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Type III Secretion System

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731172/comparison-of-the-neuronal-differentiation-abilities-of-bone-marrow%C3%A2-derived-and-adipose-tissue%C3%A2-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#1
Yani Zheng, Chao Huang, Fang Liu, Haiyan Lin, Xiangqun Yang, Zhiying Zhang
Bone marrow‑derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and adipose tissue‑derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) are able to differentiate into neuron‑like cells when exposed to small molecule compounds, however the specific differences in their neuronal differentiation abilities remain to be fully elucidated. The present study aimed to compare the neuronal differentiation abilities of BMSCs and ADSCs. BMSCs and ADSCs from the same Sprague Dawley rats were isolated and cultured for use. The proliferation capacity was revealed using a cell counting method...
July 21, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727722/an-attenuated-shigella-mutant-lacking-the-rna-binding-protein-hfq-provides-cross-protection-against-shigella-strains-of-broad-serotype
#2
Jiro Mitobe, Ritam Sinha, Soma Mitra, Dhrubajyoti Nag, Noriko Saito, Ken Shimuta, Nobuo Koizumi, Hemanta Koley
Few live attenuated vaccines protect against multiple serotypes of bacterial pathogen because host serotype-specific immune responses are limited to the serotype present in the vaccine strain. Here, immunization with a mutant of Shigella flexneri 2a protected guinea pigs against subsequent infection by S. dysenteriae type 1 and S. sonnei strains. This deletion mutant lacked the RNA-binding protein Hfq leading to increased expression of the type III secretion system via loss of regulation, resulting in attenuation of cell viability through repression of stress response sigma factors...
July 20, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716827/galectin-1-driven-tolerogenic-programs-aggravate-yersinia-enterocolitica-infection-by-repressing-antibacterial-immunity
#3
Roberto C Davicino, Santiago P Méndez-Huergo, Ricardo J Eliçabe, Juan C Stupirski, Ingo Autenrieth, María S Di Genaro, Gabriel A Rabinovich
Yersinia enterocolitica is an enteropathogenic bacterium that causes gastrointestinal disorders, as well as extraintestinal manifestations. To subvert the host's immune response, Y. enterocolitica uses a type III secretion system consisting of an injectisome and effector proteins, called Yersinia outer proteins (Yops), that modulate activation, signaling, and survival of immune cells. In this article, we show that galectin-1 (Gal-1), an immunoregulatory lectin widely expressed in mucosal tissues, contributes to Y...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713361/exposure-to-umbelliferone-reduces-ralstonia-solanacearum-biofilm-formation-transcription-of-type-iii-secretion-system-regulators-and-effectors-and-virulence-on-tobacco
#4
Liang Yang, Shili Li, Xiyun Qin, Gaofei Jiang, Juanni Chen, Bide Li, Xiaoyuan Yao, Peibo Liang, Yong Zhang, Wei Ding
Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the most devastating phytopathogens and causes bacterial wilt, which leads to severe economic loss due to its worldwide distribution and broad host range. Certain plant-derived compounds (PDCs) can impair bacterial virulence by suppressing pathogenic factors of R. solanacearum. However, the inhibitory mechanisms of PDCs in bacterial virulence remain largely unknown. In this study, we screened a library of coumarins and derivatives, natural PDCs with fused benzene and α-pyrone rings, for their effects on expression of the type III secretion system (T3SS) of R...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708051/ralstonia-solanacearum-novel-e3-ubiquitin-ligase-nel-effectors-ripaw-and-ripar-suppress-pattern-triggered-immunity-in-plants
#5
Masahito Nakano, Kenji Oda, Takafumi Mukaihara
Ralstonia solanacearum is the causal agent of bacterial wilt in solanaceous crops. This pathogen injects more than 70 effector proteins into host plant cells via the Hrp type III secretion system to cause a successful infection. However, the function of these effectors in plant cells, especially in the suppression of plant immunity, remains largely unknown. In this study, we characterized two Ralstonia solanacearum effectors, RipAW and RipAR, which share homology with the IpaH family of effectors from animal and plant pathogenic bacteria, that have a novel E3 ubiquitin ligase (NEL) domain...
July 15, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705955/tracking-the-bacterial-type-iii-secretion-system-visualization-of-effector-delivery-using-split-fluorescent-proteins
#6
Jennifer Mach
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 13, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694803/comparative-genomics-identifies-a-novel-conserved-protein-hpat-in-proteobacterial-type-iii-secretion-systems-that-do-not-possess-the-putative-translocon-protein-hrpf
#7
Céline Pesce, Jonathan M Jacobs, Edwige Berthelot, Marion Perret, Taca Vancheva, Claude Bragard, Ralf Koebnik
Xanthomonas translucens is the causal agent of bacterial leaf streak, the most common bacterial disease of wheat and barley. To cause disease, most xanthomonads depend on a highly conserved type III secretion system, which translocates type III effectors into host plant cells. Mutagenesis of the conserved type III secretion gene hrcT confirmed that the X. translucens type III secretion system is required to cause disease on the host plant barley and to trigger a non-host hypersensitive response (HR) in pepper leaves...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691868/clpxp-dependent-rpos-degradation-enables-full-activation-of-type-iii-secretion-system-amylovoran-production-and-motility-in-erwinia-amylovora
#8
Jae Hoon Lee, Youfu Zhao
Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight disease of apples and pears, employs intracellular proteases, including Lon and ClpXP, for post-translational regulation of various cellular proteins. It has been shown that Lon plays a critical role in E. amylovora virulence by directly targeting type III secretion (T3SS) proteins and the Rcs phosphorelay system. In this study, we genetically examined the role of ClpXP and its potential interaction with Lon in E. amylovora. Mutation in clpXP diminished the expression of the T3SS, reduced exopolysaccharide amylovoran production and motility, and resulted in delayed disease progress...
July 10, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682158/recombination-of-virulence-genes-in-divergent-acidovorax-avenae-strains-that-infect-a-common-host
#9
Quan Zeng, Jie Wang, Frederic Bertels, Paul Giordano, Martin I Chilvers, Regan B Huntley, Joseph M Vargas, George W Sundin, Janette L Jacobs, Ching-Hong Yang
Bacterial etiolation and decline (BED), caused by Acidovorax avenae, is an emerging disease of creeping bentgrass on golf courses in the United States of America. We performed the first comprehensive analysis of A. avenae on a nationwide collection of turfgrass and maize pathogenic A. avenae. Surprisingly, our results reveal that the turfgrass pathogenic A. avenae in North America are not only highly divergent but also belong to two distinct phylogroups. Both phylogroups specifically infect turfgrass but are more closely related to maize pathogens, than to each other...
July 6, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680437/knots-untie-molecular-determinants-involved-in-knot-formation-induced-by-pseudomonas-savastanoi-in-woody-hosts
#10
REVIEW
Eloy Caballo-Ponce, Jesús Murillo, Marta Martínez-Gil, Alba Moreno-Pérez, Adrián Pintado, Cayo Ramos
The study of the molecular basis of tree diseases is lately receiving a renewed attention, especially with the emerging perception that pathogens require specific pathogenicity and virulence factors to successfully colonize woody hosts. Pathosystems involving woody plants are notoriously difficult to study, although the use of model bacterial strains together with genetically homogeneous micropropagated plant material is providing a significant impetus to our understanding of the molecular determinants leading to disease...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677296/pseudomonas-syringae-pv-tomato-dc3000-polymutants-deploying-coronatine-and-two-type-iii-effectors-produce-quantifiable-chlorotic-spots-from-individual-bacterial-colonies-in-nicotiana-benthamiana-leaves
#11
Suma Chakravarthy, Jay N Worley, Adriana Montes-Rodriguez, Alan Collmer
Primary virulence factors of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 include the phytotoxin coronatine (COR) and a repertoire of 29 effector proteins injected into plant cells by the type III secretion system (T3SS). DC3000 derivatives differentially producing COR, the T3SS machinery, and subsets of key effectors were constructed and assayed in leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana. Bacteria were inoculated by dipping of whole plants and assayed for population growth and production of chlorotic spots on leaves. The strains fell into three classes...
July 5, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674182/mesenchymal-cell-specific-myd88-signaling-promotes-systemic-dissemination-of-salmonellatyphimurium-via-inflammatory-monocytes
#12
Donghyun Kim, Sang-Uk Seo, Melody Y Zeng, Wan-Uk Kim, Nobuhiko Kamada, Naohiro Inohara, Gabriel Núñez
Enteric pathogens including Salmonella enteric serovar Typhimurium can breach the epithelial barrier of the host and spread to systemic tissues. In response to infection, the host activates innate immune receptors via the signaling molecule MyD88, which induces protective inflammatory and antimicrobial responses. Most of these innate immune responses have been studied in hematopoietic cells, but the role of MyD88 signaling in other cell types remains poorly understood. Surprisingly, we found that Dermo1-Cre;Myd88(fl/fl) mice with mesenchymal cell-specific deficiency of MyD88 were less susceptible to orogastric and i...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671993/epithelial-cells-detect-functional-type-iii-secretion-system-of-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli-through-a-novel-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway
#13
Yael Litvak, Shir Sharon, Meirav Hyams, Li Zhang, Simi Kobi, Naama Katsowich, Shira Dishon, Gabriel Nussbaum, Na Dong, Feng Shao, Ilan Rosenshine
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), a common cause of infant diarrhea, is associated with high risk of mortality in developing countries. The primary niche of infecting EPEC is the apical surface of intestinal epithelial cells. EPEC employs a type three secretion system (TTSS) to inject the host cells with dozens of effector proteins, which facilitate attachment to these cells and successful colonization. Here we show that EPEC elicit strong NF-κB activation in infected host cells. Furthermore, the data indicate that active, pore-forming TTSS per se is necessary and sufficient for this NF-κB activation, regardless of any specific effector or protein translocation...
July 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667632/monitoring-effector-translocation-using-the-tem-1-beta-lactamase-reporter-system
#14
Julie Allombert, Anne Vianney, Xavier Charpentier
Among the bacterial secretion systems, the Type III, IV, and VI secretion systems enable bacteria to secrete proteins directly into a target cell. This specific form of secretion, referred to as translocation, is essential for a number of pathogens to alter or kill targeted cells. The translocated proteins, called effector proteins, can directly interfere with the normal processes of the targeted cells, preventing elimination of pathogens and promoting their multiplication. The function of effector proteins varies greatly depending on the considered pathogen and the targeted cell...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667631/effector-translocation-cya-reporter-assay
#15
Suma Chakravarthy, Bethany Huot, Brian H Kvitko
An accurate and complete roster of the Type III effector (T3E) proteins translocated by the P. syringae Type III secretion system (T3SS) into host cells is critical to understanding the pathogen's interactions with plants. The adenylate cyclase (Cya) reporter offers a highly sensitive and robust assay for monitoring the translocation of T3Es. T3Es are fused to the calmodulin-dependent adenylate-cyclase domain of CyaA. The T3E targets Cya for translocation through the T3SS into the host cell at which point it is activated by calmodulin and converts adenosine triphosphate into cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667628/energy-requirements-for-protein-secretion-via-the-flagellar-type-iii-secretion-system
#16
Marc Erhardt
Protein transport across the cytoplasmic membrane is coupled to energy derived from adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis or the protein motive force (pmf). A sophisticated, multi-component type III secretion system exports substrate proteins of both the bacterial flagellum and virulence-associated injectisome system of many Gram-negative pathogens. The type-III secretion system is primarily a pmf-driven protein exporter. Here, I describe methods to investigate the export of substrate proteins into the culture supernatant under conditions that manipulate the pmf...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667624/blue-native-page-analysis-of-bacterial-secretion-complexes
#17
Susann Zilkenat, Tobias Dietsche, Julia V Monjarás Feria, Claudia E Torres-Vargas, Mehari Tesfazgi Mebrhatu, Samuel Wagner
Bacterial protein secretion systems serve to translocate substrate proteins across up to three biological membranes, a task accomplished by hydrophobic, membrane-spanning macromolecular complexes. The overexpression, purification, and biochemical characterization of these complexes is often difficult, impeding progress in understanding the structure and function of these systems. Blue native (BN) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) allows for the investigation of these transmembrane complexes right from their originating membranes, without the need for long preparative steps, and is amenable to the parallel characterization of a number of samples under near-native conditions...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664153/sopb-mediated-recruitment-of-snx18-facilitates-salmonella-typhimurium-internalization-by-the-host-cell
#18
David Liebl, Xiaying Qi, Yang Zhe, Timothy C Barnett, Rohan D Teasdale
To invade epithelial cells, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) induces macropinocytosis through the action of virulence proteins delivered across the host cell membrane via a type III secretion system. We show that after docking at the plasma membrane S. Typhimurium triggers rapid recruitment of cytosolic SNX18, a SH3-PX-BAR domain sorting nexin protein, to the bacteria-induced membrane ruffles and to the nascent Salmonella-containing vacuole. SNX18 recruitment required the inositol-phosphatase activity of the Salmonella effector SopB and an intact phosphoinositide-binding site within the PX domain of SNX18, but occurred independently of Rho-GTPases Rac1 and Cdc42 activation...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664152/type-iii-secretion-in-the-melioidosis-pathogen-burkholderia-pseudomallei
#19
REVIEW
Charles W Vander Broek, Joanne M Stevens
Burkholderia pseudomallei is a Gram-negative intracellular pathogen and the causative agent of melioidosis, a severe disease of both humans and animals. Melioidosis is an emerging disease which is predicted to be vastly under-reported. Type III Secretion Systems (T3SSs) are critical virulence factors in Gram negative pathogens of plants and animals. The genome of B. pseudomallei encodes three T3SSs. T3SS-1 and -2, of which little is known, are homologous to Hrp2 secretion systems of the plant pathogens Ralstonia and Xanthomonas...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654176/multiple-pseudomonas-species-secrete-exolysin-like-toxins-and-provoke-caspase-1-dependent-macrophage-death
#20
REVIEW
Pauline Basso, Pierre Wallet, Sylvie Elsen, Emmanuelle Soleilhac, Thomas Henry, Eric Faudry, Ina Attrée
Pathogenic bacteria secrete protein toxins that provoke apoptosis or necrosis of eukaryotic cells. Here, we developed a live-imaging method, based on incorporation of a DNA-intercalating dye into membrane-damaged host cells, to study the kinetics of primary bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) mortality induced by opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa expressing either Type III Secretion System (T3SS) toxins or the pore-forming toxin, Exolysin (ExlA). We found that ExlA promotes the activation of Caspase-1 and maturation of interleukin-1β...
June 27, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
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