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Type III Secretion System

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651716/super-secondary-structure-consisting-of-a-polyproline-ii-helix-and-a-%C3%AE-turn-in-leucine-rich-repeats-in-bacterial-type-iii-secretion-system-effectors
#1
Dashdavaa Batkhishig, Khurelbaatar Bilguun, Purevjav Enkhbayar, Hiroki Miyashita, Robert H Kretsinger, Norio Matsushima
Leucine rich repeats (LRRs) are present in over 100,000 proteins from viruses to eukaryotes. The LRRs are 20-30 residues long and occur in tandem. LRRs form parallel stacks of short β-strands and then assume a super helical arrangement called a solenoid structure. Individual LRRs are separated into highly conserved segment (HCS) with the consensus of LxxLxLxxNxL and variable segment (VS). Eight classes have been recognized. Bacterial LRRs are short and characterized by two prolines in the VS; the consensus is xxLPxLPxx with Nine residues (N-subtype) and xxLPxxLPxx with Ten residues (T-subtype)...
April 12, 2018: Protein Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616194/heterologous-complementation-studies-with-the-yscx-and-yscy-protein-families-reveals-a-specificity-for-yersinia-pseudotuberculosis-type-iii-secretion
#2
Jyoti M Gurung, Ayad A A Amer, Monika K Francis, Tiago R D Costa, Shiyun Chen, Anton V Zavialov, Matthew S Francis
Type III secretion systems harbored by several Gram-negative bacteria are often used to deliver host-modulating effectors into infected eukaryotic cells. About 20 core proteins are needed for assembly of a secretion apparatus. Several of these proteins are genetically and functionally conserved in type III secretion systems of bacteria associated with invertebrate or vertebrate hosts. In the Ysc family of type III secretion systems are two poorly characterized protein families, the YscX family and the YscY family...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608940/an-update-on-the-role-of-irisin-in-the-regulation-of-endocrine-and-metabolic-functions
#3
REVIEW
Mohamed Omer Mahgoub, Crystal D'Souza, Reem S M H AlDarmaki, May M Y H Baniyas, Ernest Adeghate
Irisin is a novel myokine and adipokine that has gained much attention recently due to its mechanisms of action. Irisin is secreted following proteolytic cleavage of its precursor fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5). Following its release, irisin exerts its major action by increasing the expression of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP 1), which facilitates the conversion of white adipose tissue (WAT) into beige adipose tissue. Irisin is distributed in various body tissues and several actions have been attributed to its presence in those tissues...
March 30, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601603/the-bacterial-type-iii-secreted-protein-avrrps4-is-a-bipartite-effector
#4
Morgan K Halane, Sang Hee Kim, Benjamin J Spears, Christopher M Garner, Conner J Rogan, Elizabeth C Okafor, Jianbin Su, Saikat Bhattacharjee, Walter Gassmann
Bacterial effector proteins secreted into host plant cells manipulate those cells to the benefit of the pathogen, but effector-triggered immunity (ETI) occurs when effectors are recognized by host resistance proteins. The RPS4/RRS1 pair recognizes the Pseudomonas syringae pv. pisi effector AvrRps4. AvrRps4 is processed in planta into AvrRps4N (133 amino acids), homologous to the N-termini of other effectors including the native P. syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 effector HopK1, and AvrRps4C (88 amino acids)...
March 30, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601470/influence-of-intestinal-microbiota-transplantation-and-nleh-expression-on-citrobacter-rodentium-colonization-of-mice
#5
Gaochan Wang, Leigh Ann Feuerbacher, Philip R Hardwidge
The intestinal microbiota plays an important role in regulating host resistance to enteric pathogens. The relative abundance of the microbiota is dependent upon both genetic and environmental factors. The attaching and effacing pathogens enteropathogenic Escherichia coli , enterohemorrhagic E. coli , and Citrobacter rodentium cause diarrheal disease and translocate type III secretion system effector proteins into host cells to inhibit pro-inflammatory host responses. Here we determined the influence of both the intestinal microbiota and the expression of the C...
March 30, 2018: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600494/duox2-induced-innate-immune-responses-in-the-respiratory-epithelium-and-intranasal-delivery-of-duox2-dna-using-polymer-that-mediates-immunization
#6
REVIEW
Yung Jin Jeon, Hyun Jik Kim
Respiratory mucosa especially nasal epithelium is well known as the first-line barrier of air-borne pathogens. High levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are detected in in vitro cultured human epithelial cells and in vivo lung. With identification of NADPH oxidase (Nox) system of respiratory epithelium, the antimicrobial role of ROS has been studied. Duox2 is the most abundant Nox isoform and produces the regulated amount of ROS in respiratory epithelium. Duox2-derived ROS are involved in antiviral innate immune responses but more studies are needed to verify the mechanism...
March 30, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579079/enhanced-differentiation-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-into-cardiomyocytes-by-bacteria-mediated-transcription-factors-delivery
#7
Yongxin Jin, Ying Liu, Zhenpeng Li, Katherine Santostefano, Jing Shi, Xinwen Zhang, Donghai Wu, Zhihui Cheng, Weihui Wu, Naohiro Terada, Shouguang Jin, Fang Bai
Virus-mediated expression of defined transcription factor (TF) genes can effectively induce cellular reprogramming. However, sustained expression of the TFs often hinders pluripotent stem cell (PSC) differentiation into specific cell types, as each TF exerts its effect on PSCs for a defined period of time during differentiation. Here, we applied a bacterial type III secretion system (T3SS)-based protein delivery tool to directly translocate TFs in the form of protein into human PSCs. This transient protein delivery technique showed high delivery efficiency for hPSCs, and it avoids potential genetic alterations caused by the introduction of transgenes...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576451/irf8-regulates-transcription-of-naips-for-nlrc4-inflammasome-activation
#8
Rajendra Karki, Ein Lee, David Place, Parimal Samir, Jayadev Mavuluri, Bhesh Raj Sharma, Arjun Balakrishnan, R K Subbarao Malireddi, Rechel Geiger, Qifan Zhu, Geoffrey Neale, Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti
Inflammasome activation is critical for host defenses against various microbial infections. Activation of the NLRC4 inflammasome requires detection of flagellin or type III secretion system (T3SS) components by NLR family apoptosis inhibitory proteins (NAIPs); yet how this pathway is regulated is unknown. Here, we found that interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF8) is required for optimal activation of the NLRC4 inflammasome in bone-marrow-derived macrophages infected with Salmonella Typhimurium, Burkholderia thailandensis, or Pseudomonas aeruginosa but is dispensable for activation of the canonical and non-canonical NLRP3, AIM2, and Pyrin inflammasomes...
March 16, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573256/global-regulation-by-csra-and-its-rna-antagonists
#9
Tony Romeo, Paul Babitzke
The sequence-specific RNA binding protein CsrA is employed by diverse bacteria in the posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression. Its binding interactions with RNA have been documented at atomic resolution and shown to alter RNA secondary structure, RNA stability, translation, and/or Rho-mediated transcription termination through a growing number of molecular mechanisms. In Gammaproteobacteria , small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) that contain multiple CsrA binding sites compete with mRNA for binding to CsrA, thereby sequestering and antagonizing this protein...
March 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558209/electrically-evoked-local-muscle-contractions-cause-an-increase-in-hippocampal-bdnf
#10
Takahiro Maekawa, Riki Ogasawara, Arata Tsutaki, Kihyuk Lee, Satoshi Nakada, Koichi Nakazato, Naokata Ishii
High-intensity exercise has recently been shown to cause an increase in brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus. Some studies have suggested that myokines secreted from contracting skeletal muscle, such as irisin (one of the truncated form of fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5)), play important roles in this process. Thus, we hypothesized that locally evoked muscle contractions may cause an increase of BDNF in the hippocampus through some afferent mechanisms. Under anesthesia, Sprague-Dawley rats were fixed on a custom-made dynamometer and their triceps surae muscles were made to maximally contract via delivery of electric stimulations of the sciatic nerve (100 Hz with 1-ms pulse and 3-s duration)...
March 20, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523140/immunization-with-recombinant-salmonella-expressing-ssph2-esci-protects-mice-against-wild-type-salmonella-infection
#11
Maozhi Hu, Weixin Zhao, Hongying Li, Jie Gu, Qiuxiang Yan, Xiaohui Zhou, Zhiming Pan, Guiyou Cui, Xinan Jiao
BACKGROUND: Enhancing caspase-1 activation in macrophages is helpful for the clearance of intracellular bacteria in mice. Our previous studies have shown that EscI, an inner rod protein of type III system in E. coli can enhance caspase-1 activation. The purpose of this study was to further analyze the prospect of EscI in the vaccine design. RESULTS: A recombinant Salmonella expressing SspH2-EscI fusion protein using the promotor of Salmonella effector SspH2, X4550(pYA3334-P-SspH2-EscI), was constructed...
March 9, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522749/protein-injection-machines-in-bacteria
#12
REVIEW
Jorge E Galán, Gabriel Waksman
Many bacteria have evolved specialized nanomachines with the remarkable ability to inject multiple bacterially encoded effector proteins into eukaryotic or prokaryotic cells. Known as type III, type IV, and type VI secretion systems, these machines play a central role in the pathogenic or symbiotic interactions between multiple bacteria and their eukaryotic hosts, or in the establishment of bacterial communities in a diversity of environments. Here we focus on recent progress elucidating the structure and assembly pathways of these machines...
March 8, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520342/control-of-hmu-heme-uptake-genes-in-yersinia-pseudotuberculosis-in-response-to-iron-sources
#13
Leah Schwiesow, Erin Mettert, Yahan Wei, Halie K Miller, Natalia G Herrera, David Balderas, Patricia J Kiley, Victoria Auerbuch
Despite the mammalian host actively sequestering iron to limit pathogenicity, heme (or hemin when oxidized) and hemoproteins serve as important sources of iron for many bloodborne pathogens. The HmuRSTUV hemin uptake system allows Yersinia species to uptake and utilize hemin and hemoproteins as iron sources. HmuR is a TonB-dependent outer membrane receptor for hemin and hemoproteins. HmuTUV comprise a inner membrane ABC transporter that transports hemin and hemoproteins from the periplasmic space into the bacterial cytoplasm, where it is degraded by HmuS...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517846/a-dual-role-for-proline-iminopeptidase-in-regulating-bacterial-motility-and-host-immunity
#14
Jinhong Kan, Lin An, Yao Wu, Jia Long, Liyang Song, Rongxiang Fang, Yantao Jia
During plant-pathogen interactions, pathogenic bacteria have evolved multiple strategies to cope with the sophisticated defense systems of host plants. Proline iminopeptidase (PIP) is essential to Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) virulence, and conserved in many plant-associated bacteria, but its pathogenic mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we found that disrupting pip in Xcc enhanced its flagella-mediated bacterial motility by decreasing intracellular c-di-GMP levels, and overexpression of pip restricted bacterial motility by elevating c-di-GMP levels...
March 8, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515545/functional-analysis-of-a-putative-type-iii-secretion-system-in-stress-adaption-by-mesorhizobium-alhagi-ccnwxj12-2-t
#15
Xiaodong Liu, Yantao Luo, Zhefei Li, Gehong Wei
Mesorhizobium alhagi CCNWXJ12-2T , isolated from root nodules of the desert plant Alhagi sparsifolia , contains two type III secretion systems (T3SSs). T3SSs are specialized machinery with wide distribution in bacteria that inject effector proteins into target cells. Our previous study showed that the expression of M. alhagi T3SS1 is upregulated in high-salt conditions. Here, phylogenetic analysis of T3SS1 using the core protein RhcU suggested that T3SS1 belongs to the α-Rhc II subgroup of the Rhc T3SS family...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515519/molecular-modeling-of-structures-and-interaction-of-human-corticotropin-releasing-factor-crf-binding-protein-and-crf-type-2-receptor
#16
Paula G Slater, Sebastian E Gutierrez-Maldonado, Katia Gysling, Carlos F Lagos
The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system is a key mediator of the stress response and addictive behavior. The CRF system includes four peptides: The CRF system includes four peptides: CRF, urocortins I-III, CRF binding protein (CRF-BP) that binds CRF with high affinity, and two class B G-protein coupled receptors CRF1 R and CRF2 R. CRF-BP is a secreted protein without significant sequence homology to CRF receptors or to any other known class of protein. Recently, it has been described a potentiation role of CRF-BP over CRF signaling through CRF2 R in addictive-related neuronal plasticity and behavior...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509331/tandem-tyrosine-phosphosites-in-the-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli-chaperone-cest-are-required-for-differential-type-iii-effector-translocation-and-virulence
#17
Cameron S Runte, Umang Jain, Landon J Getz, Sabrina Secord, Asaomi Kuwae, Akio Abe, Jason J LeBlanc, Andrew W Stadnyk, James B Kaper, Anne-Marie Hansen, Nikhil A Thomas
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) use a type 3 secretion system (T3SS) for injection of effectors into host cells and intestinal colonization. Here, we demonstrate that the multicargo chaperone CesT has two strictly conserved tyrosine phosphosites, Y152 and Y153, that regulate differential effector secretion in EPEC. Conservative substitution of both tyrosine residues to phenylalanine strongly attenuated EPEC type 3 effector injection into host cells, and limited Tir effector mediated intimate adherence during infection...
March 6, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507251/communicating-the-nutritional-value-of-sugar-in-drosophila
#18
Farhan Abu, Justin G Wang, Yangkyun Oh, Jingjing Deng, Thomas A Neubert, Greg S B Suh
Sweet-insensitive Drosophila mutants are unable to readily identify sugar. In presence of wild-type (WT) flies, however, these mutant flies demonstrated a marked increase in their preference for nutritive sugar. Real-time recordings of starved WT flies revealed that these flies discharge a drop from their gut end after consuming nutritive sugars, but not nonnutritive sugars. We proposed that the drop may contain a molecule(s) named calorie-induced secreted factor (CIF), which serves as a signal to inform other flies about its nutritional value...
March 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502873/of-mice-and-men-and-plants-comparative-genomics-of-the-dual-lifestyles-of-enteric-pathogens
#19
REVIEW
Max Teplitski, Marcos de Moraes
Outbreaks of gastrointestinal illness, linked to the consumption of fruits, vegetables, and sprouts, continue to capture the attention of the general public and scientists. The recurrence of these outbreaks, despite heightened producer and consumer awareness, combined with improved sanitation protocols and technology, can be explained by the hypothesis that enteric pathogens, such as nontyphoidal Salmonella spp. and enterovirulent Escherichia coli, have evolved to exploit plants as alternative hosts. This review explores the genetic and genomic context for this hypothesis...
March 1, 2018: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500263/identification-and-characterization-of-bacterial-enzymes-catalyzing-the-synthesis-of-1-8-dihydroxynaphthalene-a-key-precursor-of-dihydroxynaphthalene-melanin-from-sorangium-cellulosum
#20
Yusuke Sone, Shuto Nakamura, Makoto Sasaki, Fumihito Hasebe, Seung-Young Kim, Nobutaka Funa
1,8-Dihydroxynaphthalene (1,8-DHN) is a key intermediate in the biosynthesis of DHN melanin, which is specific to fungi. In this study, we characterized the enzymatic properties of the gene products of an operon consisting of soceCHS1 , bdsA , and bdsB from the gram-negative bacterium, Sorangium cellulosum Heterologous expression of soceCHS1 , bdsA , and bdsB in Streptomyces coelicolor caused secretion of a dark-brown pigment into the broth. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the broth revealed that the recombinant strain produced 1,8-DHN, indicating that the operon encoded a novel enzymatic system for the synthesis of 1,8-DHN...
March 2, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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