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Type III Secretion System

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426838/a-second-wave-of-salmonella-t3ss1-activity-prolongs-the-lifespan-of-infected-epithelial-cells
#1
Ciaran E Finn, Audrey Chong, Kendal G Cooper, Tregei Starr, Olivia Steele-Mortimer
Type III secretion system 1 (T3SS1) is used by the enteropathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to establish infection in the gut. Effector proteins translocated by this system across the plasma membrane facilitate invasion of intestinal epithelial cells. One such effector, the inositol phosphatase SopB, contributes to invasion and mediates activation of the pro-survival kinase Akt. Following internalization, some bacteria escape from the Salmonella-containing vacuole into the cytosol and there is evidence suggesting that T3SS1 is expressed in this subpopulation...
April 20, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424682/interactions-between-type-1-interferons-and-the-th17-response-in-tuberculosis-lessons-learned-from-autoimmune-diseases
#2
REVIEW
Bas C Mourik, Erik Lubberts, Jurriaan E M de Steenwinkel, Tom H M Ottenhoff, Pieter J M Leenen
The classical paradigm of tuberculosis (TB) immunity, with a central protective role for Th1 responses and IFN-γ-stimulated cellular responses, has been challenged by unsatisfactory results of vaccine strategies aimed at enhancing Th1 immunity. Moreover, preclinical TB models have shown that increasing IFN-γ responses in the lungs is more damaging to the host than to the pathogen. Type 1 interferon signaling and altered Th17 responses have also been associated with active TB, but their functional roles in TB pathogenesis remain to be established...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423458/dissecting-virulence-function-from-recognition-cell-death-suppression-in-nicotiana-benthamiana-by-xopq-hopq1-family-effectors-relies-on-eds1-dependent-immunity
#3
Norman Adlung, Ulla Bonas
Many Gram-negative plant pathogenic bacteria express effector proteins of the XopQ/HopQ1 family which are translocated into plant cells via the type III secretion system during infection. In Nicotiana benthamiana, recognition of XopQ/HopQ1 proteins induces an effector-triggered immunity (ETI) reaction which is not associated with strong cell death but renders plants immune against Pseudomonas syringae and Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria strains. Additionally, XopQ suppresses cell death in N. benthamiana when transiently co-expressed with cell death inducers...
April 19, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401683/a-global-survey-of-bacterial-type-iii-secretion-systems-and-their-effectors
#4
Yueming Hu, He Huang, Xi Cheng, Xingsheng Shu, Aaron P White, John Stavrinides, Wolfgang Köster, Guoqiang Zhu, Zhendong Zhao, Yejun Wang
The type III secretion system (T3SS) is an important genetic determinant that mediates interactions between Gram-negative bacteria and their eukaryotic hosts. Our understanding of the T3SS continues to expand, yet the availability of new bacterial genomes prompts questions about its diversity, distribution, and evolution. Through a comprehensive survey of ∼20,000 bacterial genomes, we identified 174 non-redundant T3SSs from 109 genera and 5 phyla. Many of the bacteria are environmental strains that have not been reported to interact with eukaryotic hosts, while several species groups carry multiple T3SSs...
April 12, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393050/how-do-the-virulence-factors-of-shigella-work-together-to-cause-disease
#5
REVIEW
Emily Mattock, Ariel J Blocker
Shigella is the major cause of bacillary dysentery world-wide. It is divided into four species, named S. flexneri, S. sonnei, S. dysenteriae, and S. boydii, which are distinct genomically and in their ability to cause disease. Shigellosis, the clinical presentation of Shigella infection, is characterized by watery diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever. Shigella's ability to cause disease has been attributed to virulence factors, which are encoded on chromosomal pathogenicity islands and the virulence plasmid...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392566/assembly-structure-function-and-regulation-of-type-iii-secretion-systems
#6
REVIEW
Wanyin Deng, Natalie C Marshall, Jennifer L Rowland, James M McCoy, Liam J Worrall, Andrew S Santos, Natalie C J Strynadka, B Brett Finlay
Type III secretion systems (T3SSs) are protein transport nanomachines that are found in Gram-negative bacterial pathogens and symbionts. Resembling molecular syringes, T3SSs form channels that cross the bacterial envelope and the host cell membrane, which enable bacteria to inject numerous effector proteins into the host cell cytoplasm and establish trans-kingdom interactions with diverse hosts. Recent advances in cryo-electron microscopy and integrative imaging have provided unprecedented views of the architecture and structure of T3SSs...
April 10, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389944/coupling-of-flagellar-gene-expression-with-assembly-in-salmonella-enterica
#7
Fabienne F V Chevance, Kelly T Hughes
There are more than 70 genes in the flagellar and chemosensory regulon of Salmonella enterica. These genes are organized into a transcriptional hierarchy of three promoter classes. At the top of the transcriptional hierarchy is the flhDC operon, also called the flagellar master operon, which is transcribed from the flagellar class 1 promoter region. The protein products of the flhDC operon form a hetero-multimeric complex, FlhD4C2, which directs σ(70) RNA polymerase to transcribe from class 2 flagellar promoters...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389942/interactions-of-flagellar-structural-subunits-with-the-membrane-export-machinery
#8
Lewis D B Evans, Paul M Bergen, Owain J Bryant, Gillian M Fraser
During assembly of the bacterial flagellum, structural subunits synthesized inside the cell must be exported across the cytoplasmic membrane before they can crystallize into the nascent flagellar structure. This export process is facilitated by a specialized Flagellar Type III Secretion System (fT3SS) located at the base of each flagellum. Here, we describe three methods-isothermal titration calorimetry, photo-crosslinking using unnatural amino acids, and a subunit capture assay-used to investigate the interactions of flagellar structural subunits with the membrane export machinery component FlhB...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381209/supplemental-invasion-of-salmonella-from-the-perspective-of-salmonella-enterica-serovars-kentucky-and-typhimurium
#9
Kevin Howe, Sanaz Salehi, R Hartford Bailey, John P Brooks, Robert Wills, Mark L Lawrence, Attila Karsi
BACKGROUND: Critical to the development of Salmonellosis in humans is the interaction of the bacterium with the epithelial lining of the gastrointestinal tract. Traditional scientific reasoning held type III secretion system (T3SS) as the virulence factor responsible for bacterial invasion. In this study, field-isolated Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky and a known human pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium were mutated and evaluated for the invasion of human colorectal adenocarcinoma epithelial cells...
April 5, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378044/yersinia-pseudotuberculosis-supports-th17-differentiation-and-limits-de-novo-regulatory-t-cell-induction-by-directly-interfering-with-t-cell-receptor-signaling
#10
Maria Pasztoi, Agnes Bonifacius, Joern Pezoldt, Devesha Kulkarni, Jana Niemz, Juhao Yang, René Teich, Janina Hajek, Fabio Pisano, Manfred Rohde, Petra Dersch, Jochen Huehn
Adaptive immunity critically contributes to control acute infection with enteropathogenic Yersinia pseudotuberculosis; however, the role of CD4(+) T cell subsets in establishing infection and allowing pathogen persistence remains elusive. Here, we assessed the modulatory capacity of Y. pseudotuberculosis on CD4(+) T cell differentiation. Using in vivo assays, we report that infection with Y. pseudotuberculosis resulted in enhanced priming of IL-17-producing T cells (Th17 cells), whereas induction of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) was severely disrupted in gut-draining mesenteric lymph nodes (mLNs), in line with altered frequencies of tolerogenic and proinflammatory dendritic cell (DC) subsets within mLNs...
April 4, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375513/host-and-pathogen-biomarkers-for-severe-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infections
#11
Carlos Juan, Carmen Peña, Antonio Oliver
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is among the leading causes of severe nosocomial infections, particularly affecting critically ill and immunocompromised patients. Here we review the current knowledge on the factors underlying the outcome of P. aeruginosa nosocomial infections, including aspects related to the pathogen, the host, and treatment. Intestinal colonization and previous use of antibiotics are key risk factors for P. aeruginosa infections, whereas underlying disease, source of infection, and severity of acute presentation are key host factors modulating outcome; delayed adequate antimicrobial therapy is also independently associated with increased mortality...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370521/efficacy-comparison-of-adjuvants-in-pcrv-vaccine-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pneumonia
#12
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Saeko Hamaoka, Yoshifumi Naito, Hideya Katoh, Masaru Shimizu, Mao Kinoshita, Koichi Akiyama, Atsushi Kainuma, Kiyoshi Moriyama, Ken J Ishii, Teiji Sawa
Vaccination against the type III secretion system of P. aeruginosa is a potential prophylactic strategy for reducing the incidence and improving the poor prognosis of P. aeruginosa pneumonia. In this study, the efficacies of three different adjuvants, Freund's adjuvant (FA), aluminum hydroxide (alum) and CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN), were examined from the viewpoint of inducing PcrV-specific immunity against virulent P. aeruginosa. Mice that had been immunized intraperitoneally with recombinant PcrV formulated with one of the above adjuvants were challenged intratracheally with a lethal dose of P...
February 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363181/the-effective-migration-of-massilia-sp-wf1-by-phanerochaete-chrysosporium-and-its-phenanthrene-biodegradation-in-soil
#13
Haiping Gu, Yuanzhi Chen, Xingmei Liu, Haizhen Wang, Jue Shen-Tu, Laosheng Wu, Lingzao Zeng, Jianming Xu
Pollutant-degrading bacteria migrated by fungi may enhance the contacts between microorganisms and pollutants and improve the bioremediation efficiency of persistent organic pollutants in soil. Here, the migration of phenanthrene (PHE)-degrading bacteria Massilia sp. WF1 and Mycobacterium sp. WY10 by the hydrophobic fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium (P. chrysosporium) and its effects on the PHE biodegradation in soil were investigated. Migration of the hydrophilic bacterium WF1 was better than that of the hydrophobic bacterium WY10 by P...
March 28, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352612/a-co-infection-model-system-and-the-use-of-chimeric-proteins-to-study-chlamydia-inclusion-proteins-interaction
#14
Ying Han, Isabelle Derré
Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterium associated with trachoma and sexually transmitted diseases. During its intracellular developmental cycle, Chlamydia resides in a membrane bound compartment called the inclusion. A subset of Type III secreted effectors, the inclusion membrane proteins (Inc), are inserted into the inclusion membrane. Inc proteins are strategically positioned to promote inclusion interaction with host factors and organelles, a process required for bacterial replication, but little is known about Inc proteins function or host interacting partners...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351918/a-novel-mechanism-for-protein-delivery-by-the-type-3-secretion-system-for-extracellularly-secreted-proteins
#15
Farid Tejeda-Dominguez, Jazmin Huerta-Cantillo, Lucia Chavez-Dueñas, Fernando Navarro-Garcia
The type 3 secretion system (T3SS) is essential for bacterial virulence through delivering effector proteins directly into the host cytosol. Here, we identified an alternative delivery mechanism of virulence factors mediated by the T3SS, which consists of the association of extracellularly secreted proteins from bacteria with the T3SS to gain access to the host cytosol. Both EspC, a protein secreted as an enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) autotransporter, and YopH, a protein detected on the surface of Yersinia, require a functional T3SS for host cell internalization; here we provide biophysical and molecular evidence to support the concept of the EspC translocation mechanism, which requires (i) an interaction between EspA and an EspC middle segment, (ii) an EspC translocation motif (21 residues that are shared with the YopH translocation motif), (iii) increases in the association and dissociation rates of EspC mediated by EspA interacting with EspD, and (iv) an interaction of EspC with the EspD/EspB translocon pore...
March 28, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348410/a-pseudomonas-t6ss-effector-recruits-pqs-containing-outer-membrane-vesicles-for-iron-acquisition
#16
Jinshui Lin, Weipeng Zhang, Juanli Cheng, Xu Yang, Kaixiang Zhu, Yao Wang, Gehong Wei, Pei-Yuan Qian, Zhao-Qing Luo, Xihui Shen
Iron sequestration by host proteins contributes to the defence against bacterial pathogens, which need iron for their metabolism and virulence. A Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutant lacking all three known iron acquisition systems retains the ability to grow in media containing iron chelators, suggesting the presence of additional pathways involved in iron uptake. Here we screen P. aeruginosa mutants defective in growth in iron-depleted media and find that gene PA2374, proximal to the type VI secretion system H3 (H3-T6SS), functions synergistically with known iron acquisition systems...
March 28, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344350/structural-biology-in-situ-architecture-of-the-type-iii-secretion-system
#17
Shimona Starling
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301138/a-secretion-amplification-role-for-salmonella-enterica-translocon-protein-sipd
#18
Anum Azam Glasgow, Han Teng Wong, Danielle Tullman-Ercek
The bacterial type III secretion system (T3SS) is an important target for enabling high-titer production of proteins of biotechnological interest as well as for synthetic biology applications that rely on protein delivery to host cells. The T3SS forms a membrane-embedded needle complex that is capped by the translocon proteins and extends into the extracellular space. The needle tip complex in Salmonella enterica consists of three translocon proteins: SipB, SipC, and SipD. It is known that knocking out sipD disrupts T3SS regulation to cause constitutive secretion of native proteins...
March 16, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296562/immunomodulatory-yersinia-outer-proteins-yops-useful-tools-for-bacteria-and-humans-alike
#19
Benjamin Grabowski, M Alexander Schmidt, Christian Rüter
Human-pathogenic Yersinia produce plasmid-encoded Yersinia outer proteins (Yops), which are necessary to down-regulate anti-bacterial responses that constrict bacterial survival in the host. These Yops are effectively translocated directly from the bacterial into the target cell cytosol by the type III secretion system (T3SS). Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) in contrast are characterized by their ability to autonomously cross cell membranes and to transport cargo - independent of additional translocation systems...
March 15, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283066/inside-the-chamber-of-secrets-of-the-type-iii-secretion-system
#20
Eric Cascales
The bacterial type III secretion system is a specialized machine that injects effectors into eukaryotic cells to manipulate the host cell physiology. In this issue of Cell, Hu et al. use cryo-electron tomography to reveal an unprecedented level of details regarding the architecture of this machine and the conformational changes that occur during its assembly.
March 9, 2017: Cell
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