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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909518/the-african-indigenous-lens-of-understanding-spirituality-reflection-on-key-emerging-concepts-from-a-reviewed-literature
#1
Chioma Ohajunwa, Gubela Mji
In this paper, we will present a reflection on reviewed literature on African indigenous understanding of spirituality, highlighting the influence of this concept on notions of the self, motivation and well-being. The indigenous understanding of spirituality is central to the understanding of the self as distinct, but positioned within the relational-collective self. This African indigenous perception of the self is grounded within the autonomous experience of the tenets of spirituality, which is explored in this paper through the lens of self-determination theory...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909334/robotic-bees-for-crop-pollination-why-drones-cannot-replace-biodiversity
#2
Simon G Potts, Peter Neumann, Bernard Vaissière, Nicolas J Vereecken
The notion that robotic crop pollination will solve the decline in pollinators has gained wide popularity recently (Fig. 1), and in March 2018 Walmart filed a patent for autonomous robot bees. However, w present six arguments showing that this is a technically and economically inviable 'solution' at present and poses substantial ecological and moral risks: (1) despite recent advances, robotic pollination is far from being able to replace bees to pollinate crops efficiently; (2) using robots is very unlikely to be economically viable; (3) there would be unacceptably high environmental costs; (4) wider ecosystems would be damaged; (5) it would erode the values of biodiversity; and, (6) relying on robotic pollination could actually lead to major food insecurity...
June 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908886/the-potential-role-of-substance-p-in-brainstem-homeostatic-control-in-the-pathogenesis-of-sudden-infant-death-syndrome-sids
#3
REVIEW
Fiona M Bright, Robert Vink, Roger W Byard
Victims of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) are believed to have an underlying dysfunction in medullary homeostatic control that impairs critical responses to life threatening challenges such as hypoxia, hypercarbia and asphyxia, often during a sleep period. This failure is thought to result from abnormalities in a network of neural pathways in the medulla oblongata that control respiration, chemosensitivity, autonomic function and arousal. Studies have mainly focused on the role of serotonin, 5-hydroxytyptamine (5HT), although the neuropeptide substance P (SP) has also been shown to play an integral role in the modulation of medullary homeostatic function, often in conjunction with 5-HT...
May 5, 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908771/cognitive-behavioral-therapy-improves-weight-loss-and-quality-of-life-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-a-pilot-randomized-clinical-trial
#4
Laura G Cooney, Lauren W Milman, Liisa Hantsoo, Sara Kornfield, Mary D Sammel, Kelly C Allison, C Neill Epperson, Anuja Dokras
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and lifestyle modification (LS) versus LS alone on weight, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and stress response in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), overweight/obesity, and depressive symptoms. DESIGN: A 16-week pilot randomized clinical trial. SETTING: Tertiary-care PCOS center. PATIENT(S): Overweight/obese women with PCOS and depressive symptoms...
June 13, 2018: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908394/system-on-chip-design-of-the-cortical-diencephalic-centre-of-the-lower-urinary-tract
#5
Francisco Maciá Pérez, Leandro Zambrano Méndez, José Vicente Berná Martínez, Roberto Sepúlveda Lima
This article presents the design of a field programmable gate array (FPGA)-based prototype of a system on chip (SoC) capable of behaving as one of the nerve centres comprising the neuroregulatory system in humans: the cortical-diencephalic nerve centre. The neuroregulatory system is a complex nerve system consisting of a heterogeneous group of nerve centres. These centres are distributed throughout the length of the spinal cord, are autonomous, communicate via interneurons, and govern and regulate the behaviour of multiple organs and systems in the human body...
June 13, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908059/autonomic-synchronization-team-coordination-participation-and-performance
#6
Stephen J Guastello, David E Marra, Anthony F Peressini, Julian Castro, Maribeth Gomez
The synchronization of autonomic arousal levels within dyads and larger teams has become a potentially important variable in the explanation of team performance and group processes. Synchronization research with groups of three or more members has been challenging because of limited means for quantifying relationships that are more extensive than dyads. This article presents an empirical investigation of group performance and participation using a new synchronization coefficient that is grounded in nonlinear dynamical systems theory...
July 2018: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907667/symptoms-of-autonomic-dysfunction-in-systemic-sclerosis-assessed-by-the-compass-31-questionnaire
#7
Brittany L Adler, James W Russell, Laura K Hummers, Zsuzsanna H McMahan
OBJECTIVE: Autonomic dysfunction is a known complication of systemic sclerosis (SSc) that can affect vascular tone, gastrointestinal (GI) motility, heart rate, and blood pressure control. We sought to quantify autonomic symptom burden in SSc, and to define the characteristics of patients with SSc and autonomic dysfunction. METHODS: Patients with SSc were consecutively recruited during routine clinical visits at the Johns Hopkins Scleroderma Center and asked to complete the Composite Autonomic Symptom Score (COMPASS)-31 questionnaire, a validated tool to assess symptoms of autonomic dysfunction...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907338/artificial-intelligence-in-radiation-oncology-a-specialty-wide-disruptive-transformation
#8
REVIEW
Reid F Thompson, Gilmer Valdes, Clifton D Fuller, Colin M Carpenter, Olivier Morin, Sanjay Aneja, William D Lindsay, Hugo J W L Aerts, Barbara Agrimson, Curtiland Deville, Seth A Rosenthal, James B Yu, Charles R Thomas
Artificial intelligence (AI) is emerging as a technology with the power to transform established industries, and with applications from automated manufacturing to advertising and facial recognition to fully autonomous transportation. Advances in each of these domains have led some to call AI the "fourth" industrial revolution [1]. In healthcare, AI is emerging as both a productive and disruptive force across many disciplines. This is perhaps most evident in Diagnostic Radiology and Pathology, specialties largely built around the processing and complex interpretation of medical images, where the role of AI is increasingly seen as both a boon and a threat...
June 12, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907271/automation-of-mechanical-ventilation
#9
REVIEW
Richard D Branson
Closed loop control of mechanical ventilation is routine and operates behind the ventilator interface. Reducing caregiver interactions is neither an advantage for the patient or the staff. Automated systems causing lack of situational awareness of the intensive care unit are a concern. Along with autonomous systems must come monitoring and displays that display patients' current condition and response to therapy. Alert notifications for sudden escalation of therapy are required to ensure patient safety. Automated ventilation is useful in remote settings in the absence of experts...
July 2018: Critical Care Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907181/a-patient-presents-with-a-history-suggestive-of-potential-elder-abuse
#10
Ghislaine Young
Catherine is an Advanced Nurse Practitioner and runs clinics in primary care where she is qualified to assess and manage patients autonomously. Today Joan, an elderly woman in her mid-80s, attends for a general health check-up. She is hypertensive and has a history of coronary artery disease. Joan is widowed and lives with her only son.
June 2018: Revue de L'infirmière
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906207/human-performance-deterioration-due-to-prolonged-wakefulness-can-be-accurately-detected-using-time-varying-spectral-analysis-of-electrodermal-activity
#11
Hugo F Posada-Quintero, Jeffrey B Bolkhovsky, Michael Qin, Ki H Chon
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to determine if indices of the autonomic nervous system (ANS), derived from the electrodermal activity (EDA) and electrocardiogram (ECG), could be used to detect deterioration in human cognitive performance on healthy participants during 24-hour sleep deprivation. BACKGROUND: The ANS is highly sensitive to sleep deprivation. METHODS: Twenty-five participants performed a desktop-computer-based version of the psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) every 2 hours...
June 1, 2018: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906098/flexible-guidance-of-microengines-by-dynamic-topographical-pathways-in-ferrofluids
#12
Fan Yang, Fangzhi Mou, Yuzhou Jiang, Ming Luo, Leilei Xu, Huiru Ma, Jianguo Guan
In this work, we demonstrate a simple, versatile and real-time motion guidance strategy for artificial microengines and motile microorganisms in a ferrofluid by dynamic topographical pathways (DTPs), which are assembled from superparamagnetic nanoparticles in response to external magnetic field ( H). In this general strategy, the DTPs can exert anisotropic resistance forces on autonomously moving microengines and thus regulate their orientation. As the DTPs with different directions and lengths can be reversibly and swiftly assembled in response to the applied H, the microengines in the ferrofluid can be guided on demand with controlled motion directions and trajectories, including circular, elliptical, straight-line, semi-sine and sinusoidal trajectories...
June 15, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905872/host-range-and-genetic-plasticity-explain-the-co-existence-of-integrative-and-extrachromosomal-mobile-genetic-elements
#13
Jean Cury, Pedro H Oliveira, Fernando de la Cruz, Eduardo P C Rocha
Self-transmissible mobile genetic elements drive horizontal gene transfer between prokaryotes. Some of these elements integrate in the chromosome, whereas others replicate autonomously as plasmids. Recent works showed the existence of few differences, and occasional interconversion, between the two types of elements. Here, we enquired on why evolutionary processes have maintained the two types of mobile genetic elements by comparing integrative and conjugative elements (ICE) with extrachromosomal ones (conjugative plasmids) of the highly abundant MPFT conjugative type...
June 14, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905835/glucocorticoids-and-bone-consequences-of-endogenous-and-exogenous-excess-and-replacement-therapy
#14
Rowan S Hardy, Hong Zhou, Markus J Seibel, Mark S Cooper
Osteoporosis associated with long-term glucocorticoid therapy remains a common and serious bone disease. In addition, in recent years it has become clear that more subtle states of endogenous glucocorticoid excess may have a major impact on bone health. Adverse effects can be seen with mild systemic glucocorticoid excess but there is also evidence of tissue-specific regulation of glucocorticoid action within bone as a mechanism of disease. This review article will examine a) the role of endogenous glucocorticoids in normal bone physiology, b) the skeletal effects of endogenous glucocorticoid excess in the context of endocrine conditions such as Cushing's disease/syndrome and autonomous cortisol secretion (subclinical Cushing's syndrome), and c) the actions of therapeutic (exogenous) glucocorticoids on bone...
June 13, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905656/pain-processing-in-the-human-brainstem-and-spinal-cord-before-during-and-after-the-application-of-noxious-heat-stimuli
#15
P W Stroman, G Ioachim, J M Powers, R Staud, C Pukall
Descending regulation of spinal cord responses to nociceptive signaling has a strong influence on pain perception. Prior studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have indicated that in addition to reactive responses to nociceptive signals there is a continuous component to regulation, and that it may vary with differences in pain sensitivity. We hypothesize that this continuous regulation component occurs routinely in fMRI studies prior to noxious stimulation, as well as during, and following stimulation...
June 12, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905394/an-intrinsically-self-healing-nico-zn-rechargeable-battery-by-self-healable-ferric-ion-crosslinking-sodium-polyacrylate-hydrogel-electrolyte
#16
Yan Huang, Jie Liu, Jiaqi Wang, Mengmeng Hu, Funian Mo, Guojin Liang, Chunyi Zhi
Self-healing solid-state aqueous rechargeable NiCo//Zn batteries are an essential element of flexible/wearable electronics due to their inherent safety, high energy density and mechanical robustness etc. However, the self-healability of solid-state batteries is only realized by few studies, in which electron/ion-inactive self-healable substrates are utilized. This fundamentally arises from the lack of self-healable electrolytes for solid-state batteries, and therefore, results in low healing efficiency and volume/mass diseconomy...
June 15, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904889/clinical-presentation-and-management-of-headache-in-pituitary-tumors
#17
REVIEW
Himanshu Suri, Carrie Dougherty
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article provides an overview of headache in the setting of pituitary adenoma. The purpose of this article is to educate providers on the association, possible pathophysiology, and the clinical presentation of headache in pituitary tumor. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent prospective evaluations indicate that risk factors for development of headache in the setting of pituitary adenoma include highly proliferative tumors, cavernous sinus invasion, and personal or family history of headache...
June 15, 2018: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904868/the-possible-influence-of-foramen-ovale-and-obstructive-sleep-apnoeas-on-trigeminal-autonomic-cephalalgias-preliminary-results-of-a-anircef-progran-study
#18
Carlo Lovati, PayamTabaee Damavandi, Fabrizio Vernieri, Altamura Claudia, Massimo Autunno, Cinzia Finocchi, Giacomo D'Arrigo, Paola Di Fiore, Fabio Frediani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904861/trigeminal-autonomic-cephalalgias-in-children-and-adolescents
#19
Giorgio Lambru, Susan Byrne
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904631/chronic-diffuse-pain-and-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders-after-traumatic-stress-pathophysiology-through-a-polyvagal-perspective
#20
Jacek Kolacz, Stephen W Porges
Chronic diffuse pain disorders, such as fibromyalgia, and functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs), such as irritable bowel syndrome, place substantial burden on those affected and on the medical system. Despite their sizable impact, their pathophysiology is poorly understood. In contrast to an approach that focuses on the correlation between heart rate variability (HRV) and a specific organ or symptom, we propose that a bio-evolutionary threat-related autonomic response-as outlined in the Polyvagal Theory-may serve as a plausible explanation of how HRV, particularly respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), would index the pathophysiology of these disorders...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
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