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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244833/genomic-characterization-and-molecular-evolution-analysis-of-subtype-b-and-bf-recombinant-hiv-1-strains-among-argentinean-men-who-have-sex-with-men-reveal-a-complex-scenario
#1
Cintia G Cevallos, Leandro R Jones, Maria A Pando, Jean K Carr, Maria M Avila, Jorge Quarleri
Currently, data on HIV-1 circulating strains among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Argentina is scarce. In South America, the distribution and the prevalence of BF recombinants are dissimilar and exhibit an underappreciated heterogeneity of recombinant structures. Here, we studied for the first time the genetic diversity of HIV-1 BF recombinants and their evolution over time through in-depth phylogenetic analysis and multiple recombination detection methods involving 337 HIV-1 nucleotide sequences (25 near full-length (NFL) and 312 partial pol gene) obtained from Argentinean MSM...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244807/socioeconomic-position-and-ten-year-survival-and-virologic-outcomes-in-a-ugandan-hiv-cohort-receiving-antiretroviral-therapy
#2
Andrew G Flynn, Godwin Anguzu, Frank Mubiru, Agnes N Kiragga, Moses Kamya, David B Meya, David R Boulware, Andrew Kambugu, Barbara C Castelnuovo
Lifelong ART is essential to reducing HIV mortality and ending the epidemic, however the interplay between socioeconomic position and long-term outcomes of HIV-infected persons receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa is unknown. Furthering the understanding of factors related to long-term ART outcomes in this important region will aid the successful scale-up of ART programs. We enrolled 559 HIV-infected Ugandan adults starting ART in 2004-2005 at the Infectious Diseases Institute in Kampala, Uganda and followed them for 10 years...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244540/overcoming-impediments-to-otp-expansion-in-the-united-states-and-abroad
#3
Mark W Parrino
By all published accounts and federal government reports, the United States is experiencing a serious opioid use epidemic. Additional treatment resources are needed in order to provide access to evidence based medical care for untreated individuals with substance use disorders. The focus of this commentary is increasing access to more opioid treatment programs and overcoming the significant impediments, which block such efforts.
December 15, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243962/reconceptualizing-the-link-between-screen-time-when-gaming-with-physical-activity-and-sedentary-behavior
#4
Linda K Kaye, Andrew R Levy
With public health concerns surrounding rates of sedentary behavior (SB), there is often speculation on the role of screen time (in which "computer gaming" is commonly encompassed) as a key contributor to this epidemic. We argue that these assertions are based upon a number of problematic assumptions. Particularly, the notion that screen time necessitates inactivity or SB can be refuted based on the empirical literature. In addition, digital gaming as one so-called problematic screen-time behavior consists of a failed assumption that all games proffer equivalent physical affordances...
December 2017: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243457/the-surgical-management-of-obesity
#5
Samuel Torres-Landa, Umashankkar Kannan, Isabella Guajardo, Octavia E Pickett-Blakely, Daniel T Dempsey, Noel N Williams, Kristoffel R Dumon
Obesity is a spreading epidemic associated with significant morbidity and mortality with a prevalence of over 36% worldwide. In the face of a growing epidemic, increasing medical costs, and the disappointing limitations of medical and lifestyle modification bariatric surgery was found to consistently lead to significant weight loss and improvement in obesity-associated comorbidities when compared to non-surgical interventions. Bariatric procedures fall within three basic categories: restrictive procedures, malabsorptive procedures, and procedures that combine both restrictive and malabsorptive mechanisms...
December 14, 2017: Minerva Chirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243245/treatment-deintensification-in-human-papillomavirus-positive-oropharynx-cancer-outcomes-from-the-national-cancer-data-base
#6
Shayan Cheraghlou, Phoebe K Yu, Michael D Otremba, Henry S Park, Aarti Bhatia, Cheryl K Zogg, Saral Mehra, Wendell G Yarbrough, Benjamin L Judson
BACKGROUND: The growing epidemic of human papillomavirus-positive (HPV+) oropharyngeal cancer and the favorable prognosis of this disease etiology have led to a call for deintensified treatment for some patients with HPV+ cancers. One of the proposed methods of treatment deintensification is the avoidance of chemotherapy concurrent with definitive/adjuvant radiotherapy. To the authors' knowledge, the safety of this form of treatment de-escalation is unknown and the current literature in this area is sparse...
December 15, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243070/extensive-evolution-analysis-of-the-global-chikungunya-virus-strains-revealed-the-origination-of-chikv-epidemics-in-pakistan-in-2016
#7
Junming Shi, Zhengyuan Su, Zhaojun Fan, Jun Wang, Siqing Liu, Bo Zhang, Hongping Wei, Shoukat Jehan, Nadia Jamil, Shu Shen, Fei Deng
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne virus that causes epidemics widely in the world especially in the tropical and subtropical regions. Phylogenetic analysis has found that the CHIKV lineages were associated with the spatial and temporal distributions, which were related to the virus adaption to the major mosquito species and their distributions. In this study, we reported the complete genome sequences of eight CHIKV isolates from the outbreak in Pakistan last year. Then we reviewed the evolutionary history using extensive phylogenetic analysis, analyzed lineagespecific substitutions in viral proteins, and characterized the spreading pathway of CHIKV strains including the Pakistani strains...
December 11, 2017: Virologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243063/molecular-characterization-of-the-spike-gene-of-the-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-in-mexico-2013-2016
#8
Rocío Lara-Romero, Luis Gómez-Núñez, José Luis Cerriteño-Sánchez, Laura Márquez-Valdelamar, Susana Mendoza-Elvira, Humberto Ramírez-Mendoza, José Francisco Rivera-Benítez
In Mexico, the first outbreaks suggestive of the circulation of the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) were identified at the beginning of July 2013. To identify the molecular characteristics of the PEDV Spike (S) gene in Mexico, 116 samples of the intestine and diarrhea of piglets with clinical signs of porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) were obtained. Samples were collected from 14 farms located in six states of Mexico (Jalisco, Puebla, Sonora, Veracruz, Guanajuato, and Michoacán) from 2013 to 2016. To identify PEDV, we used real-time RT-PCR to discriminate between non-INDEL and INDEL strains...
December 14, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242836/vaccination-with-a-recombinant-h7-hemagglutinin-based-influenza-virus-vaccine-induces-broadly-reactive-antibodies-in-humans
#9
Daniel Stadlbauer, Arvind Rajabhathor, Fatima Amanat, Daniel Kaplan, Abusaleh Masud, John J Treanor, Ruvim Izikson, Manon M Cox, Raffael Nachbagauer, Florian Krammer
Human influenza virus infections with avian subtype H7N9 viruses are a major public health concern and have encouraged the development of effective H7 prepandemic vaccines. In this study, baseline and postvaccination serum samples of individuals aged 18 years and older who received a recombinant H7 hemagglutinin vaccine with and without an oil-in-water emulsion (SE) adjuvant were analyzed using a panel of serological assays. While only a small proportion of individuals seroconverted to H7N9 as measured by the conventional hemagglutination inhibition assay, our data show strong induction of anti-H7 hemagglutinin antibodies as measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
November 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242708/physical-attractiveness-and-women-s-hiv-risk-in-rural-malawi
#10
Margaret Frye, Sophia Chae
BACKGROUND: Qualitative evidence from sub-Saharan Africa, where a generalized AIDS epidemic exists, suggests that attractiveness may play a role in shaping individual-level HIV risk. Attractive women, who are often blamed for the epidemic and stigmatized, are believed to pose a higher HIV risk because they are viewed as having more and riskier partners. OBJECTIVE: We examine the association between perceived attractiveness and HIV infection and risk in rural Malawi in the midst of the country's severe AIDS epidemic...
2017: Demographic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242527/correlates-of-overall-and-central-obesity-in-adults-from-seven-european-countries-findings-from-the-food4me-study
#11
Carlos Celis-Morales, Katherine M Livingstone, Alexander Affleck, Santiago Navas-Carretero, Rodrigo San-Cristobal, J Alfredo Martinez, Cyril F M Marsaux, Wim H M Saris, Clare B O'Donovan, Hannah Forster, Clara Woolhead, Eileen R Gibney, Marianne C Walsh, Lorraine Brennan, Mike Gibney, George Moschonis, Christina-Paulina Lambrinou, Christina Mavrogianni, Yannis Manios, Anna L Macready, Rosalind Fallaize, Julie A Lovegrove, Silvia Kolossa, Hannelore Daniel, Iwona Traczyk, Christian A Drevon, John C Mathers
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To identify predictors of obesity in adults and investigate to what extent these predictors are independent of other major confounding factors. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Data collected at baseline from 1441 participants from the Food4Me study conducted in seven European countries were included in this study. A food frequency questionnaire was used to measure dietary intake. Accelerometers were used to assess physical activity levels (PA), whereas participants self-reported their body weight, height and waist circumference via the internet...
December 15, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242521/surveillance-of-live-poultry-markets-for-low-pathogenic-avian-influenza-viruses-in-guangxi-province-southern-china-from-2012-2015
#12
Sisi Luo, Zhixun Xie, Zhiqin Xie, Liji Xie, Li Huang, Jiaoling Huang, Xianwen Deng, Tingting Zeng, Sheng Wang, Yanfang Zhang, Jiabo Liu
Infections with low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs) can be mild or asymptomatic in poultry; however, in humans, LPAIVs can cause severe infections and death, as demonstrated by the H7N9 and H10N8 human infection outbreaks in 2013 in China. In this study, we conducted an epidemiological survey of LPAIVs at live poultry markets (LPMs) in Guangxi Province, Southern China, which is near several Southeast Asian countries. From January 2012 to December 2015, we collected 3,813 swab samples from poultry at LPMs in Guangxi...
December 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242091/association-between-microcephaly-zika-virus-infection-and-other-risk-factors-in-brazil-final-report-of-a-case-control-study
#13
Thalia Velho Barreto de Araújo, Ricardo Arraes de Alencar Ximenes, Demócrito de Barros Miranda-Filho, Wayner Vieira Souza, Ulisses Ramos Montarroyos, Ana Paula Lopes de Melo, Sandra Valongueiro, Maria de Fátima Pessoa Militão de Albuquerque, Cynthia Braga, Sinval Pinto Brandão Filho, Marli Tenório Cordeiro, Enrique Vazquez, Danielle di Cavalcanti Souza Cruz, Claudio Maierovitch Pessanha Henriques, Luciana Caroline Albuquerque Bezerra, Priscila Mayrelle da Silva Castanha, Rafael Dhalia, Ernesto Torres Azevedo Marques-Júnior, Celina Maria Turchi Martelli, Laura Cunha Rodrigues
BACKGROUND: A Zika virus epidemic emerged in northeast Brazil in 2015 and was followed by a striking increase in congenital microcephaly cases, triggering a declaration of an international public health emergency. This is the final report of the first case-control study evaluating the potential causes of microcephaly: congenital Zika virus infection, vaccines, and larvicides. The published preliminary report suggested a strong association between microcephaly and congenital Zika virus infection...
December 11, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241835/the-impact-of-a-statewide-mandatory-prescription-drug-monitoring-program-on-opioid-prescribing-by-emergency-medicine-providers-across-15-hospitals-in-a-single-health-system
#14
Brian Suffoletto, Michael Lynch, Charissa B Pacella, Donald M Yealy, Clifton W Callaway
Prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMP) enable registered prescribers to obtain real-time information on patients' prescription history of controlled medications. We sought to describe the impact of a state-mandated PDMP on opioid prescribing by Emergency Medicine providers. We retrospectively analyzed electronic medical records of 122,732 adult patients discharged with an opioid prescription from 15 Emergency Departments in a single health system in Pennsylvania from July 2015 to March, 2017. We used an interrupted time-series design to evaluate the percentage of patients discharged each month with an opioid prescription before and after state law mandated PDMP use on August 25th, 2016...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241749/acne-vulgaris-the-metabolic-syndrome-of-the-pilosebaceous-follicle
#15
Bodo C Melnik
Acne vulgaris is an epidemic inflammatory disease of the human sebaceous follicle and represents the most common skin disease affecting about 85% of adolescents in Westernized populations. Acne vulgaris is primarily a disease of wealthy countries and exhibits higher prevalence rates in developed compared with developing countries. No acne has been found in non-Westernized populations still living under Paleolithic dietary conditions constraining hyperglycemic carbohydrates, milk, and dairy products. The high prevalence rates of adolescent acne cannot be explained by the predominance of genetic factors but by the influence of a Western diet that overstimulates the key conductor of metabolism, the nutrient- and growth factor-sensitive kinase mTORC1...
January 2018: Clinics in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241662/an-edge-based-sir-model-for-sexually-transmitted-diseases-on-the-contact-network
#16
Shuixian Yan, Yu Zhang, Junling Ma, Sanling Yuan
Sexually transmitted diseases, which are infections through sexual contact, pose severe public health threat nowadays. In this paper, we develop a novel model for such diseases on a bipartite random contact network. Our model is precise with arbitrary initial conditions, which makes it suitable to study preventative vaccination strategies. We derive the reproduction number and show that R0=1 is the disease threshold. An implicit formula for the final epidemic size is also derived, and we show that the formula gives a unique positive final epidemic size when the reproduction number is larger than unity...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241646/hiv-population-level-adaptation-can-rapidly-diminish-the-impact-of-a-partially-effective-vaccine
#17
Joshua T Herbeck, Kathryn Peebles, Paul T Edlefsen, Morgane Rolland, James T Murphy, Geoffrey S Gottlieb, Neil Abernethy, James I Mullins, John E Mittler, Steven M Goodreau
BACKGROUND: Development of an HIV vaccine might be essential to ending the HIV/AIDS pandemic. However, vaccines can result in the emergence and spread of vaccine-resistant strains. Indeed, analyses of breakthrough infections in the HIV phase 3 vaccine trial RV144 identified HIV genotypes with differential rates of transmission in vaccine and placebo recipients. We hypothesized that, for HIV vaccination programs based on partially effective vaccines similar to RV144, HIV adaptation will rapidly diminish the expected vaccine impact...
December 11, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241472/-health-advocacy-in-medical-student-education
#18
R A M J Damoiseaux, M B M Soethout
The introduction of the CanMEDS method to qualify training and ongoing education for healthcare providers in terms of competencies has provided a clear framework for medical schools' curricula. Different roles are outlined, and one of these is health advocacy. Physicians are accountable to society to use their knowledge and expertise to improve health. Even before the introduction of CanMEDS, physicians took responsibility for improving health by tackling issues in society that negatively affected the health of many; one obvious example is the provision of clean water and sewage systems to prevent epidemics of infectious diseases such as cholera...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241428/state-targeted-funding-and-technical-assistance-to-increase-access-to-medication-treatment-for-opioid-use-disorder
#19
Amanda J Abraham, Christina M Andrews, Colleen M Grogan, Harold A Pollack, Thomas D'Aunno, Keith Humphreys, Peter D Friedmann
OBJECTIVE: As the United States grapples with an opioid epidemic, expanding access to effective treatment for opioid use disorder is a major public health priority. Identifying effective policy tools that can be used to expand access to care is critically important. This article examines the relationship between state-targeted funding and technical assistance and adoption of three medications for treating opioid use disorder: oral naltrexone, injectable naltrexone, and buprenorphine. METHODS: This study draws from the 2013-2014 wave of the National Drug Abuse Treatment System Survey, a nationally representative, longitudinal study of substance use disorder treatment programs...
December 15, 2017: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241374/pharmacokinetic-drug-evaluation-of-empagliflozin-plus-linagliptin-for-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes
#20
C V Rizos, T D Filippatos, M S Elisaf
Type 2 diabetes mellitus has become a growing epidemic and therefore efficient treatment strategies that target its management are needed. The treatment of diabetic patients often requires the combination of antidiabetic drug classes. Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) block glucose reabsorption in the proximal renal tubules. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i) improve glucose metabolism by blocking the enzyme that degrades incretins leading to increased insulin secretion. Areas covered: The aim of the review is to present the available data on pharmacokinetic properties/pharmacodynamics, metabolic and cardiovascular effects...
December 15, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
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