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Type III Secretion System

Chuan Yu, Chongkai Zhai, Chengshui Liao, Zuhua Yu, Lei He, Yanyan Jia, Jing Li, Chunjie Zhang, Xiangchao Cheng
In order to develop a recombinant attenuated Salmonella typhimurium as oral live vaccine vector, we constructed recombinant plasmid pYA-sopENt100 by replacing the trc promoter with the sopE promoter and secretion signal sequence sopENt100 of Salmonella typhimurium on the basis of plasmid pYA3493. Then, the complementary plasmid pYA-sopENt100 was transformed into ΔcrpΔasdSL1344 by electroporation to generate attenuated Salmonella typhimurium type III secretion system ΔcrpΔasdSL1344 (pYA-sopENt100). We further characterized ΔcrpΔasdSL1344 (pYA-sopENt100)...
December 25, 2016: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
Karen Leth Nielsen, Marc Stegger, Kristoffer Kiil, Paul A Godfrey, Michael Feldgarden, Berit Lilje, Paal S Andersen, Niels Frimodt-Møller
The faecal flora is a common reservoir for urinary tract infection (UTI), and Escherichia coli (E. coli) is frequently found in this reservoir without causing extraintestinal infection. We investigated these E. coli reservoirs by whole-genome sequencing a large collection of E. coli from healthy controls (faecal), who had never previously had UTI, and from UTI patients (faecal and urinary) sampled from the same geographical area. We compared MLST types, phylogenetic relationship, accessory genome content and FimH type between patient and control faecal isolates as well as between UTI and faecal-only isolates, respectively...
September 14, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
George Osei-Adjei, He Gao, Ying Zhang, Lingyu Zhang, Wenhui Yang, Huiying Yang, Zhe Yin, Xinxiang Huang, Yiquan Zhang, Dongsheng Zhou
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading cause of seafood-associated gastroenteritis. Type III secretion system 1 (T3SS1) is one of the virulence determinants of this bacteria. T3SS1 expression is regulated by ToxR and CalR. ToxR represses the transcription of T3SS1 genes via activation of CalR, which acts as a transcriptional repressor of T3SS1 genes. However, the transcriptional regulation mechanisms have not been elucidated. As showing in the present work, ToxR binds to the promoter DNA region of calR to activate its transcription...
September 12, 2017: Oncotarget
Huifang Cao, Cuiting Yang, Shu Quan, Tianjian Hu, Lingzhi Zhang, Yuanxing Zhang, Dahai Yang, Qin Liu
Bacterium usually utilizes type III secretion systems (T3SS) to deliver effectors directly into host cells with the aids of chaperones. Hence, it is very important to identify bacterial T3SS effectors and chaperones for better understanding of host-pathogen interactions. Edwardsiella piscicida is an invasive enteric bacterium, which infects a wide range of hosts from fish to human. Given E. piscicida encodes a functional T3SS to promote infection, very few T3SS effectors and chaperones have been identified in this bacterium so far...
October 11, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
Michael A Casasanta, Christopher C Yoo, Hans B Smith, Alison J Duncan, Kyla Cochrane, Ann C Varano, Emma Allen-Vercoe, Daniel J Slade
Fusobacterium nucleatum is an oral pathogen that is linked to multiple human infections and colorectal cancer. Strikingly, F. nucleatum achieves virulence in the absence of large, multi-protein secretion systems (Type I, II, III, IV, and VI) which are widely used by Gram-negative bacteria for pathogenesis. By contrast, F. nucleatum strains contain genomic expansions of Type V secreted effectors (autotransporters) that are critical for host cell adherence, invasion, and biofilm formation. Here we present the first characterization of a F...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Zachary J Morse, Marc S Horwitz
Heritable susceptibility of the autoimmune disorder, type 1 diabetes (T1D), only partially equates for the incidence of the disease. Significant evidence attributes several environmental stressors, such as vitamin D deficiency, gut microbiome, dietary antigens, and most notably virus infections in triggering the onset of T1D in these genetically susceptible individuals. Extensive epidemiological and clinical studies have provided credibility to this causal relationship. Infection by the enterovirus, coxsackievirus B, has been closely associated with onset of T1D and is considered a significant etiological agent for disease induction...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Angelica Zhang, Jeffrey L Veesenmeyer, Alan R Hauser
The Pseudomonas aeruginosa type III secretion system delivers effector proteins directly into target cells, allowing the bacterium to modulate host cell functions. ExoU is the most cytotoxic of the known effector proteins and has been associated with more severe infections in humans. ExoU is a patatin-like A2 phospholipase requiring the cellular host factors phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) and ubiquitin for its activation in vitro We demonstrated that PI(4,5)P2 also induces oligomerization of ExoU and that this PI(4,5)P2-mediated oligomerization does not require ubiquitin...
October 9, 2017: Infection and Immunity
Juliana González, Jimena S Cadona, Marcelo Sanz, Ana V Bustamante, A Mariel Sanso
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of diarrheagenic E. coli strains in vegetables from the humid Pampa region, Argentina, and to determine the occurrence of serotypes and virulence genes in the isolates. A total of 373 fresh vegetable samples obtained from 41 different geographical points were examined. E. coli was detected in 38.6% of the samples. Ten isolates could be obtained from 14 samples presumptively positive for diarrheagenic E. coli: 8 were identified as atypical Enteropathogenic E...
September 29, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Irit Tseytin, Avner Dagan, Sonia Oren, Neta Sal-Man
The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a multi-protein complex that plays a central role in the virulence of many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. In enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, a prevalent cause of diarrheal diseases, the needle complex base of the T3SS is formed by multi-rings: two concentric inner-membrane rings made by the two oligomerizing proteins (EscD and EscJ), and an outer ring made of a single oligomerizing protein (EscC). Although the oligomerization activity of these proteins is critical for their function and can, therefore, affect the virulence of the pathogen, the mechanisms underlying the oligomerization of these proteins have yet to be identified...
October 4, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Jin Sun, Min Li, Yinan Wang, Pei Hao, Xia Jin
Dengue viruses (DENVs) are re-emerging pathogens transmitted by mosquitoes mainly in tropical and subtropical regions. Each year, they are estimated to infect 390 million people globally. The major challenge confronting dengue vaccine development is the need to induce balanced, long lasting tetravalent immune responses against four co-circulating virus serotypes (DENV-I, -II, -III, -IV), because primary infection by any one of which may predispose infected individuals to more severe diseases during a heterotypic secondary infection...
October 4, 2017: Vaccine
Nazanin Hosseinkhan, Zaynab Mousavian, Ali Masoudi-Nejad
Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus are two evolutionary distant bacterial species that are frequently isolated from persistent infections such as chronic infectious wounds and severe lung infections in cystic fibrosis patients. To the best of our knowledge no comprehensive genome scale co-expression study has been already conducted on these two species and in most cases only the expression of very few genes has been the subject of investigation. In this study, in order to investigate the level of expressional conservation between these two species, using heterogeneous gene expression datasets the weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) approach was applied to study both single and cross species genome scale co-expression patterns of these two species...
October 4, 2017: Gene
Veniamin Chevelkov, Karin Giller, Stefan Becker, Adam Lange
In this report we present site-specific measurements of amide hydrogen-deuterium exchange rates in a protein in the solid state phase by MAS NMR. Employing perdeuteration, proton detection and a high external magnetic field we could adopt the highly efficient Relax-EXSY protocol previously developed for liquid state NMR. According to this method, we measured the contribution of hydrogen exchange on apparent (15)N longitudinal relaxation rates in samples with differing D2O buffer content. Differences in the apparent T1 times allowed us to derive exchange rates for multiple residues in the type III secretion system needle protein...
October 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
Yi-Fan Zhang, Kook Han, Courtney E Chandler, Brian Tjaden, Robert K Ernst, Stephen Lory
During environmental adaptation bacteria use small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) to repress or activate expression of a large fraction of their proteome. We extended the use of the in vivo RNA proximity ligation method towards probing global sRNA interactions with their targets in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and verified the method with a known regulon controlled by the PrrF1 sRNA. We also identified two sRNAs (Sr0161 and ErsA) that interact with the mRNA encoding the major porin OprD responsible for the uptake of carbapenem antibiotics...
October 4, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
Jae Hoon Lee, Youfu Zhao
The bacterial enhancer binding protein (bEBP) HrpS is essential for Erwinia amylovora virulence by activating the type III secretion system (T3SS). However, how the hrpS gene is regulated remains poorly understood in E. amylovora. In this study, 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends and promoter deletion analyses showed that the hrpS gene contains two promoters driven by HrpX/HrpY and the Rcs phosphorelay system, respectively. Electrophoretic mobility shift and gene expression assays demonstrated that integration host factor IHF positively regulates hrpS expression through directly binding the hrpX promoter and positively regulating hrpX/hrpY expression...
September 30, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Yong Zhang, Jing Li, Weiqi Zhang, Rongsheng Wang, Qiaoqing Qiu, Feng Luo, Yasufumi Hikichi, Kouhei Ohnishi, Wei Ding
Hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) are typical monocyclic phenylpropanoids, including cinnamic acid (Cin), coumaric acid (Cou), caffeic acid (Caf), ferulic acid (FA) and their isomers, and involved in the interactions between pathogens and host plants. Here, we focused on the impact of HCAs on expression of type III secretion system (T3SS) in Ralstonia solanacearum. FA significantly induced the expression of the T3SS and some type III effectors (T3Es) genes in hrp-inducing medium, while did not the other HCAs. However, exogenously supplemented FA did not affect the T3SS expression in planta and the elicitation of the hypersensitive response (HR) in tobacco leaves...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Laura Chalupowicz, Gal Nissan, Maria T Brandl, Michael McClelland, Guido Sessa, Georgy Popov, Isaac Barash, Shulamit Manulis-Sasson
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, a human enteric pathogen, has the ability to multiply and survive endophytically in plants. Genes encoding the type III secretion system (T3SS) or its effectors (T3Es) may contribute to its colonization. Two reporter plasmids for T3E translocation into plant cells that are based on hypersensitive response (HR) domains of avirulence proteins from the Pantoea agglomerans/beet and Xanthomonas euvesicatoria/pepper pathosystems were employed in this study to investigate the role of T3Es in the interaction of S...
September 27, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Giulia Pilla, Gareth McVicker, Christoph M Tang
Acquisition of a single copy, large virulence plasmid, pINV, led to the emergence of Shigella spp. from Escherichia coli. The plasmid encodes a Type III secretion system (T3SS) on a 30 kb pathogenicity island (PAI), and is maintained in a bacterial population through a series of toxin:antitoxin (TA) systems which mediate post-segregational killing (PSK). The T3SS imposes a significant cost on the bacterium, and strains which have lost the plasmid and/or genes encoding the T3SS grow faster than wild-type strains in the laboratory, and fail to bind the indicator dye Congo Red (CR)...
September 2017: PLoS Genetics
Jin Zhang, Paloma Valverde, Xiaofang Zhu, Dana Murray, Yuwei Wu, Liming Yu, Hua Jiang, Michel M Dard, Jin Huang, Zhiwei Xu, Qisheng Tu, Jake Chen
Irisin is a polypeptide hormone derived from the proteolytic cleavage of fibronectin-type III domain-containing 5 (FNDC5) protein. Once released to circulation upon exercise or cold exposure, irisin stimulates browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression, leading to an increase in total body energy expenditure by augmented UCP1-mediated thermogenesis. It is currently unknown whether irisin is secreted by bone upon exercise or whether it regulates bone metabolism in vivo...
2017: Bone Research
Hua Yu, Xiancai Rao, Kebin Zhang
Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (Ndk) is a housekeeping enzyme that balances cellular nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) pools by catalyzing the reversible transfer of γ-phosphate from NTPs to nucleoside diphosphates (NDPs). In addition to its fundamental role in nucleotide metabolism, Ndk has roles in protein histidine phosphorylation, DNA cleavage/repair, and gene regulation. Recent studies have also revealed that Ndk secreted from bacteria is important in modulating virulence-associated phenotypes including quorum sensing regulation, type III secretion system activation, and virulence factor production...
December 2017: Microbiological Research
Mahsa Namakchian, Kristin Kassler, Heinrich Sticht, Michael Hensel, Jörg Deiwick
The facultative intracellular pathogen Salmonella enterica survives and replicates inside the Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV) of mammalian host cells. SifA is a key effector protein translocated by a type III secretion system and involved in formation of Salmonella-induced filaments (SIF), extensive tubular endosomal compartments. Recruitment of LAMP1 (lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1)-positive membranes to SIF ensures integrity and dynamics of the membrane network. The binding of SifA to the host protein SKIP (SifA and kinesin interacting protein) was proposed as crucial for this function...
September 8, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
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