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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458204/a-review-of-implantable-biosensors-for-closed-loop-glucose-control-and-other-drug-delivery-applications
#1
Kee Scholten, Ellis Meng
Closed-loop drug delivery promises autonomous control of pharmacotherapy through the continuous monitoring of biomarker levels. For decades, researchers have strived for portable closed-loop systems, capable of treating ambulatory patients with chronic conditions such as diabetes mellitus. After years of development, the first of these systems have left the laboratory and entered commercial use. This long-awaited advance reflects recent development of chronically stable implantable biosensors, able to accurately measure biomarker levels in vivo...
February 16, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457680/chronic-lead-exposure-enhances-the-sympathoexcitatory-response-associated-with-p2x4-receptor-in-rat-stellate-ganglia
#2
Gaochun Zhu, Zhenying Chen, Bo Dai, Chaoran Zheng, Huaide Jiang, Yurong Xu, Xuan Sheng, Jingjing Guo, Yu Dan, Shangdong Liang, Guilin Li
Chronic lead exposure causes peripheral sympathetic nerve stimulation, including increased blood pressure and heart rate. Purinergic receptors are involved in the sympathoexcitatory response induced by myocardial ischemia injury. However, whether P2X4 receptor participates in sympathoexcitatory response induced by chronic lead exposure and the possible mechanisms are still unknown. The aim of this study was to explore the change of the sympathoexcitatory response induced by chronic lead exposure via the P2X4 receptor in the stellate ganglion (SG)...
February 19, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457644/trajectories-of-frontal-brain-activity-and-socio-emotional-development-in-children
#3
Kristie L Poole, Diane L Santesso, Ryan J Van Lieshout, Louis A Schmidt
Asymmetric frontal brain activity is thought to reflect individual differences in approach- and avoidance-oriented motivation and emotional experience. Using a prospective longitudinal design, the authors investigated whether trajectories of frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) asymmetry in children (Mage = 6.39 years at enrollment) predicted subjective, behavioral, and autonomic indices of socioemotional processes. Resting frontal EEG activity was measured across four separate repeated assessments spanning approximately 2 years...
February 19, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457123/general-anesthesia-with-propofol-for-ovarian-teratoma-excision-associated-with-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis
#4
Masami Sato, Hiroaki Yasumoto, Toshiyuki Arai
Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is an autoimmune disorder caused by production of anti-NMDAR antibodies that is often associated with ovarian teratoma and exhibits various manifestations including psychiatric symptoms, seizures, hypoventilation, and autonomic nerve instability. Patients with this disorder who receive early surgical tumor resection along with immunotherapy have better outcome than the rest of the patients. To establish an anesthetic plan, it is important to understand the pharmacological interaction between the anesthetic agents and the disabled NMDAR, because NMDAR is one of the major sites of action for commonly-used anesthetic agents...
2018: JA Clin Rep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456512/local-injections-of-superoxide-dismutase-attenuate-the-exercise-pressor-reflex-in-rats-with-femoral-artery-occlusion
#5
Jihong Xing, Jian Lu, Jiahao Liu, Jianhua Li
The exercise pressor reflex is amplified in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) and in an experimental PAD model of rats induced by femoral artery occlusion. Heightened blood pressure worsens the restricted blood flow directed to the limbs in this disease. The purpose of this study was to determine the role played by muscle oxidative stress in regulating the augmented pressor response to static exercise in PAD. We hypothesized that limb ischemia impairs muscle superoxide dismutase (SOD) thereby leading to abnormal autonomic responsiveness observed in PAD animals, and a chronic compensation of SOD for anti-oxidation improves the exaggerated exercise pressor reflex...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456360/clinical-features-and-psychiatric-comorbidity-of-epicrania-fugax
#6
K Rammohan, M M Shyma, Soumitra Das, C Velayudhan Shaji
Background: Epicrania fugax (EF) is a rare newly described primary headache characterized by paroxysms of unilateral pain radiating across one hemicranium. Aim: We aimed to describe 10 new cases of EF and assess the psychiatric comorbidity. Materials and Methods: Cases of EF were identified from patients attending the neurology outpatient department of a tertiary level referral and teaching hospital by the first author during a period extending from January 1, 2015 to April 31, 2017...
January 2018: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455273/updates-on-device-based-therapies-for-patients-with-heart-failure
#7
REVIEW
Jad Al Danaf, Javed Butler, Amin Yehya
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Heart failure is a growing epidemic. Optimal medical therapy remains the cornerstone of heart failure management but device-based therapies have been shown to contribute to morbidity and mortality reduction. RECENT FINDINGS: Multiple investigational trials had been conducted in the past decade that helped us better understand and manage heart failure. In this manuscript, we will discuss the major device related trials of year 2017 in the fields of defibrillators, hemodynamic monitoring, remote monitoring, autonomic nervous system modulation, ventricular assist devices, and device-based valvular heart disease management...
February 17, 2018: Current Heart Failure Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454957/mixed-selectivity-encoding-and-action-selection-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-during-threat-assessment
#8
REVIEW
Itamar S Grunfeld, Ekaterina Likhtik
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) regulates expression of emotional behavior. The mPFC combines multivariate information from its inputs, and depending on the imminence of threat, activates downstream networks that either increase or decrease the expression of anxiety-related motor behavior and autonomic activation. Here, we selectively highlight how subcortical input to the mPFC from two example structures, the amygdala and ventral hippocampus, help shape mixed selectivity encoding and action selection during emotional processing...
February 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454733/characterization-of-fungus-microbial-diversity-in-healthy-and-diarrheal-yaks-in-gannan-region-of-tibet-autonomous-prefecture
#9
Kun Li, Khalid Mehmood, Hui Zhang, Xiong Jiang, Muhammad Shahzad, Xiaoqian Dong, Jiakui Li
Diarrhea is a serious epidemic in yaks on Qinghai Tibet plateau, but the exact pathogen is not confirmed. Diarrhea is related to the changes in diversity of intestinal flora. The current study herein is performed for high-throughput sequencing of fungus microbial diversity in healthy adult yaks, diarrheal adult yaks and diarrheal yak calves in Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture. A total 446726 optimized sequences were achieved. Over 250 OTUs in species level have been indentified for each sample. The Shannon and Simpson index revealed that there was no visible difference in the flora between different yak groups (p > 0...
February 15, 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454705/schwann-cell-precursor-a-neural-crest-cell-in-disguise
#10
REVIEW
Alessandro Furlan, Igor Adameyko
Schwann cell precursors (SCPs) are multipotent embryonic progenitors covering all developing peripheral nerves. These nerves grow and navigate with unprecedented precision, delivering SCP progenitors to almost all locations in the embryonic body. Within specific developing tissues, SCPs detach from nerves and generate neuroendocrine cells, autonomic neurons, mature Schwann cells, melanocytes and other cell types. These properties of SCPs evoke resemblances between them and their parental population, namely, neural crest cells...
February 15, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454642/moderate-financial-incentive-does-not-appear-to-influence-the-p300-concealed-information-test-cit-effect-in-the-complex-trial-protocol-ctp-version-of-the-cit-in-a-forensic-scenario-while-affecting-p300-peak-latencies-and-behavior
#11
J Peter Rosenfeld, Evan Sitar, Joshua Wasserman, Anne Ward
Previous research indicated that the skin conductance response (SCR) of the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) in the Concealed Information Test (CIT) is typically increased in subjects who are financially and otherwise incentivized to defeat the CIT (the paradoxical "motivational impairment" effect). This is not the case for RT-based CITs, nor for P300 tests based on the 3-stimulus protocol or Complex Trial Protocol for detection of cognitive malingering (although these are not the same as forensic CITs)...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454586/isolation-of-two-plasmids-pret1100-and-pret1200-from-rhodococcus-erythropolis-iam1400-and-construction-of-a-rhodococcus-escherichia-coli-shuttle-vector
#12
Ei-Tora Yamamura
With the aim of being able to co-express multiple genes, I searched for novel compatible plasmids and isolated two plasmid species, pRET1100 and pRET1200, from Rhodococcus erythropolis IAM1400. Sequencing analysis revealed that the pRET1100 plasmid is a double-stranded DNA molecule of 5444 bp with two possible open reading frames (ORFs), repT and div, and three minor ORFs. The cryptic replication protein, RepT, is not highly homologous to those from other plasmids that have been reported. The Rhodococcus-Escherichia coli shuttle vector pRET1102 was transformed into R...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454137/mechanisms-and-management-of-refractory-ventricular-arrhythmias-in-the-age-of-autonomic-modulation
#13
Jason S Bradfield, Olujimi A Ajijola, Marmar Vaseghi, Kalyanam Shivkumar
Ventricular arrhythmias are responsible for hundreds of thousands of deaths every year. Catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia (VT) is an essential component of the management of these life-threatening arrhythmias. However, in many patients, despite medical and interventional therapy, VT recurs. Further, some VT substrates (mid-myocardial, left ventricular summit, intra-septal) are not easily targeted, due to limitations of currently available technology. In certain clinical settings, ventricular fibrillation (VF) episodes that have premature ventricular contraction (PVC) triggers can also be targeted with catheter ablation...
February 14, 2018: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453832/living-donor-liver-transplantation-for-mild-zellweger-spectrum-disorder-up-to-17-years-follow-up
#14
Tanguy Demaret, Sharat Varma, Xavier Stephenne, Fran├žoise Smets, Isabelle Scheers, Ronald Wanders, Lionel Van Maldergem, Raymond Reding, Etienne Sokal
Mild Zellweger spectrum disorder, also described as Infantile Refsum disease, is attributable to mutations in PEX genes. Its clinical course is characterized by progressive hearing and vision loss, and neurodevelopmental regression. Supportive management is currently considered the standard of care, as no treatment has shown clinical benefits. LT was shown to correct levels of circulating toxic metabolites, partly responsible for chronic neurological impairment. Of three patients having undergone LT for mild ZSD, one died after LT, while the other two displayed significant neurodevelopmental improvement on both the long-term (17 years post-LT) and short-term (9 months post-LT) follow-up...
February 16, 2018: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453697/the-sacral-autonomic-outflow-is-parasympathetic-langley-got-it-right
#15
REVIEW
John P Horn
A recent developmental study of gene expression by Espinosa-Medina, Brunet and colleagues sparked controversy by asserting a revised nomenclature for divisions of the autonomic motor system. Should we re-classify the sacral autonomic outflow as sympathetic, as now suggested, or does it rightly belong to the parasympathetic system, as defined by Langley nearly 100 years ago? Arguments for rejecting Espinosa-Medina, Brunet et al.'s scheme subsequently appeared in e-letters and brief reviews. A more recent commentary in this journal by Brunet and colleagues responded to these criticisms by labeling Langley's scheme as a historical myth perpetuated by ignorance...
February 16, 2018: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453696/interrelationship-between-diabetes-mellitus-and-heart-failure-the-role-of-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptors-in-left-ventricle-performance
#16
REVIEW
Evangelos Oikonomou, Konstantinos Mourouzis, Petros Fountoulakis, Georgios Angelos Papamikroulis, Gerasimos Siasos, Alexis Antonopoulos, Georgia Vogiatzi, Sotiris Tsalamadris, Manolis Vavuranakis, Dimitris Tousoulis
Heart failure (HF) is a common cardiac syndrome, whose pathophysiology involves complex mechanisms, some of which remain unknown. Diabetes mellitus (DM) constitutes not only a glucose metabolic disorder accompanied by insulin resistance but also a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and HF. During the last years though emerging data set up, a bidirectional interrelationship between these two entities. In the case of DM impaired calcium homeostasis, free fatty acid metabolism, redox state, and advance glycation end products may accelerate cardiac dysfunction...
February 17, 2018: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453470/nerve-conduction-and-heart-rate-variability-in-patients-with-hypothyroidism-at-a-tertiary-care-centre-in-eastern-nepal
#17
Shital Gupta, Rita Khadka, Dilip Thakur, Robin Maskey, K D Mehta, B H H Paudel
INTRODUCTION: Thyroid hormone effects on many organs including central and peripheral nervous systems. However, these hormones do not affect all systems/organs to a similar extent. Thus, we conducted this study to explore the effect of thyroid hormones on somatic nervous system assessed by Nerve conduction study and cardiac autonomic activity assessed by heart rate variability. METHODS: The study included newly diagnosed hypothyroid patients and healthy controls...
October 2017: JNMA; Journal of the Nepal Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453396/bone-marrow-lympho-myeloid-malfunction-in-obesity-requires-precursor-cell-autonomous-tlr4
#18
Ailing Liu, Minhui Chen, Rashmi Kumar, Maja Stefanovic-Racic, Robert M O'Doherty, Ying Ding, Willi Jahnen-Dechent, Lisa Borghesi
Obesity, a prevalent condition in adults and children, impairs bone marrow (BM) function. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here, we show that obese mice exhibit poor emergency immune responses in a toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-dependent manner. Canonical myeloid genes (Csf1r, Spi1, Runx1) are enhanced, and lymphoid genes (Flt3, Tcf3, Ebf1) are reduced. Using adoptive transfer and mixed BM chimera approaches we demonstrate that myeloid>lymphoid bias arises after 6 weeks of high-fat diet and depends on precursor cell-autonomous TLR4...
February 16, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453306/acute-pressor-response-to-psychosocial-stress-is-dependent-on-endothelium-derived-endothelin-1
#19
Brandon M Fox, Bryan K Becker, Analia S Loria, Kelly A Hyndman, Chunhua Jin, Hannah Clark, Robin Johns, Masashi Yanagisawa, David M Pollock, Jennifer S Pollock
BACKGROUND: Acute psychosocial stress provokes increases in circulating endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels in humans and animal models. However, key questions about the physiological function and cellular source of stress-induced ET-1 remain unanswered. We hypothesized that endothelium-derived ET-1 contributes to the acute pressor response to stress via activation of the endothelin A receptor. METHODS AND RESULTS: Adult male vascular endothelium-specific ET-1 knockout mice and control mice that were homozygous for the floxed allele were exposed to acute psychosocial stress in the form of cage switch stress (CSS), with blood pressure measured by telemetry...
February 16, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453279/il-12-il-18-cosignaling-in-human-macrophages-and-lung-epithelial-cells-activates-cathelicidin-and-autophagy-inhibiting-intracellular-mycobacterial-growth
#20
Rui Yang, Enzhuo Yang, Ling Shen, Robert L Modlin, Hongbo Shen, Zheng W Chen
The ability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to block host antimicrobial responses in infected cells provides a key mechanism for disease pathogenesis. The immune system has evolved to overcome this blockade to restrict the infection, but it is not clear whether two key innate cytokines (IL-12/IL-18) involved in host defense can enhance antimycobacterial mechanisms. In this study, we demonstrated that the combination of IL-12 and IL-18 triggered an antimicrobial response against mycobacteria in infected macrophages (THP-1 and human primary monocyte-derived macrophages) and pulmonary epithelial A549 cells...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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