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Type III Secretion System

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231990/tendon-explant-cultures-to-study-the-communication-between-adipose-stem-cells-and-native-tendon-niche
#1
Raquel Costa-Almeida, Dominika Berdecka, Márcia T Rodrigues, Rui L Reis, Manuela E Gomes
Poor clinical outcomes of tendon repair, together with limited regenerative capacity of the tissue, have triggered the search for alternative regenerative medicine strategies. Human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) are being investigated as a promising cell source in contributing for tendon repopulation and reconstruction. However, the mechanisms involved in a potential beneficial effect in tendon regeneration are still to be uncovered. To gain further insights on the bi-directional crosstalk occurring between stem cells and the native tendon niche, it was used an indirect (trans-well) system for co-culturing human tendon explants and hASCs...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230364/complete-genome-sequence-and-comparative-genomics-of-the-golden-pompano-trachinotus-ovatus-pathogen-vibrio-harveyi-strain-qt520
#2
Zhigang Tu, Hongyue Li, Xiang Zhang, Yun Sun, Yongcan Zhou
Vibrio harveyi is a Gram-negative, halophilic bacterium that is an opportunistic pathogen of commercially farmed marine vertebrate species. To understand the pathogenicity of this species, the genome of V. harveyi QT520 was analyzed and compared to that of other strains. The results showed the genome of QT520 has two unique circular chromosomes and three endogenous plasmids, totaling 6,070,846 bp with a 45% GC content, 5,701 predicted ORFs, 134 tRNAs and 37 rRNAs. Common virulence factors, including ACF, IlpA, OmpU, Flagellin, Cya, Hemolysin and MARTX, were detected in the genome, which are likely responsible for the virulence of QT520...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209294/evolutionarily-conserved-node-nodo-t1ss-and-hydrogenase-system-in-rhizobia-of-astragalus-membranaceus-and-caragana-intermedia
#3
Hui Yan, Jian Bo Xie, Zhao Jun Ji, Na Yuan, Chang Fu Tian, Shou Kun Ji, Zhong Yu Wu, Liang Zhong, Wen Xin Chen, Zheng Lin Du, En Tao Wang, Wen Feng Chen
Mesorhizobium species are the main microsymbionts associated with the medicinal or sand-fixation plants Astragalus membranaceus and Caragana intermedia (AC) in temperate regions of China, while all the Mesorhizobium strains isolated from each of these plants could nodulate both of them. However, Rhizobium yanglingense strain CCBAU01603 could nodulate AC plants and it's a high efficiency symbiotic and competitive strain with Caragana. Therefore, the common features shared by these symbiotic rhizobia in genera of Mesorhizobium and Rhizobium still remained undiscovered...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208746/controlled-activity-of-the-salmonella-invasion-associated-injectisome-reveals-its-intracellular-role-in-the-cytosolic-population
#4
Jessica A Klein, Jesse R Grenz, James M Slauch, Leigh A Knodler
The Salmonella invasion-associated type III secretion system (T3SS1) is an essential virulence factor required for entry into nonphagocytic cells and consequent uptake into a Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV). While Salmonella is typically regarded as a vacuolar pathogen, a subset of bacteria escape from the SCV in epithelial cells and eventually hyperreplicate in the cytosol. T3SS1 is downregulated following bacterial entry into mammalian cells, but cytosolic Salmonella cells are T3SS1 induced, suggesting prolonged or resurgent activity of T3SS1 in this population...
December 5, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208163/population-structure-of-escherichia-coli-o26%C3%A2-%C3%A2-h11-with-recent-and-repeated-stx2-acquisition-in-multiple-lineages
#5
Yoshitoshi Ogura, Yasuhiro Gotoh, Takehiko Itoh, Mitsuhiko P Sato, Kazuko Seto, Shyuji Yoshino, Junko Isobe, Yoshiki Etoh, Mariko Kurogi, Keiko Kimata, Eriko Maeda, Denis Piérard, Masahiro Kusumoto, Masato Akiba, Kiyoshi Tominaga, Yumi Kirino, Yuki Kato, Katsuhiko Shirahige, Tadasuke Ooka, Nozomi Ishijima, Ken-Ichi Lee, Sunao Iyoda, Jacques Georges Mainil, Tetsuya Hayashi
A key virulence factor of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is the bacteriophage-encoded Shiga toxin (Stx). Stxs are classified into two types, Stx1 and Stx2, and Stx2-producing strains are thought to cause more severe infections than strains producing only Stx1. Although O26 : H11 is the second most prevalent EHEC following O157 : H7, the majority of O26 : H11 strains produce Stx1 alone. However, Stx2-producing O26 strains have increasingly been detected worldwide. Through a large-scale genome analysis, we present a global phylogenetic overview and evolutionary timescale for E...
November 2017: Microbial Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207339/structure-activity-relationships-for-inhibitors-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-exoenzyme-s-adp-ribosyltransferase-activity
#6
Michael Saleeb, Charlotta Sundin, Öznur Aglar, Ana Filipa Pinto, Mahsa Ebrahimi, Åke Forsberg, Herwig Schüler, Mikael Elofsson
During infection, the Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa employs its type III secretion system to translocate the toxin exoenzyme S (ExoS) into the eukaryotic host cell cytoplasm. ExoS is an essential in vivo virulence factor that enables P. aeruginosa to avoid phagocytosis and eventually kill the host cell. ExoS elicits its pathogenicity mainly via ADP-ribosyltransferase (ADPRT) activity. We recently identified a new class of ExoS ADPRT inhibitors with in vitro IC50 of around 20 μM in an enzymatic assay using a recombinant ExoS ADPRT domain...
November 21, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201149/complete-genome-sequence-of-the-vibrio-vulnificus-strain-vv2014djh-a-human-pathogenic-bacterium-isolated-from-a-death-case-in-china
#7
Junhang Pan, Yi Sun, Wenwu Yao, Haiyan Mao, Yanjun Zhang, Muyuan Zhu
Background: Vibrio vulnificus, an opportunistic pathogen, is the causative agent of life-threatening septicemia and severe wound infections. However, the pathogenicity and virulence factors of V. vulnificus are not fully understood. Here we report the complete genome sequence of V. vulnificus VV2014DJH, which was isolated from a death case. Results: The genome of the V. vulnificus VV2014DJH contains two circular chromosomes with a mean G+C content of 46.8%, but does not consists of any plasmids...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201148/whole-genome-sequencing-based-detection-of-antimicrobial-resistance-and-virulence-in-non-typhoidal-salmonella-enterica-isolated-from-wildlife
#8
Milton Thomas, Gavin John Fenske, Linto Antony, Sudeep Ghimire, Ronald Welsh, Akhilesh Ramachandran, Joy Scaria
The aim of this study was to generate a reference set of Salmonella enterica genomes isolated from wildlife from the United States and to determine the antimicrobial resistance and virulence gene profile of the isolates from the genome sequence data. We sequenced the whole genomes of 103 Salmonella isolates sampled between 1988 and 2003 from wildlife and exotic pet cases that were submitted to the Oklahoma Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, Stillwater, Oklahoma. Among 103 isolates, 50.48% were from wild birds, 0...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201038/anatomical-alterations-in-plant-tissues-induced-by-plant-parasitic-nematodes
#9
REVIEW
Juan E Palomares-Rius, Carolina Escobar, Javier Cabrera, Alessio Vovlas, Pablo Castillo
Plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs) interact with plants in different ways, for example, through subtle feeding behavior, migrating destructively through infected tissues, or acting as virus-vectors for nepoviruses. They are all obligate biotrophic parasites as they derive their nutrients from living cells which they modify using pharyngeal gland secretions prior to food ingestion. Some of them can also shield themselves against plant defenses to sustain a relatively long lasting interaction while feeding. This paper is centered on cell types or organs that are newly induced in plants during PPN parasitism, including recent approaches to their study based on molecular biology combined with cell biology-histopathology...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191979/shigella-hijacks-the-glomulin-ciaps-inflammasome-axis-to-promote-inflammation
#10
Shiho Suzuki, Toshihiko Suzuki, Hitomi Mimuro, Tsunehiro Mizushima, Chihiro Sasakawa
Shigella deploys a unique mechanism to manipulate macrophage pyroptosis by delivering the IpaH7.8 E3 ubiquitin ligase via its type III secretion system. IpaH7.8 ubiquitinates glomulin (GLMN) and elicits its degradation, thereby inducing inflammasome activation and pyroptotic cell death of macrophages. Here, we show that GLMN specifically binds cellular inhibitor of apoptosis proteins 1 and 2 (cIAP1 and cIAP2), members of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family of RING-E3 ligases, which results in reduced E3 ligase activity, and consequently inflammasome-mediated death of macrophages...
November 30, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187844/speg-is-required-for-intracellular-replication-of-salmonella-in-various-human-cells-and-affects-its-polyamine-metabolism-and-global-transcriptomes
#11
Shiuh-Bin Fang, Ching-Jou Huang, Chih-Hung Huang, Ke-Chuan Wang, Nai-Wen Chang, Hung-Yin Pan, Hsu-Wei Fang, Ming-Te Huang, Ching-Kuo Chen
The speG gene has been reported to regulate polyamine metabolism in Escherichia coli and Shigella, but its role in Salmonella remains unknown. Our preliminary studies have revealed that speG widely affects the transcriptomes of infected in vitro M and Caco-2 cells and that it is required for the intracellular replication of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) in HeLa cells. In this study, we demonstrated that speG plays a time-dependent and cell type-independent role in the intracellular replication of S...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180436/broad-detection-of-bacterial-type-iii-secretion-system-and-flagellin-proteins-by-the-human-naip-nlrc4-inflammasome
#12
Valeria M Reyes Ruiz, Jasmine Ramirez, Nawar Naseer, Nicole M Palacio, Ingharan J Siddarthan, Brian M Yan, Mark A Boyer, Daniel A Pensinger, John-Demian Sauer, Sunny Shin
Inflammasomes are cytosolic multiprotein complexes that initiate host defense against bacterial pathogens by activating caspase-1-dependent cytokine secretion and cell death. In mice, specific nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat-containing family, apoptosis inhibitory proteins (NAIPs) activate the nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat-containing family, CARD domain-containing protein 4 (NLRC4) inflammasome upon sensing components of the type III secretion system (T3SS) and flagellar apparatus...
November 27, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176969/chromobacterium-violaceum-pathogenicity-updates-and-insights-from-genome-sequencing-of-novel-chromobacterium-species
#13
Juliana H Batista, José F da Silva Neto
Chromobacterium violaceum is an abundant component of the soil and water microbiota in tropical and subtropical regions around the world. For many years, it was mainly known as a producer of violacein and as a reporter for the discovery of quorum sensing molecules. However, C. violaceum has recently emerged as an important model of an environmental opportunistic pathogen. Its high virulence in human infections and a mouse infection model involves the possession of several predicted virulence traits, including two type III secretion systems (T3SSs)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170655/the-tal-effector-avrbs3-from-xanthomonas-campestris-pv-vesicatoria-contains-multiple-export-signals-and-can-enter-plant-cells-in-the-absence-of-the-type-iii-secretion-translocon
#14
Felix Scheibner, Sylvestre Marillonnet, Daniela Büttner
Pathogenicity of the Gram-negative plant-pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria depends on a type III secretion (T3S) system which translocates effector proteins into plant cells. Effector protein delivery is controlled by the T3S chaperone HpaB, which presumably escorts effector proteins to the secretion apparatus. One intensively studied effector is the transcription activator-like (TAL) effector AvrBs3, which binds to promoter sequences of plant target genes and activates plant gene expression...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149170/vibrio-parahaemolyticus-vtra-is-a-membrane-bound-regulator-and-is-activated-via-oligomerization
#15
Ryu Okada, Shigeaki Matsuda, Tetsuya Iida
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a Gram-negative pathogen that causes food-borne gastroenteritis. A major virulence determinant of the organism is a type III secretion system (T3SS2) encoded on a pathogenicity island, Vp-PAI. Vp-PAI gene expression is regulated by two transcriptional regulators, VtrA and VtrB, whose N-terminal regions share homology with an OmpR-family DNA-binding domain. VtrA activates the gene expression of VtrB, which in turn activates Vp-PAI gene expression; however, the mechanism of this transcriptional activation by VtrA is not well understood...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144750/investigation-of-the-physical-and-bioactive-properties-of-bromo-and-iodo-containing-sponge-derived-compounds-possessing-an-oxyphenylethanamine-core
#16
Erin P McCauley, Hanh Lam, Nicholas Lorig-Roach, Justin Luu, Cameron Lloyd, Karen Tenney, Halina Pietraszkiewicz, Cristina Diaz, Frederick A Valeriote, Victoria Auerbuch, Phillip Crews
This research set out to identify compounds from marine sponges that can act as bacterial virulence blockers. Extracts from a total of 80 sponges collected from throughout Indonesia were screened in a high-throughput NF-κB-based screen that identifies compounds capable of inhibiting the bacterial type III secretion system (T3SS) in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. An extract that was shown to inhibit T3SS-driven NF-κB expression was obtained from an Iotrochota cf. iota sponge and was the source of seven new bromo- and iodo-containing compounds, all of which contain a 2-(4-oxyphenyl)ethan-1-amine core...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144452/ubiquitination-and-degradation-of-gbps-by-a-shigella-effector-to-suppress-host-defence
#17
Peng Li, Wei Jiang, Qin Yu, Wang Liu, Ping Zhou, Jun Li, Junjie Xu, Bo Xu, Fengchao Wang, Feng Shao
Interferon-inducible guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs) mediate cell-autonomous antimicrobial defences. Shigella flexneri, a Gram-negative cytoplasmic free-living bacterium that causes bacillary dysentery, encodes a repertoire of highly similar type III secretion system effectors called invasion plasmid antigen Hs (IpaHs). IpaHs represent a large family of bacterial ubiquitin-ligases, but their function is poorly understood. Here we show that S. flexneri infection induces rapid proteasomal degradation of human guanylate binding protein-1 (hGBP1)...
November 16, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144203/suppression-or-activation-of-immune-responses-by-predicted-secreted-proteins-of-the-soybean-rust-pathogen-phakopsora-pachyrhizi
#18
Mingsheng Qi, James P Grayczyk, Janina M Seitz, Youngsill Lee, Tobias I Link, Doil Choi, Kerry F Pedley, Ralf T Voegele, Thomas J Baum, Steven A Whitham
Rust fungi, such as the soybean rust pathogen Phakopsora pachyrhizi, are major threats to crop production. They form specialized haustoria that are hyphal structures intimately associated with host-plant cell membranes. These haustoria have roles in acquiring nutrients and secreting effector proteins that manipulate host immune systems. Functional characterization of effector proteins of rust fungi is important for understanding mechanisms that underlie their virulence and pathogenicity. Hundreds of candidate effector proteins have been predicted for rust pathogens, but it is not clear how to prioritize these effector candidates for further characterization...
November 16, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141238/rationale-redesign-of-type-iii-secretion-systems-toward-the-development-of-non-pathogenic-e-coli-for-in-vivo-delivery-of-therapeutic-payloads
#19
REVIEW
Coral González-Prieto, Cammie F Lesser
Transkingdom secretion systems that bacteria use to inject proteins directly into the cytosol of mammalian host cells play an essential role in the virulence of many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. Current efforts are underway to repurpose these machines as novel therapeutics; type III secretion systems as vectors for the delivery of proteins of therapeutic value including heterologous antigens for vaccine development and type IV secretion systems as vectors for DNA. While initial studies focused on the use of attenuated or replication incompetent pathogens, the recent development of non-pathogenic Escherichia coli that encode programmable type III secretion systems expands possibilities for the in vivo directed delivery of therapeutic payloads...
November 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131244/a-review-on-irisin-a-new-protagonist-that-mediates-muscle-adipose-bone-neuron-connectivity
#20
B Grygiel-Górniak, M Puszczewicz
Physical activity improves the quality of life and decreases the risk of several diseases (i.e. stroke, hypertension, myocardial infarction, obesity, and malignancies). Skeletal muscles are considered as an endocrine organ that produces myokines characterized by a paracrine or endocrine activity. Irisin is a circulating hormone-like myokine and is secreted as a product of fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 from skeletal muscle in response to exercise. This molecule regulates the energy metabolism and acts in adipose tissue, bones, and nervous system...
October 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
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