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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550792/social-stress-contagion-in-rats-behavioural-autonomic-and-neuroendocrine-correlates
#1
Luca Carnevali, Nicola Montano, Rosario Statello, Gino Coudé, Federica Vacondio, Silvia Rivara, Pier Francesco Ferrari, Andrea Sgoifo
The negative emotional consequences associated with life stress exposure in an individual can affect the emotional state of social partners. In this study, we describe an experimental rat model of social stress contagion and its effects on social behaviour and cardiac autonomic and neuroendocrine functions. Adult male Wistar rats were pair-housed and one animal (designated as "demonstrator" (DEM)) was submitted to either social defeat stress (STR) by an aggressive male Wild-type rat in a separate room or just exposed to an unfamiliar empty cage (control condition, CTR), once a day for 4 consecutive days...
May 20, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550263/microglial-and-neuronal-tdp-43-pathology-in-anti-iglon5-related-tauopathy
#2
Annachiara Cagnin, Sara Mariotto, Michele Fiorini, Marina Gaule, Nicola Bonetto, Matteo Tagliapietra, Emanuele Buratti, Gianluigi Zanusso, Sergio Ferrari, Salvatore Monaco
A novel neuronal tauopathy, mainly confined to hypothalamus and brainstem tegmentum, has recently been reported in patients with autoantibodies to the neuronal cell-adhesion molecule IgLON5. We describe a patient with anti-IgLON5 syndrome, who presented with dysautonomia and sleep disorder, followed by subacute dementia. Postmortem brain examination disclosed neuronal tau pathology prevailing in the hippocampus, amygdala, and locus coeruleus, in addition to microglial/neuronal TDP-43 pathology, with overexpression of aberrantly phosphorylated forms and neurotoxic truncated fragments, in basal ganglia, nucleus basalis, thalamus, and midbrain...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550171/%C3%AE-adrenergic-receptor-stimulation-inhibits-proarrhythmic-alternans-in-post-infarction-border-zone-cardiomyocytes-a-computational-analysis
#3
Jakub Tomek, Blanca Rodriguez, Gil Bub, Jordi Heijman
The border zone (BZ) of viable myocardium adjacent to an infarct undergoes extensive autonomic and electrical remodelling and is prone to repolarisation alternans-induced cardiac arrhythmias. BZ remodelling processes may promote or inhibit calcium and/or repolarisation alternans and may differentially affect ventricular arrhythmogenesis. Here, we employed a detailed computational model of the canine ventricular cardiomyocyte to study the determinants of alternans in the BZ and their regulation by β-adrenergic receptor (βAR) stimulation...
May 26, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550091/transgenic-expression-of-il15-improves-antiglioma-activity-of-il13ralpha2-car-t-cells-but-results-in-antigen-loss-variants
#4
Giedre Krenciute, Brooke L Prinzing, Zhongzhen Yi, Meng-Fen Wu, Hao Liu, Gianpietro Dotti, Irina V Balyasnikova, Stephen Gottschalk
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive primary brain tumor in adults and is virtually incurable with conventional therapies. Immunotherapy with T cells expressing GBM-specific chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) is an attractive approach to improve outcomes. Although CAR T cells targeting GBM antigens such as IL13Ralpha2 (interleukin 13 Receptor Subunit Alpha 2), HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2), and EGFRvIII (epidermal growth factor receptor variant III) have had antitumor activity in preclinical models, early phase clinical testing has demonstrated limited antiglioma activity...
May 26, 2017: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549782/central-trkb-blockade-attenuates-icv-angiotensin-ii-hypertension-and-sympathetic-nerve-activity-in-male-sprague-dawley-rats
#5
Bryan K Becker, Hanjun Wang, Irving H Zucker
Increased sympathetic nerve activity and the activation of the central renin-angiotensin system are commonly associated with cardiovascular disease states such as hypertension and heart failure, yet the precise mechanisms contributing to the long-term maintenance of this sympatho-excitation are incompletely understood. Due to the established physiological role of neurotrophins contributing toward neuroplasticity and neuronal excitability along with recent evidence linking the renin-angiotensin system and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) along with its receptor (TrkB), it is likely the two systems interact to promote sympatho-excitation during cardiovascular disease...
May 19, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549449/fatal-familial-insomnia-with-abnormal-signals-on-routine-mri-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#6
Tingting Lu, Yuhang Pan, Lisheng Peng, Feng Qin, Xiaobo Sun, Zhengqi Lu, Wei Qiu
BACKGROUND: Fatal familial insomnia (FFI) is a rare autosomal dominant disease caused by the PRNP D178N/129 M mutation. Routine brain CT and MRI usually reveal non-specific features. We report a patient with FFI presenting with diffuse abnormal signals on MRI, later confirmed as combined with cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL). CASE PRESENTATION: The patient was a 58-year-old female, whose main clinical manifestations were insomnia, movement disorders, autonomic hyperactivity and mental deterioration...
May 26, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549435/molecular-characterization-of-hemotropic-mycoplasmas-mycoplasma-ovis-and-candidatus-mycoplasma-haemovis-in-sheep-and-goats-in-china
#7
Xiaoxing Wang, Yanyan Cui, Yan Zhang, Ke Shi, Yaqun Yan, Fuchun Jian, Longxian Zhang, Rongjun Wang, Changshen Ning
BACKGROUND: Hemotropic mycoplasmas (hemoplasmas) are emerging zoonotic pathogens with a worldwide distribution that can cause mild to severe hemolytic anemia, icterus, ill-thrift, infertility, and poor weight gain. However, understanding of the molecular epidemiology of hemoplasmas (Mycoplasma ovis and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemovis') is limited in sheep and goats, and the hemoplasma strain/species/variant 'Candidatus M. haemovis' was poorly studied throughout the world and had never been detected in China until now...
May 26, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549245/analysis-of-heart-rate-variability-and-risk-factors-for-sudep-in-patients-with-drug-resistant-epilepsy
#8
Leyla Baysal-Kirac, Nail Güven Serbest, Erdi Şahin, Hava Özlem Dede, Candan Gürses, Ayşen Gökyiğit, Nerses Bebek, Ahmet Kaya Bilge, Betül Baykan
BACKGROUND: Cardiac problems have been suggested as causes of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). Our aim was to investigate possible associations of cardiac autonomic functions based on heart rate variability (HRV) parameters with risk factors of SUDEP in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. METHODS: Forty-seven patients with drug-resistant seizures and 45 healthy control subjects were enrolled in the study. Interictal time domain parameters of HRV were evaluated with 24-hour Holter recordings...
May 23, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549068/oligodendroglial-myelination-requires-astrocyte-derived-lipids
#9
Nutabi Camargo, Andrea Goudriaan, Anne-Lieke F van Deijk, Willem M Otte, Jos F Brouwers, Hans Lodder, David H Gutmann, Klaus-Armin Nave, Rick M Dijkhuizen, Huibert D Mansvelder, Roman Chrast, August B Smit, Mark H G Verheijen
In the vertebrate nervous system, myelination of axons for rapid impulse propagation requires the synthesis of large amounts of lipids and proteins by oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells. Myelin membranes are thought to be cell-autonomously assembled by these axon-associated glial cells. Here, we report the surprising finding that in normal brain development, a substantial fraction of the lipids incorporated into central nervous system (CNS) myelin are contributed by astrocytes. The oligodendrocyte-specific inactivation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) cleavage-activating protein (SCAP), an essential coactivator of the transcription factor SREBP and thus of lipid biosynthesis, resulted in significantly retarded CNS myelination; however, myelin appeared normal at 3 months of age...
May 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549065/c-elegans-daf-16-foxo-interacts-with-tgf-%C3%A3-bmp-signaling-to-induce-germline-tumor-formation-via-mtorc1-activation
#10
Wenjing Qi, Yijian Yan, Dietmar Pfeifer, Erika Donner V Gromoff, Yimin Wang, Wolfgang Maier, Ralf Baumeister
Activation of the FOXO transcription factor DAF-16 by reduced insulin/IGF signaling (IIS) is considered to be beneficial in C. elegans due to its ability to extend lifespan and to enhance stress resistance. In the germline, cell-autonomous DAF-16 activity prevents stem cell proliferation, thus acting tumor-suppressive. In contrast, hypodermal DAF-16 causes a tumorous germline phenotype characterized by hyperproliferation of the germline stem cells and rupture of the adjacent basement membrane. Here we show that cross-talk between DAF-16 and the transforming growth factor ß (TGFß)/bone morphogenic protein (BMP) signaling pathway causes germline hyperplasia and results in disruption of the basement membrane...
May 26, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548556/a-physical-education-intervention-effects-on-correlates-of-physical-activity-and-motivation
#11
Stephen E Palmer, Dierdra K Bycura, Meghan Warren
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to measure effects of a modified physical education (PE) unit on leisure time physical activity (LTPA), relative autonomy, and known correlates of LTPA in seventh-grade boys and girls. METHOD: A seventh-grade mountain biking unit was modified to include instructional activities targeting known correlates of PA behavior following principles of Physical Education Dedicated to Physical Activity for Life (PEDAL). A three-group design (intervention, standard PE, no PE) was employed...
May 1, 2017: Health Promotion Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548300/first-night-effect-on-cardiac-autonomic-function-in-different-female-reproductive-states
#12
Irina Virtanen, Nea Kalleinen, Anna S Urrila, Päivi Polo-Kantola
Decreases in heart rate variability, a marker of autonomic nervous system function, are associated with increased cardiovascular mortality. Heart rate variability increases in non-rapid eye movement sleep, peaking in slow-wave sleep. Therefore, decreasing the amount of deep sleep, for example, by introducing patients to a sleep laboratory environment, could decrease heart rate variability, increasing cardiovascular risk. We studied four groups of women with no previous sleep laboratory experience: young [n = 11, 23...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547815/balancing-the-autonomic-nervous-system-to-reduce-inflammation-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#13
F A Koopman, M A van Maanen, M J Vervoordeldonk, P P Tak
Imbalance in the autonomic nervous system (ANS) has been observed in many established chronic autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), which is a prototypic immune-mediated inflammatory disease (IMID). We recently discovered that autonomic dysfunction precedes and predicts arthritis development in subjects at risk of developing seropositive RA. In addition, RA patients with relatively high vagus nerve tone (higher parasympathetic parameters, measured by heart rate variability) respond better to antirheumatic therapies...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546911/graphene-based-polymer-bilayers-with-superior-light-driven-properties-for-remote-construction-of-3d-structures
#14
Zhenhua Tang, Ziwei Gao, Shuhai Jia, Fei Wang, Yonglin Wang
3D structure assembly in advanced functional materials is important for many areas of technology. Here, a new strategy exploits IR light-driven bilayer polymeric composites for autonomic origami assembly of 3D structures. The bilayer sheet comprises a passive layer of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) and an active layer comprising reduced graphene oxides (RGOs), thermally expanding microspheres (TEMs), and PDMS. The corresponding fabrication method is versatile and simple. Owing to the large volume expansion of the TEMs, the two layers exhibit large differences in their coefficients of thermal expansion...
May 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546591/the-healthcare-system-and-the-provision-of-oral-healthcare-in-european-union-member-states-part-8-italy
#15
M Bindi, C Paganelli, K A Eaton, E Widström
In Italy healthcare is provided for all Italian citizens and residents and it is delivered mainly by public providers, with some private or private-public entities. Italy's public healthcare system - the Servizio Sanitario Nazionale (SSN) - is organised by the Ministry of Health and administered on a devolved regional basis. It is financed by general taxation that provides universal coverage, largely free of charge at the point of service. The central government establishes the basic national health benefits package, which must be uniformly provided throughout the country, through services guaranteed under the NHS provision called LEA - (Livelli Essenziali di Assistenza [Essential Level of Assistance]) and allocates national funds to the regions...
May 26, 2017: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546285/anti-inflammatory-effects-and-mechanisms-of-vagal-nerve-stimulation-combined-with-electroacupuncture-in-a-rodent-model-of-tnbs-induced-colitis
#16
Haifeng Jin, Jie Guo, Jiemin Liu, Bin Lyu, Robert D Foreman, Jieyun Yin, Zhaohong Shi, Jiande Dz Chen
The purpose of this study was to determine effects and mechanisms of vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) and additive effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on colonic inflammation in a rodent model of IBD. Chronic inflammation in rats was induced by intrarectal TNBS (2,4,6-Trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid). The rats were then treated with sham-ES (electrical stimulation), VNS or VNS+EA for 3 weeks. Inflammatory responses were assessed by disease activity index (DAI), macroscopic scores and histological scores of colonic tissues, and plasma levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity of colonic tissues...
May 25, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546082/targeting-gpnmb-with-glembatumumab-vedotin-current-developments-and-future-opportunities-for-the-treatment-of-cancer
#17
REVIEW
April A N Rose, Marco Biondini, Rafael Curiel, Peter M Siegel
GPNMB has emerged as an immunomodulator and an important positive mediator of tumor progression and metastasis in numerous solid cancers. Tumor intrinsic GPNMB-mediated effects on cellular signaling, coupled with the ability of GPNMB to influence the primary tumor and metastatic microenvironments in a non-cell autonomous fashion, combine to augment malignant cancer phenotypes. In addition, GPNMB is often overexpressed in a variety of cancers, making it an attractive therapeutic target. In this regard, glembatumumab vedotin, an antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) that targets GPNMB, is currently in clinical trials as a single agent in multiple cancers...
May 22, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545861/characterization-of-autonomous-families-of-tc1-mariner-transposons-in-neoteleost-genomes
#18
Bo Gao, Wei Chen, Dan Shen, Saisai Wang, Cai Chen, Li Zhang, Wei Wang, Xiaoyan Wang, Chengyi Song
We report the comprehensive analysis of Tc1/mariner transposons in six species of neoteleost (cod, tetraodon, fugu, medaka, stickleback, and tilapia) for which draft sequences are available. In total, 33 Tc1/mariner families were identified in these neoteleost genomes, with 3-7 families in each species. Thirty of these are in full length and designed as autonomous families, and were classified into the DD34E (Tc1) and DD×D (pogo) groups. The DD34E (Tc1) group was further classified into five clusters (Passport-like, SB-like, Frog Prince-like, Minos-like, and Bari-like)...
May 22, 2017: Marine Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545487/inhaled-ambient-level-traffic-derived-particulates-decrease-cardiac-vagal-influence-and-baroreflexes-and-increase-arrhythmia-in-a-rat-model-of-metabolic-syndrome
#19
Alex P Carll, Samir M Crespo, Mauricio S Filho, Douglas H Zati, Brent A Coull, Edgar A Diaz, Rodrigo D Raimundo, Thomas N G Jaeger, Ana Laura Ricci-Vitor, Vasileios Papapostolou, Joy E Lawrence, David M Garner, Brigham S Perry, Jack R Harkema, John J Godleski
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have linked exposures to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and traffic with autonomic nervous system imbalance (ANS) and cardiac pathophysiology, especially in individuals with preexisting disease. It is unclear whether metabolic syndrome (MetS) increases susceptibility to the effects of PM2.5. We hypothesized that exposure to traffic-derived primary and secondary organic aerosols (P + SOA) at ambient levels would cause autonomic and cardiovascular dysfunction in rats exhibiting features of MetS...
May 25, 2017: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544861/social-buffering-of-stress-in-development-a-career-perspective
#20
Megan R Gunnar
This review provides a broad overview of my research group's work on social buffering in human development in the context of the field. Much of the focus is on social buffering of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system, one of the two major arms of the mammalian stress system. This focus reflects the centrality of the HPA system in research on social buffering in the fields of developmental psychobiology and developmental science. However, buffering of the cardiovascular and autonomic nervous system is also discussed...
May 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
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