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Type III Secretion System

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105943/comprehensive-analysis-of-draft-genomes-of-two-closely-related-pseudomonas-syringae-phylogroup-2b-strains-infecting-mono-and-dicotyledon-host-plants
#1
Rinat I Sultanov, Georgij P Arapidi, Svetlana V Vinogradova, Vadim M Govorun, Duglas G Luster, Alexander N Ignatov
BACKGROUND: In recent years, the damage caused by bacterial pathogens to major crops has been increasing worldwide. Pseudomonas syringae is a widespread bacterial species that infects almost all major crops. Different P. syringae strains use a wide range of biochemical mechanisms, including phytotoxins and effectors of the type III and type IV secretion systems, which determine the specific nature of the pathogen virulence. RESULTS: Strains 1845 (isolated from dicots) and 2507 (isolated from monocots) were selected for sequencing because they specialize on different groups of plants...
December 28, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096329/tissue-dual-rna-seq-allows-fast-discovery-of-infection-specific-functions-and-riboregulators-shaping-host-pathogen-transcriptomes
#2
Aaron M Nuss, Michael Beckstette, Maria Pimenova, Carina Schmühl, Wiebke Opitz, Fabio Pisano, Ann Kathrin Heroven, Petra Dersch
Pathogenic bacteria need to rapidly adjust their virulence and fitness program to prevent eradication by the host. So far, underlying adaptation processes that drive pathogenesis have mostly been studied in vitro, neglecting the true complexity of host-induced stimuli acting on the invading pathogen. In this study, we developed an unbiased experimental approach that allows simultaneous monitoring of genome-wide infection-linked transcriptional alterations of the host and colonizing extracellular pathogens. Using this tool for Yersinia pseudotuberculosis-infected lymphatic tissues, we revealed numerous alterations of host transcripts associated with inflammatory and acute-phase responses, coagulative activities, and transition metal ion sequestration, highlighting that the immune response is dominated by infiltrating neutrophils and elicits a mixed TH17/TH1 response...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091587/bacillus-volatiles-adversely-affect-the-physiology-and-ultra-structure-of-ralstonia-solanacearum-and-induce-systemic-resistance-in-tobacco-against-bacterial-wilt
#3
Hafiz Abdul Samad Tahir, Qin Gu, Huijun Wu, Yuedi Niu, Rong Huo, Xuewen Gao
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by various bacteria have significant potential to enhance plant growth and to control phytopathogens. Six of the most effective antagonistic Bacillus spp. were used in this study against Ralstonia solanacearum (Rsc) TBBS1, the causal agent of bacterial wilt disease in tobacco. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 and Bacillus artrophaeus LSSC22 had the strongest inhibitory effect against Rsc. Thirteen VOCs produced by FZB42 and 10 by LSSC22 were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081443/the-bacterial-t6ss-effector-evpp-prevents-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-by-inhibiting-the-ca-2-dependent-mapk-jnk-pathway
#4
Hao Chen, Dahai Yang, Fajun Han, Jinchao Tan, Lingzhi Zhang, Jingfan Xiao, Yuanxing Zhang, Qin Liu
Inflammasome activation is an important innate immune defense mechanism against bacterial infection, and in return, bacteria express virulence determinants that counteract inflammasome activation. Many such effectors are secreted into host cells via specialized bacterial secretion systems. Here, the intracellular pathogenic bacterium Edwardsiella tarda was demonstrated to activate NLRC4 and NLRP3 inflammasomes via a type III secretion system (T3SS), and to inhibit NLRP3 inflammasome via a type VI secretion system (T6SS), indicating the antagonistic roles of these systems in inflammasome signaling...
January 11, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081441/warfare-between-host-immunity-and-bacterial-weapons
#5
Manda Yu, Erh-Min Lai
Bacterial pathogens deploy protein secretion systems to facilitate infection and colonization of their hosts. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Chen et al. (2017) report a new role for a type VI secretion effector in promoting bacterial colonization by preventing inflammasome activation induced by a type III secretion system.
January 11, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077405/vrprofile-gene-cluster-detection-based-profiling-of-virulence-and-antibiotic-resistance-traits-encoded-within-genome-sequences-of-pathogenic-bacteria
#6
Jun Li, Cui Tai, Zixin Deng, Weihong Zhong, Yongqun He, Hong-Yu Ou
VRprofile is a Web server that facilitates rapid investigation of virulence and antibiotic resistance genes, as well as extends these trait transfer-related genetic contexts, in newly sequenced pathogenic bacterial genomes. The used backend database MobilomeDB was firstly built on sets of known gene cluster loci of bacterial type III/IV/VI/VII secretion systems and mobile genetic elements, including integrative and conjugative elements, prophages, class I integrons, IS elements and pathogenicity/antibiotic resistance islands...
January 10, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070933/secretome-analysis-of-diarrhea-inducing-strains-of-escherichia-coli
#7
Raja Sekhar Nirujogi, Babylakshmi Muthusamy, Min-Sik Kim, Gajanan J Sathe, P T V Lakshmi, Olga N Kovbasnjuk, T S Keshava Prasad, Mary Wade, Rabih E Jabbour
Secreted proteins constitute a major part of virulence factors that are responsible for pathogenesis caused by gram negative bacteria. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (E. coli), EHEC O157:H7 is the major pathogen often causing outbreaks. However, studies have reported that the significant outbreaks caused by non O157:H7 E. coli strains, also known as "Big-Six" serogroup strains are increasing. There is no systematic study describing differential secreted proteins from these non-O157:H7 E. coli strains. In this study, we carried out mass spectrometry-based differential secretome analysis using tandem mass tags labeling strategy of non-O157:H7 E...
January 9, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069818/ssek1-and-ssek3-t3ss-effectors-inhibit-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signalling-and-necroptotic-cell-death-in-salmonella-infected-macrophages
#8
Regina A Günster, Sophie A Matthews, David W Holden, Teresa L M Thurston
Within host cells such as macrophages, Salmonella enterica translocates virulence (effector) proteins across its vacuolar membrane using the SPI-2 type III secretion system. Previously it has been shown that when expressed ectopically the effectors SseK1 and SseK3 inhibit TNFα-induced NF-κB activation. In this study we show that ectopically expressed SseK1, SseK2 and SseK3 suppressed TNFα-, but not TLR4-, or interleukin-induced NF-κB activation. Inhibition required a DXD motif, which in SseK1 and SseK3 is essential for protein Arginine-N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc)-ylation...
January 9, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056815/comparative-genomics-of-host-adaptive-traits-in-xanthomonas-translucens-pv-graminis
#9
Lena Hersemann, Daniel Wibberg, Jochen Blom, Alexander Goesmann, Franco Widmer, Frank-Jörg Vorhölter, Roland Kölliker
BACKGROUND: Xanthomonas translucens pathovars differ in their individual host ranges among Poaceae. As the causal agent of bacterial wilt in Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), X. translucens pv. graminis (Xtg) is one of the most important bacterial pathogens in temperate grassland regions. The genomes of six Xtg strains from Switzerland, Norway, and New Zealand were sequenced in order to gain insight into conserved genomic traits from organisms covering a wide geographical range...
January 5, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052848/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-oligoribonuclease-contributes-to-tolerance-to-ciprofloxacin-by-regulating-pyocin-biosynthesis
#10
Fei Chen, Gukui Chen, Yiwei Liu, Yongxin Jin, Zhihui Cheng, Yang Liu, Liang Yang, Shouguang Jin, Weihui Wu
Bacterial oligoribonuclease (Orn) is a conserved 3' to 5' exonuclease. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, it has been demonstrated that Orn plays a major role in the hydrolysis of pGpG which is required for c-di-GMP homeostasis. Meanwhile, Orn is involved in the degradation of nanoRNAs which can alter global gene expression by serving as transcription initiation primers. Previously, we found that Orn is required for the type III secretion system and pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa, indicating a role of Orn in bacterial response to environmental stimuli...
January 4, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049143/the-ruler-protein-escp-of-the-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli-type-iii-secretion-system-is-involved-in-calcium-sensing-and-secretion-hierarchy-regulation-by-interacting-with-the-gatekeeper-protein-sepl
#11
Lihi Shaulov, Jenia Gershberg, Wanyin Deng, B Brett Finlay, Neta Sal-Man
: The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a multiprotein complex that plays a central role in the virulence of many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. To ensure that effector proteins are efficiently translocated into the host cell, bacteria must be able to sense their contact with the host cell. In this study, we found that EscP, which was previously shown to function as the ruler protein of the enteropathogenic Escherichia coli T3SS, is also involved in the switch from the secretion of translocator proteins to the secretion of effector proteins...
January 3, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039361/characterization-of-the-ruler-protein-interaction-interface-on-the-substrate-specificity-switch-protein-in-the-yersinia-type-iii-secretion-system
#12
Oanh Ho, Per Rogne, Tomas Edgren, Hans Wolf-Watz, Frédéric H Login, Magnus Wolf-Watz
Many pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria use the type III secretion system (T3SS) to deliver effector proteins into eukaryotic host cells. In Yersinia the switch to secretion of effector proteins is induced first after that intimate contact between the bacterium and its eukaryotic target cell has been established and the T3SS proteins YscP and YscU are playing a central role in this process. Here we identify the molecular details of the YscP binding site on YscU by means of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028452/burkholderia-pseudomallei-type-iii-secreted-protein-bipc-role-in-actin-modulation-and-translocation-activities-required-for-the-bacterial-intracellular-lifecycle
#13
Wen Tyng Kang, Kumutha Malar Vellasamy, Lakshminarayanan Rajamani, Roger W Beuerman, Jamuna Vadivelu
Melioidosis, an infection caused by the facultative intracellular pathogen Burkholderia pseudomallei, has been classified as an emerging disease with the number of patients steadily increasing at an alarming rate. B. pseudomalleipossess various virulence determinants that allow them to invade the host and evade the host immune response, such as the type III secretion systems (TTSS). The products of this specialized secretion system are particularly important for the B. pseudomallei infection. Lacking in one or more components of the TTSS demonstrated different degrees of defects in the intracellular lifecycle of B...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019708/revealing-the-inventory-of-type-iii-effectors-in-pantoea-agglomerans-gall-forming-pathovars-by-using-draft-genome-sequences-and-a-machine-learning-approach
#14
Gal Nissan, Michael Gershovits, Michael Morozov, Laura Chalupowicz, Guido Sessa, Shulamit Manulis-Sasson, Isaac Barash, Tal Pupko
Pantoea agglomerans, a widespread epiphytic bacterium, has evolved into a hrp-dependent and host-specific gall-forming pathogen by acquiring a pathogenicity plasmid containing a type III secretion system (T3SS) and its effectors (T3Es). P. agglomerans pv. betae (Pab) elicits galls on beet (Beta vulgaris) and gypsophila (Gypsophila paniculata), whereas P. agglomerans pv. gypsophilae (Pag) incites galls on gypsophila and hypersensitive response (HR) on beet. Draft genome sequences were generated and employed in combination with a machine learning approach and a translocation assay into beet roots to identify the pools of T3Es in the two pathovars...
December 26, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013045/the-mechanism-underlying-ler-mediated-alleviation-of-gene-repression-by-h-ns
#15
Minsang Shin
Secretion of effector proteins in Enteropathogeneic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is mediated by a specialized type III secretion system, components of which are encoded in the LEE operons 1 to 5. H-NS, a global repressor in E. coli, silences the expression of LEE operons. Ler, a master regulator in LEE operons, shares 24% amnio acid identity and 44% amino acid similarity to H-NS. Interestingly, rather than a gene silencer, its main role has been characterized as an antagonizing protein that relieves H-NS-mediated transcriptional silencing...
December 21, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012986/increased-secretion-of-exopolysaccharide-and-virulence-potential-of-a-mucoid-variant-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-montevideo-under-environmental-stress
#16
J Jean-Gilles Beaubrun, Ben D Tall, M-L Flamer, I Patel, G Gopinath, Winny Auguste, Catherine Jean, Melvin George, Carmen Tartera, L Ewing, D E Hanes
During an investigation to increase the recovery of Salmonella enterica from Oregano, an increased expression of exopolysaccharide was induced in Salmonella serovar Montevideo. The atypical mucoid (SAL242S) and the non-mucoid (SAL242) strains of Montevideo were compared and characterized using various methods. Serotyping analysis demonstrated that both strains are the same serovar Montevideo. Electron microscopy (EM) of cultured SAL242S cells revealed the production of a prominent EPS-like structure enveloping aggregates of cells that are composed of cellulose...
December 21, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010734/proteins-adopt-functionally-active-conformations-after-type-iii-secretion
#17
Kevin James Metcalf, James Lea Bevington, Sandy Lisette Rosales, Lisa Ann Burdette, Elias Valdivia, Danielle Tullman-Ercek
BACKGROUND: Bacterial production of natively folded heterologous proteins by secretion to the extracellular space can improve protein production by simplifying purification and enabling continuous processing. In a typical bacterial protein production process, the protein of interest accumulates in the cytoplasm of the cell, requiring cellular lysis and extensive purification to separate the desired protein from other cellular constituents. The type III secretion system of Gram-negative bacteria is used to secrete proteins from the cytosol to the extracellular space in one step, but proteins must unfold during translocation, necessitating the folding of secreted proteins in the extracellular space for an efficient production process...
December 23, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001093/gaba-%C3%AE-aminobutyric-acid-uptake-via-the-gaba-permease-gabp-represses-virulence-gene-expression-in-pseudomonas-syringae-pv-tomato-dc3000
#18
S L McCraw, D H Park, R Jones, M A Bentley, A Rico, R G Ratcliffe, N J Kruger, A Collmer, G M Preston
The nonprotein amino acid γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the most abundant amino acid in the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) leaf apoplast and is synthesized by Arabidopsis thaliana in response to infection by the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (hereafter called DC3000). High levels of exogenous GABA have previously been shown to repress the expression of the type III secretion system (T3SS) in DC3000, resulting in reduced elicitation of the hypersensitive response (HR) in the nonhost plant tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum)...
December 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999769/exse-is-a-negative-regulator-for-t3ss-gene-expression-in-vibrio-alginolyticus
#19
Jinxin Liu, Shao-Yeh Lu, Lisa H Orfe, Chun-Hua Ren, Chao-Qun Hu, Douglas R Call, Johannetsy J Avillan, Zhe Zhao
Type III secretion systems (T3SSs) contribute to microbial pathogenesis of Vibrio species, but the regulatory mechanisms are complex. We determined if the classic ExsACDE protein-protein regulatory model from Pseudomonas aeruginosa applies to Vibrio alginolyticus. Deletion mutants in V. alginolyticus demonstrated that, as expected, the T3SS is positively regulated by ExsA and ExsC and negatively regulated by ExsD and ExsE. Interestingly, deletion of exsE enhanced the ability of V. alginolyticus to induce host-cell death while cytotoxicity was inhibited by in trans complementation of this gene in a wild-type strain, a result that differs from a similar experiment with Vibrio parahaemolyticus ExsE...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997726/functional-relatedness-in-the-inv-mxi-spa-type-iii-secretion-system-family
#20
Jessica A Klein, Biren M Dave, Amogelang R Raphenya, Andrew G McArthur, Leigh A Knodler
Type III Secretion Systems (T3SSs) are structurally conserved nanomachines that span the inner and outer bacterial membranes, and via a protruding needle complex contact host cell membranes and deliver type III effector proteins. T3SS are phylogenetically divided into several families based on structural basal body components. Here we have studied the evolutionary and functional conservation of four T3SS proteins from the Inv/Mxi-Spa family: a cytosolic chaperone, two hydrophobic translocators that form a plasma membrane-integral pore, and the hydrophilic "tip complex" translocator that connects the T3SS needle to the translocon pore...
December 20, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
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