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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045991/naloxone-counseling-for-harm-reduction-and-patient-engagement
#1
Jonathan K Han, Lucas G Hill, Marianne E Koenig, Niladri Das
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The United States is experiencing an epidemic of opioid-related deaths. Naloxone, the drug of choice for reversing acute opioid overdose, is not routinely prescribed for outpatient use. The aims of this project were to improve naloxone awareness, increase naloxone prescribing, and prevent opioid overdoses. METHODS: A naloxone counseling intervention was implemented in three family health centers by an interprofessional team of providers including family medicine physicians, clinical pharmacists, and social workers...
October 2017: Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045735/seasonal-variation-and-dengue-burden-in-paediatric-patients-in-new-delhi
#2
Manas Pratim Roy, Ratan Gupta, Nidhi Chopra, Satish Kumar Meena, Kailash Chander Aggarwal
Objective: We conducted a study to find a relationship between main weather parameters with admission of positive dengue cases in a tertiary hospital. Methods: Retrospective analysis was undertaken to identify epidemiological trend of dengue in 2016 from paediatric wards of a tertiary hospital in New Delhi. Data were collected on patient particulars and daily weather from January to December 2016. Results: A total of 266 confirmed cases of dengue were considered...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045681/international-patterns-and-trends-in-endometrial-cancer-incidence-1978-2013
#3
Joannie Lortet-Tieulent, Jacques Ferlay, Freddie Bray, Ahmedin Jemal
Background: Cancers of the corpus uteri-primarily of the endometrium-rank as the sixth most common neoplasm in women worldwide. Analyses of the global patterns and trends of uterine cancer rates are needed in view of the ongoing obesity epidemic, a major risk factor for the disease. Methods: Data on endometrial cancer (ICD-10 C54) incidence from population-based cancer registries in 43 populations, published in CI5plus or by registries, were extracted for 1978 to 2013...
October 16, 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045456/inference-of-epidemiological-parameters-from-household-stratified-data
#4
James N Walker, Joshua V Ross, Andrew J Black
We consider a continuous-time Markov chain model of SIR disease dynamics with two levels of mixing. For this so-called stochastic households model, we provide two methods for inferring the model parameters-governing within-household transmission, recovery, and between-household transmission-from data of the day upon which each individual became infectious and the household in which each infection occurred, as might be available from First Few Hundred studies. Each method is a form of Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo that allows us to calculate a joint posterior distribution for all parameters and hence the household reproduction number and the early growth rate of the epidemic...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045189/effect-of-climatic-variables-on-abundance-and-dispersal-of-lecanosticta-acicola-spores-and-impact-of-defoliation-on-eastern-white-pine
#5
Stephen Wyka, Cameron Mcintyre, Cheryl Smith, Isabel Munck, Barret Rock, Heidi Asbjornsen, Kirk Broders
The disease complex white pine needle damage (WPND), first reported in 2006, has now escalated to an epidemic state across the northeastern U.S. Although this complex is composed of several fungal species, Lecanosticta acicola is considered to be the primary causal agent. Knowledge regarding the epidemiology, specific climatic factors that affect the spread of L. acicola on eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) in natural forest settings, and the potential risks repeated defoliation may have on tree health is limited...
October 18, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044970/ethnic-disparities-in-rates-of-publicly-funded-bariatric-surgery-in-new-zealand-2009-2014
#6
Jamie-Lee Rahiri, Mel Lauti, Matire Harwood, Andrew D MacCormick, Andrew G Hill
BACKGROUND: Publicly funded bariatric surgery in New Zealand (NZ) is steadily on the rise to meet the obesity epidemic. Ethnic disparities in obesity rates exist in NZ with Māori and Pacific people having three to five times higher rates than all other ethnic groups within NZ. Ethnic disparities in rates of bariatric surgery have been reported internationally. This research sought to describe rates of publically funded bariatric surgery by self-identified ethnicity in NZ. METHODS: Using reported census and hospitalization discharge data from Statistics NZ and the NZ Ministry of Health, we calculated estimate rates of publicly funded bariatric surgery in the morbidly obese population from June 2009 to July 2014...
October 18, 2017: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044479/the-strategies-to-reduce-injuries-and-develop-confidence-in-elders-intervention-falls-risk-factor-assessment-and-management-patient-engagement-and-nurse-co-management
#7
David B Reuben, Priscilla Gazarian, Neil Alexander, Katy Araujo, Dorothy Baker, Jonathan F Bean, Chad Boult, Peter Charpentier, Pamela Duncan, Nancy Latham, Rosanne M Leipzig, Lisa M Quintiliani, Thomas Storer, Siobhan McMahon
In response to the epidemic of falls and serious falls-related injuries in older persons, in 2014, the Patient Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) and the National Institute on Aging funded a pragmatic trial, Strategies to Reduce Injuries and Develop confidence in Elders (STRIDE) to compare the effects of a multifactorial intervention with those of an enhanced usual care intervention. The STRIDE multifactorial intervention consists of five major components that registered nurses deliver in the role of falls care managers, co-managing fall risk in partnership with patients and their primary care providers (PCPs)...
October 17, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044367/one-health-economics-to-confront-disease-threats
#8
Catherine Machalaba, Kristine M Smith, Lina Awada, Kevin Berry, Franck Berthe, Timothy A Bouley, Mieghan Bruce, Jose Cortiñas Abrahantes, Anas El Turabi, Yasha Feferholtz, Louise Flynn, Giullaume Fournié, Amanda Andre, Delia Grace, Olga Jonas, Tabitha Kimani, François Le Gall, Juan Jose Miranda, Marisa Peyre, Julio Pinto, Noam Ross, Simon R Rüegg, Robert H Salerno, Richard Seifman, Carlos Zambrana-Torrelio, William B Karesh
Global economic impacts of epidemics suggest high return on investment in prevention and One Health capacity. However, such investments remain limited, contributing to persistent endemic diseases and vulnerability to emerging ones. An interdisciplinary workshop explored methods for country-level analysis of added value of One Health approaches to disease control. Key recommendations include: 1. systems thinking to identify risks and mitigation options for decision-making under uncertainty; 2. multisectoral economic impact assessment to identify wider relevance and possible resource-sharing, and 3...
June 1, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044230/metabolic-pressure-and-the-breach-of-immunological-self-tolerance
#9
Veronica De Rosa, Antonio La Cava, Giuseppe Matarese
The prevalence of autoimmune disorders in affluent countries has reached epidemic proportions. Over the past 50 years, a reverse trend between the frequency of infectious diseases and the incidence of autoimmune and allergic diseases led to the so-called 'hygiene hypothesis'. Given the epidemiological evidence and recent experimental data, we propose that this concept should also include metabolic pressure secondary to exposure to excessive daily caloric intake and overnutrition. We discuss how metabolic workload can modulate immunological tolerance and review the molecular mechanisms and the state of the art of the field...
October 18, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044005/analysis-on-the-treatment-and-prevention-of-epidemic-conjunctivitis-in-108-cases
#10
Guangli Sun, Gang Su, Yanhui Bai, Huiqin Yang
To explore the treatment method and preventive measures on epidemic keratoconjunctivitis. 108 patients with epidemic keratoconjunctivitis who received treatment in our hospital from January, 2015 to September, 2015.were selected. These patients were treated with interferon eye drops, Ganciclovir ophthalmic gel, and alternating eye treatment of tobramycin-dexamethasone eye drops and diclofenac sodium eye drops. Meanwhile, health education was also performed among patients, so as to promote the recovery of the disease as soon as possible and to prevent the spread of the disease Among the 108 patients, there were 101 patients recovered...
July 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043922/barriers-and-facilitators-to-dispensing-of-intranasal-naloxone-by-pharmacists
#11
Ludmila N Bakhireva, Adriana Bautista, Sandra Cano, Shikhar Shrestha, Amy M Bachyrycz, Theresa H Cruz
BACKGROUND: While misuse of prescription opioids has reached epidemic proportions, pharmacy-based preventive services to combat this epidemic are limited. The aims of this study were to identify barriers and facilitators to the dispensing of intranasal naloxone (INN) by pharmacists in New Mexico. METHODS: For this mixed methods study, a qualitative component (focus group) informed the development of a quantitative component (electronic survey) distributed to all pharmacists registered with the New Mexico Board of Pharmacy and practicing in the state...
October 18, 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042791/profile-of-sacubitril-valsartan-in-the-treatment-of-heart-failure-patient-selection-and-perspectives
#12
REVIEW
Srikanth Yandrapalli, Gabriela Andries, Medha Biswas, Sahil Khera
With an estimated prevalence of 5.8 million in the USA and over 23 million people worldwide, heart failure (HF) is growing in epidemic proportions. Despite the use of guideline-directed medical therapies such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, beta-adrenergic blockers, angiotensin receptor blockers, and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists for chronic systolic HF for almost two decades, HF remains a leading cause of morbidity, mortality, and health care expenditures. The Prospective Comparison of Angiotensin Receptor-Neprilysin Inhibitor with Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and Morbidity in Heart Failure (PARADIGM-HF) trial provided compelling evidence for the cardiovascular and mortality benefit of sacubitril/valsartan when compared to enalapril in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF)...
2017: Vascular Health and Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042708/analysis-of-the-seasonal-incidence-of-acute-respiratory-infections-including-influenza-ari-in-the-czech-republic-possible-contribution-of-the-functional-data-boxplot-in-epidemiology
#13
Ondrej Vencalek, Jan Kyncl
AIMS: The detection of an epidemic outbreak is possible only if the baseline incidence level of a given disease is well defined. The determination of the baseline is complicated by the presence of epidemic outbreaks in historical data. The aim of the paper is to provide a new way of determining the baseline. METHODS: The analyzed data containing weekly records on the incidence of acute respiratory infections including influenza (ARI) in the Czech Republic and its regions are taken from the nationwide surveillance system; data on 15 seasons from 2001/02 to 2015/16 are included...
October 17, 2017: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041933/silence-sexual-and-reproductive-health-discussions-and-we-fuel-the-rise-of-hiv-aids-in-sub-saharan-africa
#14
EDITORIAL
Janet M Wojcicki
In the mid 1990s, the HIV epidemic was initially impacting South Africa. Fear, stigma and denial surrounding sexual practices undermined treatment access and prevention initiatives. Significant strides have been made in reducing the HIV epidemic in South Africa and other areas in sub-Saharan Africa through effective programming and funding of prevention programs. Reinstatement of the Mexico City Policy threatens to negatively impact gains made in the HIV/AIDS community. Recognition that communication is essential to effective reproductive health and HIV/AIDS programming needs to be recognized by politicians enacting the Mexico City Policy and the possibility of viewing a rise in HIV/AIDS incidence in sub-Saharan Africa...
October 17, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040686/the-world-health-organization-s-response-to-emerging-human-immunodeficiency-virus-drug-resistance-and-a-call-for-global-action
#15
Silvia Bertagnolio, Rachel L Beanland, Michael R Jordan, Meg Doherty, And Gottfried Hirnschall
The global community, including the World Health Organization (WHO), has committed to ending the AIDS epidemic and to ensuring that 90% of people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are diagnosed, 90% start treatment, and 90% achieve and maintain virological suppression. The emergence of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) as antiretroviral treatment programs expand could preclude the 90-90-90 targets adopted by the United Nations General Assembly at the High-Level Meeting on Ending AIDS from being achieved...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040539/explaining-recent-mortality-trends-among-younger-and-middle-aged-white-americans
#16
Ryan K Masters, Andrea M Tilstra, Daniel H Simon
Background: Recent research has suggested that increases in mortality among middle-aged US Whites are being driven by suicides and poisonings from alcohol and drug use. Increases in these 'despair' deaths have been argued to reflect a cohort-based epidemic of pain and distress among middle-aged US Whites. Methods: We examine trends in all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates among younger and middle-aged US White men and women between 1980 and 2014, using official US mortality data...
July 19, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040303/continuing-professional-development-for-medical-nursing-and-midwifery-cadres-in-malawi-tanzania-and-south-africa-a-qualitative-evaluation
#17
Caryl Feldacker, Jillian Pintye, Sheena Jacob, Michael H Chung, Lyn Middleton, Jill Iliffe, H Nina Kim
BACKGROUND: As innovations in the prevention and treatment of HIV and TB advance, continuing professional development (CPD) of health care workers (HCWs) remains a high priority, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa where dual TB/HIV epidemics are compounded by severe HCW shortages. There is further need to examine CPD programs to identify challenges and effective solutions to strengthen HIV/TB-related CPD. METHODS: Qualitative evaluations in Malawi, Tanzania and South Africa (RSA) were conducted using key informant interviews (KIIs) and focus group discussions (FGDs) in each country to identify barriers and enablers of effective HIV/TB-related CPD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040262/serological-and-spatial-analysis-of-alphavirus-and-flavivirus-prevalence-and-risk-factors-in-a-rural-community-in-western-kenya
#18
Elysse N Grossi-Soyster, Elizabeth A J Cook, William A de Glanville, Lian F Thomas, Amy R Krystosik, Justin Lee, C Njeri Wamae, Samuel Kariuki, Eric M Fèvre, A Desiree LaBeaud
Alphaviruses, such as chikungunya virus, and flaviviruses, such as dengue virus, are (re)-emerging arboviruses that are endemic in tropical environments. In Africa, arbovirus infections are often undiagnosed and unreported, with febrile illnesses often assumed to be malaria. This cross-sectional study aimed to characterize the seroprevalence of alphaviruses and flaviviruses among children (ages 5-14, n = 250) and adults (ages 15 ≥ 75, n = 250) in western Kenya. Risk factors for seropositivity were explored using Lasso regression...
October 17, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040043/depression-screening-in-the-school-setting-identification-of-the-depressed-adolescent
#19
Wan Ching Law, Rachel McClanahan, Penny C Weismuller
Adolescent depression is a silent epidemic in this country. Untreated depression has detrimental effects on physical health, psychosocial well-being, and academic productivity. It is important for school nurses to be able to recognize depression and refer students promptly for treatment. This article and its associated learning module will provide school nurses with updated information on adolescent depression, discuss barriers in depression screening, use of the PHQ-9 (Patient Health Questionaire-9 Item) as an evidence-based depression screening tool in the educational setting, and the important role of school nurses in depression screening...
November 2017: NASN School Nurse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039302/oxa-48-and-ctx-m-15-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamases-in-raw-milk-in-lebanon-epidemic-spread-of-dominant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-clones
#20
Mohamad Diab, Monzer Hamze, Richard Bonnet, Estelle Saras, Jean-Yves Madec, Marisa Haenni
Raw milk has recently been reported as a source of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and carbapenemase genes. We thus investigated the prevalence of ESBL- and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in raw milk in Lebanon in order to assess the risk of transfer of these bacteria to humans. A high prevalence (30.2 %) of CTX-M-15-producing K. pneumoniae was detected in raw bovine milk. Three main K. pneumoniae clones were identified by PFGE and MLST typing. Southern blot experiments revealed that one of these clones carried the blaCTX-M-15 gene chromosomally...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
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