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Wenguang Li
Strain energy-based constitutive laws with damage effect were proposed by using existing both uniaxial tensile test and tubular biaxial inflation test data on the human great saphenous vein (GSV) segments. These laws were applied into GSV coronary artery bypass grafts (CABG) by employing a thin-walled vessel model to evaluate their passive biomechanical performance under coronary artery physiological conditions at a fixed axial pre-stretch. At a peak systolic pressure in 100-150 mmHg, a 20-33% GSV diameter dilation was predicted with the law based on tubular biaxial inflation test data and agreed well with 25% dilation in clinical observation in comparison with as small as 2-4% dilation estimated with the law based on uniaxial tensile test data...
February 23, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
M C Sorrentino, F Capozzi, C Amitrano, S Giordano, C Arena, V Spagnuolo
In the present work the cytomorphological and physiological effects on three cardoon cultivars - Sardo, Siciliano, Spagnolo - grown in a metal-polluted soil, were investigated, to assess the traits concurring to the high tolerance to metal stress observed in cv. Spagnolo compared to the other two cultivars. The plants were grown for one month on a real polluted soil collected at a dismantling battery plant, highly enriched by heavy metals, especially Cd and Pb, and their leaves were analyzed by a multidisciplinary approach...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Fangjie Cao, Peizhuo Wu, Lan Huang, Hui Li, Le Qian, Sen Pang, Lihong Qiu
Previous study indicated that azoxystrobin had high acute toxicity to zebrafish, and larval zebrafish were more sensitive to azoxystrobin than adult zebrafish. The objective of the present study was to investigate short-term developmental effects and potential mechanisms of azoxystrobin in larval and adult zebrafish. After zebrafish embryos and adults were exposed to 0.01, 0.05 and 0.20 mg/L azoxystrobin (equal to 25, 124 and 496 nM azoxystrobin, respectively) for 8 days, the lethal effect, physiological responses, liver histology, mitochondrial ultrastructure, and expression alteration of genes related to mitochondrial respiration, oxidative stress, cell apoptosis and innate immune response were determined...
March 6, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
John R Fedota, Xiaoyu Ding, Allison L Matous, Betty Jo Salmeron, Michael R McKenna, Hong Gu, Thomas J Ross, Elliot A Stein
BACKGROUND: Insular subdivisions show distinct patterns of resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) with specific brain regions, each with different functional significance. Seeds in these subdivisions are employed to characterize the effects of acute nicotine abstinence on rsFC between insula subdivisions and brain networks implicated in addiction and attentional control. METHODS: In a within-subjects design, resting-state blood oxygen level-dependent data were collected from treatment-seeking smokers (N= 20) following smoking satiety and again following 48 hours of nicotine abstinence...
February 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Anne-Laure Nivet, Isabelle Dufort, Isabelle Gilbert, Marc-André Sirard
In reproduction, FSH is one of the most important hormones, especially in females, because it controls the number of follicles and the rate of follicular growth. Although several studies have examined the follicular response at the transcriptome level, it is difficult to obtain a clear and complete picture of the genes responding to an increase in FSH in an in vivo context because follicles undergo rapid morphological and physical changes during their growth. To help define the transcriptome downstream response to FSH, an in vitro model was used in the present study to observe the short-term (4h) cellular response...
March 13, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Dechao Xu, Jiayi Lv, Liangliang He, Lili Fu, Ruikun Hu, Ying Cao, Changlin Mei
Polarity complexes, including the PAR (Partitioning-defective), CRB (Crumbs) and SCRIB (Scribble) complexes, are required for the physiologic establishment, stabilization, and maintenance of a functional apical-basolateral polarity. Inactivation of some of the polarity complexes results in cystic kidneys, and apical-basolateral polarity defects are commonly observed in autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD); however, little is known about the role that polarity complexes play in ADPKD. Here, we demonstrate that Scribble, a core protein of the SCRIB complex, is down-regulated in ADPKD cell lines and the zebrafish model of this disease ( pkd2 morphants)...
March 12, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Orestis G Andriotis, Sylvia Desissaire, Philipp J Thurner
Tissue hydration is well known to influence tissue mechanics and can be tuned via osmotic pressure. Collagen fibrils are nature's nanoscale building blocks to achieve biomechanical function in a broad range of biological tissues and across many species. Intrafibrillar covalent cross-links have long been thought to play pivotal role for collagen fibril elasticity, but predominantly at large, far from physiological, strains. Performing nanotensile experiments of collagen fibrils at varying hydration levels by adjusting osmotic pressure in situ during atomic force microscopy experiments, we show the power the intrafibrillar non-covalent interactions have for defining collagen fibril tensile elasticity at low fibril strains...
March 12, 2018: ACS Nano
Mohamed Elsherif, Mohammed Umair Hassan, Ali K Yetisen, Haider Butt
Phenylboronic acids (PBAs) have emerged as synthetic receptors that can reversibly bind to cis diols of glucose molecules. The incorporation of phenylboronic acids in hydrogels offer exclusive attributes as the binding process with glucose induces Donnan osmotic pressure resulting in volumetric changes in the matrix. However, their practical applications are hindered because of complex readout approaches and their time-consuming fabrication processes. Here, we demonstrate a microimprinting method to fabricate densely-packed concavities in phenylboronic acid functionalized hydrogel films...
March 12, 2018: ACS Nano
Lisa Haushofer
In the nineteenth century, food and diet became central to a public health increasingly focused on individual behavior and on the cost of sickness. Because of its potential to impact the economic uptake of food inside individual bodies, digestion became a crucial site of physiological investigation in this context. Out of physiological research on digestion emerged a group of medicinal food products based on digestive enzymes (then referred to as digestive ferments), so-called artificially digested foods. The paper examines the creation and significance of these products, focusing on the case of Benger's Food...
February 24, 2018: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
Sakshi Agarwal, Prabhakar Tiwari, Amar Deep, Saqib Kidwai, Shamba Gupta, Krishan Gopal Thakur, Ramandeep Singh
Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are bicistronic genetic modules that are ubiquitously present in bacterial genomes. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) genome encodes for 90 putative TA systems and these are considered to be associated with maintenance of bacterial genomic stability or its survival under unfavorable environment. Majority of these in Mtb have been annotated as belonging to the Virulence associated protein B and C (VapBC) family. However, their precise role in bacterial physiology has not been elucidated...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Brintha Parasumanna Girinathan, Junjun Ou, Bruno Dupuy, Revathi Govind
Clostridium difficile is the primary cause of nosocomial diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. It produces dormant spores, which serve as an infectious vehicle responsible for transmission of the disease and persistence of the organism in the environment. In Bacillus subtilis, the sin locus coding SinR (113 aa) and SinI (57 aa) is responsible for sporulation inhibition. In B. subtilis, SinR mainly acts as a repressor of its target genes to control sporulation, biofilm formation, and autolysis. SinI is an inhibitor of SinR, so their interaction determines whether SinR can inhibit its target gene expression...
March 12, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Patrick Grüneberg, Hideki Kadone, Naomi Kuramoto, Tomoyuki Ueno, Yasushi Hada, Masashi Yamazaki, Yoshiyuki Sankai, Kenji Suzuki
Humans employ various control strategies to initiate and maintain bodily movement. In case that the normal gait function is impaired, exoskeleton robots provide motor assistance during therapy. While the robotic control system builds on kinematic gait functions, the patient's voluntary efforts to initiate motion also contribute to the effectiveness of the therapy process. However, it is currently not well understood how voluntary initiation as a subjective capacity affects the physiological level of motor control...
2018: PloS One
Hao Ge, Pingping Wu, Hong Qian, Sunney Xiaoliang Xie
Within an isogenic population, even in the same extracellular environment, individual cells can exhibit various phenotypic states. The exact role of stochastic gene-state switching regulating the transition among these phenotypic states in a single cell is not fully understood, especially in the presence of positive feedback. Recent high-precision single-cell measurements showed that, at least in bacteria, switching in gene states is slow relative to the typical rates of active transcription and translation...
March 12, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Julie G Arenberg, Wendy S Parkinson, Leonid Litvak, Chen Chen, Heather A Kreft, Andrew J Oxenham
OBJECTIVES: The standard, monopolar (MP) electrode configuration used in commercially available cochlear implants (CI) creates a broad electrical field, which can lead to unwanted channel interactions. Use of more focused configurations, such as tripolar and phased array, has led to mixed results for improving speech understanding. The purpose of the present study was to assess the efficacy of a physiologically inspired configuration called dynamic focusing, using focused tripolar stimulation at low levels and less focused stimulation at high levels...
March 9, 2018: Ear and Hearing
Kenji Kuzuhara, Kanako Katai, Tatsuya Hojo, Yoshihiko Fujisawa, Misaka Kimura, Yasuyoshi Yanagida, Yosuke Yamada, Junta Iguchi
Well-controlled seasonal distribution of training intensity appears to be an important variable for endurance athletes' success as competitors and/or for avoidance of overtraining. The aim of this study was to examine the interrelationships of training distribution, body composition, energy intake/expenditure, and rowing ergometer performance throughout the 2012-2013 season. In the present study of 15 collegiate male rowers, most of whom started rowing during their time at the university, we divided the 2012-2013 season (total 37 weeks) into 3 phases (off-season, December to mid-March, 16 weeks; pre-season, late March to April, 5 weeks; and in-season, May to August, 16 weeks) and analyzed the transition of 2000-m rowing ergometer time, training intensity/volume, body composition (body weight and body fat) and energy intake/expenditure in each phase...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Georgia Brown, Tilman Humpl
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pulmonary vascular disease (PVD) complicates the course of many cardiovascular, pulmonary and other systemic diseases in children. The physiological sequelae (pulmonary hypertension and elevated pulmonary vascular resistance) can overwhelm the right ventricle and lead to circulatory collapse. Despite the common end-point, the preceding pathophysiology is complex and variable and requires a tailored approach to diagnosis and management. In this article, we will review the most recent evidence and explore an approach to current controversies in the diagnosis and management of common or challenging patient subgroups...
March 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Kevin F Elwood, Robert W Wong
PURPOSE: To describe a case of transient, partial, central retinal artery occlusion with paracentral acute middle maculopathy optical coherence tomography presentation in a young healthy patient after ingestion of the synephrine-containing supplement, Havok. METHODS: Retrospective case report with fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography. RESULTS: A 20-year-old man presented with severe acute vision loss in the right eye...
March 8, 2018: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
Hitomi Mukaibo, Tonghui Wang, Victor H Perez-Gonzalez, Jirachai Getpreecharsawas, Jack T Wurzer, Blanca Lapizco-Encinas, James L McGrath
Insulator-based dielectrophoresis (iDEP) is a simple, scalable mechanism that can be used for directly manipulating particle trajectories in pore-based filtration and separation processes. However, iDEP manipulation of nanoparticles presents unique challenges as the dielectrophoretic force (<b><i>F</i></b><sub>DEP</sub>) exerted on the nanoparticles can easily be overshadowed by opposing kinetic forces. In this study, a molecularly thin, SiN-based nanoporous membrane (NPN) is explored as a breakthrough technology that enhances <b><i>F</i></b><sub>DEP</sub>...
March 12, 2018: Nanotechnology
Sedigheh Asgary, Ali Rastqar, Mahtab Keshvari
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is now the leading cause of death globally and is a growing health concern. Lifestyle factors, including nutrition, play an important role in the etiology and treatment of CVD. Functional foods based on their basic nutritional functions can decrease the risk of many chronic diseases and have some physiological benefits. They contain physiologically active components either from plant or animal sources, marketed with the claim of their ability to reduce heart disease risk, focusing primarily on established risk factors, which are hyperlipidemia, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, obesity/overweight, elevated lipoprotein A level, small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and elevated inflammatory marker levels...
March 12, 2018: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
Shyam Kumar, Ulhas Sonar, Iqbal Singh
The incidence of fragility fractures of the humerus is increasing worldwide. Although clinicians are aware of fractures of hips and wrists, fractures of the shoulder and elbow do not receive much attention. A considerable proportion of the elderly population (estimated at 10-24%) is dependent on walking aids. A well-functioning and pain-free shoulder and elbow is essential for use of these aids. The impact of loss of mobility in the elderly is well known, hence the overall impact of these fractures on the individual can be considerable...
March 2, 2018: British Journal of Hospital Medicine
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