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Type III Secretion System

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344350/structural-biology-in-situ-architecture-of-the-type-iii-secretion-system
#1
Shimona Starling
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 27, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301138/a-secretion-amplification-role-for-salmonella-enterica-translocon-protein-sipd
#2
Anum Azam Glasgow, Han Teng Wong, Danielle Tullman-Ercek
The bacterial type III secretion system (T3SS) is an important target for enabling high-titer production of proteins of biotechnological interest as well as for synthetic biology applications that rely on protein delivery to host cells. The T3SS forms a membrane-embedded needle complex that is capped by the translocon proteins and extends into the extracellular space. The needle tip complex in Salmonella enterica consists of three translocon proteins: SipB, SipC, and SipD. It is known that knocking out sipD disrupts T3SS regulation to cause constitutive secretion of native proteins...
March 16, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296562/immunomodulatory-yersinia-outer-proteins-yops-useful-tools-for-bacteria-and-humans-alike
#3
Benjamin Grabowski, M Alexander Schmidt, Christian Rüter
Human-pathogenic Yersinia produce plasmid-encoded Yersinia outer proteins (Yops), which are necessary to down-regulate anti-bacterial responses that constrict bacterial survival in the host. These Yops are effectively translocated directly from the bacterial into the target cell cytosol by the type III secretion system (T3SS). Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) in contrast are characterized by their ability to autonomously cross cell membranes and to transport cargo - independent of additional translocation systems...
March 15, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283066/inside-the-chamber-of-secrets-of-the-type-iii-secretion-system
#4
Eric Cascales
The bacterial type III secretion system is a specialized machine that injects effectors into eukaryotic cells to manipulate the host cell physiology. In this issue of Cell, Hu et al. use cryo-electron tomography to reveal an unprecedented level of details regarding the architecture of this machine and the conformational changes that occur during its assembly.
March 9, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283062/in-situ-molecular-architecture-of-the-salmonella-type-iii-secretion-machine
#5
Bo Hu, Maria Lara-Tejero, Qingke Kong, Jorge E Galán, Jun Liu
Type III protein secretion systems have specifically evolved to deliver bacterially encoded proteins into target eukaryotic cells. The core elements of this multi-protein machine are the envelope-associated needle complex, the inner membrane export apparatus, and a large cytoplasmic sorting platform. Here, we report a high-resolution in situ structure of the Salmonella Typhimurium type III secretion machine obtained by high-throughput cryo-electron tomography and sub-tomogram averaging. Through molecular modeling and comparative analysis of machines assembled with protein-tagged components or from different deletion mutants, we determined the molecular architecture of the secretion machine in situ and localized its structural components...
March 9, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270909/high-quality-permanent-draft-genome-sequence-of-the-bradyrhizobium-elkanii-type-strain-usda-76-t-isolated-from-glycine-max-l-merr
#6
Wayne Reeve, Peter van Berkum, Julie Ardley, Rui Tian, Margaret Gollagher, Dora Marinova, Patrick Elia, T B K Reddy, Manoj Pillay, Neha Varghese, Rekha Seshadri, Natalia Ivanova, Tanja Woyke, Mohamed N Baeshen, Nabih A Baeshen, Nikos Kyrpides
Bradyrhizobium elkanii USDA 76(T) (INSCD = ARAG00000000), the type strain for Bradyrhizobium elkanii, is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that was isolated from an effective nitrogen-fixing root nodule of Glycine max (L. Merr) grown in the USA. Because of its significance as a microsymbiont of this economically important legume, B. elkanii USDA 76(T) was selected as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Genomic Encyclopedia for Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria sequencing project...
2017: Standards in Genomic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264992/crispr-cas-and-contact-dependent-secretion-systems-present-on-excisable-pathogenicity-islands-with-conserved-recombination-modules
#7
Megan R Carpenter, Sai S Kalburge, Joseph D Borowski, Molly C Peters, Rita R Colwell, E Fidelma Boyd
Pathogenicity islands (PAIs) are mobile integrated genetic elements that contain a diverse range of virulence factors. PAIs integrate into the host chromosome at a tRNA locus that contains their specific bacterial attachment site, attB, via integrase mediated site-specific recombination generating attL and attR sites. We identified conserved recombination modules (integrases and att sites) previously described in choleragenic V. cholerae PAIs but with novel cargo genes. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-associated proteins (Cas proteins) and a type VI secretion system (T6SS) gene cluster were identified at the Vibrio Pathogenicity Island-1 (VPI-1) insertion site in nineteen V...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252830/the-ralstonia-solanacearum-effector-ripak-suppresses-plant-hypersensitive-response-by-inhibiting-the-activity-of-host-catalases
#8
Yunhao Sun, Pai Li, Mengying Deng, Dong Shen, Guangyi Dai, Nan Yao, YongJun Lu
The destructive bacterial pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum delivers effector proteins via a type III secretion system for its pathogenesis of plant hosts. However, the biochemical functions of most of these effectors remain unclear. RipAK of R. solanacearum GMI1000 is a type III effector with unknown functions. Functional analysis demonstrated that in tobacco leaves, ripAK knockout bacteria produced an obvious hypersensitive response; also, infected tissues accumulated reactive oxygen species in a shorter period post-infection, compared with wild type...
March 2, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224117/perc-manipulates-metabolism-and-surface-antigens-in-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli
#9
Jay L Mellies, Amy Platenkamp, Jossef Osborn, Lily Ben-Avi
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli is an important cause of profuse, watery diarrhea in infants living in developing regions of the world. Typical strains of EPEC (tEPEC) possess a virulence plasmid, while related clinical isolates that lack the pEAF plasmid are termed atypical EPEC (aEPEC). tEPEC and aEPEC tend to cause acute vs. more chronic type infections, respectively. The pEAF plasmid encodes an attachment factor as well as a regulatory operon, perABC. PerC, a poorly understood regulator, was previously shown to regulate expression of the type III secretion system through Ler...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217742/piericidin-a1-blocks-yersinia-ysc-type-iii-secretion-system-needle-assembly
#10
Jessica M Morgan, Miles C Duncan, Kevin S Johnson, Andreas Diepold, Hanh Lam, Allison J Dupzyk, Lexi R Martin, Weng Ruh Wong, Judith P Armitage, Roger G Linington, Victoria Auerbuch
The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a bacterial virulence factor expressed by dozens of Gram-negative pathogens but largely absent from commensals. The T3SS is an attractive target for antimicrobial agents that may disarm pathogenic bacteria while leaving commensal populations intact. We previously identified piericidin A1 as an inhibitor of the Ysc T3SS in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Piericidins were first discovered as inhibitors of complex I of the electron transport chain in mitochondria and some bacteria...
January 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209897/host-cell-attachment-elicits-posttranscriptional-regulation-in-infecting-enteropathogenic-bacteria
#11
Naama Katsowich, Netanel Elbaz, Ritesh Ranjan Pal, Erez Mills, Simi Kobi, Tamar Kahan, Ilan Rosenshine
The mechanisms by which pathogens sense the host and respond by remodeling gene expression are poorly understood. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), the cause of severe intestinal infection, employs a type III secretion system (T3SS) to inject effector proteins into intestinal epithelial cells. These effectors subvert host cell processes to promote bacterial colonization. We show that the T3SS also functions to sense the host cell and to trigger in response posttranscriptional remodeling of gene expression in the bacteria...
February 17, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205377/culture-independent-genomics-of-a-novel-chlamydial-pathogen-of-fish-provides-new-insight-into-host-specific-adaptations-utilised-by-these-intracellular-bacteria
#12
Alyce Taylor-Brown, Trestan Pillonel, Andrew Bridle, Weihong Qi, Nathan Bachmann, Terrence L Miller, Gilbert Greub, Barbara Nowak, Helena M B Seth-Smith, Lloyd Vaughan, Adam Polkinghorne
Several Chlamydiales families are associated with epitheliocystis, a common condition of the fish gill epithelium. These families share common ancestors with the Chlamydiaceae and environmental Chlamydiae. Due to the lack of culture systems, little is known about the biology of these chlamydial fish pathogens. We investigated epitheliocystis in cultured Orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) from North Queensland, Australia. Basophilic inclusions were present in the gills of 22/31 fish and the presence of the chlamydial pathogen in the cysts was confirmed by in situ hybridisation...
February 15, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198457/identification-of-a-novel-type-iii-secretion-associated-outer-membrane-bound-protein-from-xanthomonas-campestris-pv-campestris
#13
Lei Li, Rui-Fang Li, Zhen-Hua Ming, Guang-Tao Lu, Ji-Liang Tang
Many bacterial pathogens employ the type III secretion system (T3SS) to translocate effector proteins into eukaryotic cells to overcome host defenses. To date, most of our knowledge about the T3SS molecular architecture comes from the studies on animal pathogens. In plant pathogens, nine Hrc proteins are believed to be structural components of the T3SS, of which HrcC and HrcJ form the outer and inner rings of the T3SS, respectively. Here, we demonstrated that a novel outer membrane-bound protein (HpaM) of Xanthomonas campestris pv...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197129/the-ecological-role-of-type-three-secretion-systems-in-the-interaction-of-bacteria-with-fungi-in-soil-and-related-habitats-is-diverse-and-context-dependent
#14
REVIEW
Rashid Nazir, Sylvie Mazurier, Pu Yang, Philippe Lemanceau, Jan Dirk van Elsas
Bacteria and fungi constitute important organisms in many ecosystems, in particular terrestrial ones. Both organismal groups contribute significantly to biogeochemical cycling processes. Ecological theory postulates that bacteria capable of receiving benefits from host fungi are likely to evolve efficient association strategies. The purpose of this review is to examine the mechanisms that underpin the bacterial interactions with fungi in soil and other systems, with special focus on the type III secretion system (T3SS)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196868/an-interaction-between-the-inner-rod-protein-ysci-and-the-needle-protein-yscf-is-required-to-assemble-the-needle-structure-of-the-yersinia-type-three-secretion-system
#15
Shi-Yang Cao, Wan-Bin Liu, Ya-Fang Tan, Hui-Ying Yang, Ting-Ting Zhang, Tong Wang, Xiao-Yi Wang, Ya-Jun Song, Rui-Fu Yang, Zong-Min Du
The type III secretion system is a highly conserved virulence mechanism that is widely distributed in Gram-negative bacteria. It has a syringe-like structure composed of a multi-ring basal body that spans the bacterial envelope, and a projecting needle that delivers virulence effectors into host cells. Here, we showed that the Yersinia inner rod protein YscI directly interacts with the needle protein YscF inside the bacterial cells, and that this interaction depends on amino acid residues 83-102 in the carboxyl-terminus of YscI...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193547/salmonella-proteomics-under-oxidative-stress-reveals-coordinated-regulation-of-antioxidant-defense-with-iron-metabolism-and-bacterial-virulence
#16
Jiaqi Fu, Linlu Qi, Mo Hu, Yanhua Liu, Kaiwen Yu, Qian Liu, Xiaoyun Liu
Salmonella Typhimurium is a bacterial pathogen that can cause widespread gastroenteritis. Salmonella encounters reactive oxygen species both under free-living conditions and within their mammalian host during infection. To study its response to oxidative stress, we performed the first large-scale proteomic profiling of Salmonella upon exposure to H2O2. Among 1600 detected proteins, 83 proteins showed significantly altered abundance. Interestingly, only a subset of known antioxidants was induced, likely due to distinct regulatory mechanisms...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184011/immunity-at-cauliflower-hydathodes-controls-infection-by-xanthomonas-campestris-pv-campestris
#17
Aude Cerutti, Alain Jauneau, Marie-Christine Auriac, Emmanuelle Lauber, Yves Martinez, Serge Chiarenza, Nathalie Leonhardt, Richard Berthomé, Laurent D Noel
Hydathodes are water pores found on leaves of a wide range of vascular plants and are the sites of guttation. We report here on the detailed anatomy of cauliflower and Arabidopsis hydathodes. Hydathode surface presents pores resembling stomata giving access to large cavities. Beneath, the epithem is composed of a lacunar and highly vascularized parenchyma offering a direct connection between leaf surface and xylem vessels. Arabidopsis hydathode pores were responsive to ABA and light similar to stomata. The flg22 flagellin peptide, a well-characterized elicitor of plant basal immunity, did not induce closure of hydathode pores in contrast to stomata...
February 9, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166272/activation-of-mapk-erk-signaling-by-burkholderia-pseudomallei-cycle-inhibiting-factor-cif
#18
Mei Ying Ng, Mei Wang, Patrick J Casey, Yunn-Hwen Gan, Thilo Hagen
Cycle inhibiting factors (Cifs) are virulence proteins secreted by the type III secretion system of some Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria including Burkholderia pseudomallei. Cif is known to function to deamidate Nedd8, leading to inhibition of Cullin E3 ubiquitin ligases (CRL) and consequently induction of cell cycle arrest. Here we show that Cif can function as a potent activator of MAPK/ERK signaling without significant activation of other signaling pathways downstream of receptor tyrosine kinases. Importantly, we found that the ability of Cif to activate ERK is dependent on its deamidase activity, but independent of Cullin E3 ligase inhibition...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166267/bacterial-internalization-is-required-to-trigger-nik-dependent-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation-in-response-to-the-bacterial-type-three-secretion-system
#19
Miles C Duncan, Natalia G Herrera, Kevin S Johnson, Joanne N Engel, Victoria Auerbuch
Infection of human cells with Yersinia pseudotuberculosis expressing a functional type III secretion system (T3SS) leads to activation of host NF-κB. We show that the Yersinia T3SS activates distinct NF-κB pathways dependent upon bacterial subcellular localization. We found that wildtype Yersinia able to remain extracellular triggered NF-κB activation independently of the non-canonical NF-κB kinase NIK in HEK293T cells. In contrast, Yersinia lacking the actin-targeting effectors YopEHO, which become internalized into host cells, induce a NIK-dependent response and nuclear entry of the non-canonical NF-κB subunit p52...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138023/distinct-roles-of-the-anti-apoptotic-effectors-nleb-and-nlef-from-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli
#20
Georgina L Pollock, Clare V L Oates, Cristina Giogha, Tania Wong Fok Lung, Sze Ying Ong, Jaclyn S Pearson, Elizabeth L Hartland
During infection, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) translocates effector proteins directly into the cytosol of infected enterocytes using a type III secretion system (T3SS). Once inside the host cell, these effector proteins subvert various immune signaling pathways including death receptor-induced apoptosis. One such effector protein is the Non-LEE encoded effector NleB1, which inhibits extrinsic apoptotic signaling via the FAS death receptor. NleB1 transfers a single GlcNAc residue to Arg117 in the death domain of FADD and inhibits FAS ligand (FasL) stimulated caspase-8 cleavage...
January 30, 2017: Infection and Immunity
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