptive data on CAH-related stigma as experienced in the general social environment (excluding medical settings and romantic/sexual partners) during childhood, adolescence, and adulthood...
September 27, 2016: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660460/the-increasing-prevalence-in-intersex-variation-from-toxicological-dysregulation-in-fetal-reproductive-tissue-differentiation-and-development-by-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals
#20
REVIEW
Alisa L Rich, Laura M Phipps, Sweta Tiwari, Hemanth Rudraraju, Philip O Dokpesi
An increasing number of children are born with intersex variation (IV; ambiguous genitalia/hermaphrodite, pseudohermaphroditism, etc.). Evidence shows that endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the environment can cause reproductive variation through dysregulation of normal reproductive tissue differentiation, growth, and maturation if the fetus is exposed to EDCs during critical developmental times in utero. Animal studies support fish and reptile embryos exhibited IV and sex reversal when exposed to EDCs...
2016: Environmental Health Insights
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