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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025994/loci-associated-with-skin-pigmentation-identified-in-african-populations
#1
Nicholas G Crawford, Derek E Kelly, Matthew E B Hansen, Marcia H Beltrame, Shaohua Fan, Shanna L Bowman, Ethan Jewett, Alessia Ranciaro, Simon Thompson, Yancy Lo, Susanne P Pfeifer, Jeffrey D Jensen, Michael C Campbell, William Beggs, Farhad Hormozdiari, Sununguko Wata Mpoloka, Gaonyadiwe George Mokone, Thomas Nyambo, Dawit Wolde Meskel, Gurja Belay, Jake Haut, Harriet Rothschild, Leonard Zon, Yi Zhou, Michael A Kovacs, Mai Xu, Tongwu Zhang, Kevin Bishop, Jason Sinclair, Cecilia Rivas, Eugene Elliot, Jiyeon Choi, Shengchao A Li, Belynda Hicks, Shawn Burgess, Christian Abnet, Dawn E Watkins-Chow, Elena Oceana, Yun S Song, Eleazar Eskin, Kevin M Brown, Michael S Marks, Stacie K Loftus, William J Pavan, Meredith Yeager, Stephen Chanock, Sarah Tishkoff
Despite the wide range of skin pigmentation in humans, little is known about its genetic basis in global populations. Examining ethnically diverse African genomes, we identify variants in or near SLC24A5, MFSD12, DDB1, TMEM138, OCA2 and HERC2 that are significantly associated with skin pigmentation. Genetic evidence indicates that the light pigmentation variant at SLC24A5 was introduced into East Africa by gene flow from non-Africans. At all other loci, variants associated with dark pigmentation in Africans are identical by descent in southern Asian and Australo-Melanesian populations...
October 12, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021710/melanogenesis-inhibition-activity-of-floralginsenoside-a-from-panax-ginseng-berry
#2
Dae Young Lee, Jongsung Lee, Yong Tae Jeong, Geon Hee Byun, Jin Hee Kim
BACKGROUND: Panax ginseng is a traditional herb used for medicinal purposes in eastern Asia. P. ginseng contains various ginsenosides with pharmacological effects. In this study, floralginsenoside A (FGA), ginsenoside Rd (GRD), and ginsenoside Re (GRE) were purified from P. ginseng berry. METHODS: Chemical structures of FGA, GRD, and GRE were determined based on spectroscopic methods, including fast atom bombardment mass spectroscopy, ID-nuclear magnetic resonance, and infrared spectroscopy...
October 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020973/the-%C3%AE-melanocyte-stimulating-hormone-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-pathway-down-regulates-proliferation-in-melanoma-cell-lines
#3
Enrica Flori, Eleonora Rosati, Giorgia Cardinali, Daniela Kovacs, Barbara Bellei, Mauro Picardo, Vittoria Maresca
BACKGROUND: The α-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone (αMSH)/Melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) interaction promotes melanogenesis through the cAMP/PKA pathway. The direct induction of this pathway by Forskolin (FSK) is also known to enhance melanocyte proliferation. αMSH acts as a mitogenic agent in melanocytes and its effect on proliferation of melanoma cells is less known. We previously identified the αMSH/Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor (PPARγ) pathway as a new pathway on the B16-F10 mouse melanoma cell line...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019940/effects-of-extremely-low-frequency-electromagnetic-fields-on-melanogenesis-through-p-erk-and-p-sapk-jnk-pathways-in-human-melanocytes
#4
Yu-Mi Kim, Sang-Eun Cho, Soo-Chan Kim, Hyun-Joon Jang, Young-Kwon Seo
This study evaluated frequency-dependent effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) on melanogenesis by melanocytes in vitro. Melanocytes were exposed to 2 mT EMFs at 30-75 Hz for 3 days before melanogenesis was examined. Exposure to ELF-EMFs at 50 and 60 Hz induced melanogenic maturation without cell damage, without changing cell proliferation and mitochondrial activity. Melanin content and tyrosinase activity of cells exposed to 50 Hz were higher than in controls, and mRNA expression of tyrosinase-related protein-2 was elevated relative to controls at 50 Hz...
October 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019920/pratol-an-o-methylated-flavone-induces-melanogenesis-in-b16f10-melanoma-cells-via-p-p38-and-p-jnk-upregulation
#5
You Chul Chung, Seoyeon Kim, Jin Hwa Kim, Geun Soo Lee, Jung No Lee, Nam Ho Lee, Chang-Gu Hyun
Tyrosinase is the rate-limiting enzyme critical for melanin synthesis. It controls pigmentation in the skin. Activation of tyrosinase is currently the most common approach in the development of tanning and haircare products. Pratol is a 7-hydroxy-4-methoxyflavone found in Trifoliumpratense. In this study, we investigated the effects of pratol on melanogenesis. We also studied the mechanism of action of pratol in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells. The cells were treated with various concentrations (6.25, 12.5, 25, and 50 μM) of pratol to observe its effects...
October 11, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993145/an-inhibitory-mechanism-of-action-of-a-novel-syringic-acid-derivative-on-%C3%AE-melanocyte-stimulating-hormone-%C3%AE-msh-induced-melanogenesis
#6
Yoon Ju Jeong, Jae-Young Lee, Jino Park, Soo Nam Park
AIMS: To report the effects of a novel syringic-acid derivative, (R)-ethyl-2-acetamido-3-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzoylthio)propanoate (EABTO), on melanin synthesis and to identify its mechanism of action in B16F1 melanoma cells. METHODS: The effects of EABTO on melanin synthesis in B16F1 cells and human epidermal melanocytes and the influence on cell-free tyrosinase activity were evaluated. EABTO-induced cellular signaling cascades were studied by western blotting...
October 6, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989535/investigating-the-microrna-mrna-regulatory-network-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#7
Haiguo Zhang, Chengfang Zhang, Rui Feng, Haixia Zhang, Min Gao, Ling Ye
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a common myelogenous malignancy in adults that is often characterized by disease relapse. The pathophysiological mechanism of AML has not yet been elucidated. The present study aimed to identify the crucial microRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) and target genes in AML, and to uncover the potential oncogenic mechanism of AML. miRNA and mRNA expression-profiling microarray datasets were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Differential expression analysis was performed and a regulatory network between miRNAs and target genes was constructed...
October 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981602/inhibition-of-collagenase-and-melanogenesis-by-ethanol-extracts-of-orostachys-japonicus-a-berger-possible-involvement-of-erk-and-akt-signaling-pathways-in-melanoma-cells
#8
Dai Sig Im, Jong-Min Lee, Jongsung Lee, Hye Jin Shin, Kyoung Tai No, See-Hyoung Park, Kiyoung Kim
Orostachys japonicus is an herb that contains several functional components and has traditionally been used to treat various diseases in Asia. In this study, bioactive components from different parts of the O. japonicus plant were investigated, and the contents of the functional components in ethanol extracts of O. japonicus cultivated in Korea and China were compared. The antioxidant effects of O. japonicus ethanol extracts were investigated using Raw 264.7 cells. It was found that 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity was significantly decreased in the cells treated with the extracts...
October 1, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964717/enpp1-mutation-causes-recessive-cole-disease-by-altering-melanogenesis
#9
Marwa Chourabi, Mei Shan Liew, Shawn Lim, Dorra H'mida-Ben Brahim, Lobna Boussofara, Liang Dai, Pui Mun Wong, Jia Nee Foo, Badreddine Sriha, Kim Samirah Robinson, Simon Denil, John Ea Common, Ons Mamaï, Youcef Ben Khalifa, Mathieu Bollen, Jianjun Liu, Mohamed Denguezli, Carine Bonnard, Ali Saad, Bruno Reversade
Cole disease is a genodermatosis of pigmentation following a strict dominant mode of inheritance. In this study we investigated eight patients affected with an overlapping genodermatosis following recessive inheritance. The patients presented with hypo- and hyper-pigmented macules over the body, resembling dyschromatosis universalis hereditaria in addition to punctuate palmoplantar keratosis. By homozygosity mapping and whole-exome sequencing, a biallelic p.Cys120Arg mutation in Ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (ENPP1) was identified in all patients...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964634/synthesis-biological-evaluation-and-metabolic-stability-of-chlorogenic-acid-derivatives-possessing-thiazole-as-potent-inhibitors-of-%C3%AE-msh-stimulated-melanogenesis
#10
Hyeju Jo, Yuanyuan Zhou, Mayavan Viji, Minho Choi, Jae Young Lim, Jaeuk Sim, Jeongtae Rhee, Youngsoo Kim, Seung-Yong Seo, Wun-Jae Kim, Jin Tae Hong, Heesoon Lee, Kiho Lee, Jae-Kyung Jung
A series of catechol and dioxolane analogs containing thiazole CGA derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated for their inhibitory activity against α-MSH. The inhibitory activity was improved by replacing an α,β-unsaturated carbonyl of previously reported caffeamides with thiazole motif. Surprisingly, compound 7d, one of the derivatives of dioxolane analogs, displayed the most potent inhibitory activity with an IC50 of 0.90μM. Further studies on metabolic stability and bioactivation potential were also accomplished...
September 21, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963476/comparative-transcriptome-analysis-of-mink-neovison-vison-skin-reveals-the-key-genes-involved-in-the-melanogenesis-of-black-and-white-coat-colour
#11
Xingchao Song, Chao Xu, Zongyue Liu, Zhigang Yue, Linling Liu, Tongao Yang, Bo Cong, Fuhe Yang
Farmed mink (Neovison vison) is one of the most important fur-bearing species worldwide, and coat colour is a crucial qualitative characteristic that contributes to the economic value of the fur. To identify additional genes that may play important roles in coat colour regulation, Illumina/Solexa high-throughput sequencing technology was used to catalogue the global gene expression profiles in mink skin with two different coat colours (black and white). RNA-seq analysis indicated that a total of 12,557 genes were differentially expressed in black versus white minks, with 3,530 genes up-regulated and 9,027 genes down-regulated in black minks...
September 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963068/the-role-of-nitric-oxide-in-melanoma
#12
REVIEW
Keerthi Yarlagadda, John Hassani, Isaac P Foote, Joseph Markowitz
Nitric oxide (NO) is a small gaseous signaling molecule that mediates its effects in melanoma through free radical formation and enzymatic processes. Investigations have demonstrated multiple roles for NO in melanoma pathology via immune surveillance, apoptosis, angiogenesis, melanogenesis, and on the melanoma cell itself. In general, elevated levels of NO prognosticate a poor outcome for melanoma patients. However, there are processes where the relative concentration of NO in different environments may also serve to limit melanoma proliferation...
September 26, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960771/biological-activities-of-phenolics-from-the-fruits-of-phyllanthus-emblica-linn-euphorbiaceae
#13
Jie Zhang, Dan Miao, Wan-Fang Zhu, Jian Xu, Wen-Yuan Liu, Worapong Kitdamrongtham, Jiradej Manosroi, Masahika Abe, Toshihiro Akihisa, Feng Feng
Seven phenolic compounds, 1 - 7, including a new organic acid gallate, mucic acid 1-ethyl 6-methyl ester 2-O-gallate (7) were isolated from the MeOH extract of the fruits of Phyllanthus emblica Linn. (Euphorbiaceae). The structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis and comparison with literature data. Upon evaluated for their antioxidant abilities by DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays. The inhibitory activities against melanogenesis in B16 melanoma cells induced by α-MSH, as well as cytotoxic activities against four human cancer cell lines were also evaluated...
September 27, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943528/scopoletin-stimulates-melanogenesis-via-camp-pka-pathway-and-partially-p38-activation
#14
Dae-Sung Kim, Su-Bin Cha, Min-Cheol Park, Seol-A Park, Hye-Soo Kim, Won-Hong Woo, Yeun-Ja Mun
Scopoletin was recently shown to stimulate melanogenesis through cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation. In this study, we investigated the molecular events of melanogenesis-induced by scopoletin. After exposure to scopoletin, the protein levels of tyrosinase and tyrosianse related protein-1 (TRP-1) were significantly increased in B16F10 cells. The mRNA levels of tyrosinase and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) were also enhanced by scopoletin. cAMP production and phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) were increased by scopoletin treatment...
September 22, 2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919486/resveratrol-inhibits-proliferation-promotes-differentiation-and-melanogenesis-in-ht-144-melanoma-cells-through-inhibition-of-mek-erk-kinase-pathway
#15
Ming-Jun Lei, Yao Dong, Chun-Xia Sun, Xiang-Hong Zhang
The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of resveratrol on the viability of HT-144 melanoma cells and formation of melanin. MTT assay was used for analysis of cell viability and western blot for determination of phospho-Mek 1/2, phospho-Erk 1/2 (Tyr-204), Mitf, PBG-D and p-CREB-1 expression. MTT assay results showed that treatment of HT-144 cells with various doses of resveratrol led to a concentration dependent inhibition of proliferation. The antiproliferative activity was significant at 15 μM concentration of resveratrol after 24 h...
October 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915638/oleoylethanolamide-inhibits-%C3%AE-melanocyte-stimulating-hormone-stimulated-melanogenesis-via-erk-akt-and-creb-signaling-pathways-in-b16-melanoma-cells
#16
Juan Zhou, Tong Ren, Ying Li, Anran Cheng, Wanyi Xie, Lanxi Xu, Lu Peng, Jinbin Lin, Lianxiang Lian, Yong Diao, Xin Jin, Lichao Yang
The present study aimed to examine the potential inhibitory activity of oleoylethanolamide (OEA) on α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH)-stimulated melanogenesis and the molecular mechanism(s) involved in the process in B16 mouse melanoma cells. Our data demonstrated that OEA markedly inhibited melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in α-MSH-stimulated B16 cells. In addition, the expression of melanogenesis-related proteins, such as melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R), microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1) and tyrosinase, was suppressed in a concentration-dependent manner by OEA...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911859/recent-development-of-signaling-pathways-inhibitors-of-melanogenesis
#17
REVIEW
Thanigaimalai Pillaiyar, Manoj Manickam, Sang-Hun Jung
Human skin, eye and hair color rely on the production of melanin, depending on its quantity, quality, and distribution, Melanin plays a monumental role in protecting the skin against the harmful effect of ultraviolet radiation and oxidative stress from various environmental pollutants. However, an excessive production of melanin causes serious dermatological problems such as freckles, solar lentigo (age spots), melasma, as well as cancer. Hence, the regulation of melanin production is important for controlling the hyper-pigmentation...
September 12, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902505/activation-mechanism-of-the-streptomyces-tyrosinase-assisted-by-the-caddie-protein
#18
Yasuyuki Matoba, Shogo Kihara, Yoshimi Muraki, Naohiko Bando, Hironari Yoshitsu, Teruo Kuroda, Miyuki Sakaguchi, Kure'e Kayama, Hulin Tai, Shun Hirota, Takashi Ogura, Masanori Sugiyama
Tyrosinase (EC 1.14.18.1), which possesses two copper ions at the active center, catalyzes a rate-limiting reaction of melanogenesis, that is, the conversion of a phenol to the corresponding ortho-quinone. The enzyme from the genus Streptomyces is generated as a complex with a "caddie" protein that assists the transport of two copper ions into the active center. In this complex, the Tyr(98) residue in the caddie protein was found to be accommodated in the pocket of the active center of tyrosinase, probably in a manner similar to that of l-tyrosine as a genuine substrate of tyrosinase...
October 17, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891677/genetic-variation-in-the-mitf-promoter-affects-skin-colour-and-transcriptional-activity-in-black-boned-chickens
#19
G Wang, J Liao, M Tang, S Yu
1. Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) plays a pivotal role in melanocyte development by regulating the transcription of major pigmentation enzymes (e.g. TYR, TYRP1 and DCT). A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), c.-638T>C, was identified in the MITF promoter, and genotyping of a population (n = 426) revealed that SNP c.-638T>C was associated with skin colour in black-boned chickens. 2. Individuals with genotypes CC and TC exhibited greater MTIF expression than those with genotype TT...
October 17, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880852/rna-sequencing-uncovers-molecular-mechanisms-underlying-pathological-complete-response-to-chemotherapy-in-patients-with-operable-breast-cancer
#20
Yongfeng Li, Xiaozhen Liu, Hongchao Tang, Hongjian Yang, Xuli Meng
BACKGROUND This study aimed to identify key genes contributing to pathological complete response (pCR) to chemotherapy by mRNA sequencing (RNA-seq). MATERIAL AND METHODS RNA was extracted from the frozen biopsy tissue of patients with pathological complete response and patients with non-pathological complete response. Sequencing was performed on the HiSeq2000 platform. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between the pCR group and non-pCR (NpCR) group. Pathway enrichment analysis of DEGs was performed...
September 7, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
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