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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454041/potential-risks-of-zika-and-chikungunya-outbreaks-in-brazil-a-modelling-study
#1
Breno S Aguiar, Camila Lorenz, Flávia Virginio, Lincoln Suesdek, Francisco Chiaravalloti-Neto
OBJECTIVES: While Brazil has witnessed an unprecedented Zika (ZIK) epidemic, in recent times, Chikungunya (CHIK) has also come into prominence as a threat, in the Americas. We aimed to identify the regions with increased probabilities of ZIK and CHIK occurrence, based on environmental and social conditions. METHODS: To assess the potential spatial risk of ZIK and CHIK dissemination, we used a statistical Maxent model, which considered the number of probable autochthonous ZIK and CHIK cases, in 2015 and 2016, with environmental variables and social indicators...
February 14, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453856/defective-rna-sensing-by-rig-i-in-severe-influenza-virus-infection
#2
Sofie Eg Jørgensen, Mette Christiansen, Laura Barrett Ryø, Hans Henrik Gad, Jakob Gjedsted, Peter Staeheli, Jacob Giehm Mikkelsen, Merete Storgaard, Rune Hartmann, Trine Hyrup Mogensen
Influenza virus infection causes worldwide seasonal epidemics. Although influenza usually is a mild disease, a minority of patients experience very severe fulminating disease courses. Previous studies have demonstrated a role for type I interferon (IFN) in antiviral responses during influenza. However, IFN regulatory factor (IRF)7 deficiency is so far the only genetic cause of severe influenza described in humans. In this study we present a patient with severe influenza A virus (IAV) H1N1 infection during the 2009 Swine Flu pandemic...
February 17, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453294/public-preferences-for-interventions-to-prevent-emerging-infectious-disease-threats-a-discrete-choice-experiment
#3
Alex R Cook, Xiahong Zhao, Mark I C Chen, Eric A Finkelstein
OBJECTIVE: When faced with an emergent epidemic with high mortality and morbidity potential, policy makers must decide what public health interventions to deploy at different stages of the outbreak. However, almost nothing is known about how the public view these interventions or how they trade off risks (of disease) with inconvenience (of interventions). In this paper, we aim to understand public perceptions on pandemic interventions, as well as to identify if there are any distinct respondent preference classes...
February 16, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453006/illicit-and-prescription-drug-misuse-as-reported-to-the-maine-diversion-alert-program
#4
Brian J Piper, Michael J Suarez, John P Piserchio, Dipam T Shah, Olapeju M Simoyan, Kenneth L McCall, Clare E Desrosiers, Stephanie D Nichols
BACKGROUND: The opioid epidemic is rapidly evolving and new tools are needed to combat drug abuse. The Maine Diversion Alert Program (DAP) is an informational resource that facilitates communication about drug arrests between the criminal justice and healthcare fields. The objectives of this report were to: (1) describe the illegal and prescription pharmaceuticals reported to the DAP; (2) determine if the drugs implicated in arrests changed from the first to latter half of 2016; (3) identify the demographic and other characteristics of arrestees; and (4) outline the strengths and limitations of the DAP for other areas considering implementing similar programs...
February 6, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452174/dynamics-analysis-of-epidemic-and-information-spreading-in-overlay-networks
#5
Guirong Liu, Zhimei Liu, Zhen Jin
We establish an SIS-UAU model to present the dynamics of epidemic and information spreading in overlay networks. The overlay network is represented by two layers: one where the dynamics of the epidemic evolves and another where the information spreads. We theoretically derive the explicit formulas for the basic reproduction number of awareness R 0 a by analyzing the self-consistent equation and the basic reproduction number of disease R 0 d by using the next generation matrix. The formula of R 0 d shows that the effect of awareness can reduce the basic reproduction number of disease...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452047/lessons-learned-from-ebola-vaccine-r-d-during-a-public-health-emergency
#6
Marie-Paule Kieny
In spite of a complete lack of Research and Development (R&D) preparedness, the 2013-2016 West-Africa Ebola experience demonstrated that it is possible to compress R&D timelines to less than a single year, from a more usual decade or longer. This is mostly to be credited to an unprecedented collaborative effort building on the availability of a small number of candidate diagnostic tests, drugs and vaccines that could be moved rapidly into the clinical phase evaluation. The World Health Organization (WHO) led international consultations and activities - including the organization of a successful Ebola vaccine efficacy trial in Guinea - as a contribution to the unprecedented global efforts to control the Ebola epidemic...
February 16, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451878/control-fast-or-control-smart-when-should-invading-pathogens-be-controlled
#7
Robin N Thompson, Christopher A Gilligan, Nik J Cunniffe
The intuitive response to an invading pathogen is to start disease management as rapidly as possible, since this would be expected to minimise the future impacts of disease. However, since more spread data become available as an outbreak unfolds, processes underpinning pathogen transmission can almost always be characterised more precisely later in epidemics. This allows the future progression of any outbreak to be forecast more accurately, and so enables control interventions to be targeted more precisely...
February 16, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451827/sending-the-right-message-wild-game-and-the-west-africa-ebola-outbreak
#8
Kristin Post
The unprecedented scale of the Ebola epidemic in West Africa in 2014-15 caught the world by surprise. Zaire Ebolavirus had not previously been documented in Guinea, Sierra Leone, or Liberia. However, since this strain of filovirus was first identified in 1976, scientists have been studying the disease and its origins. They have identified forest-dwelling animals that carry the virus, and some that die from it, but have yet to isolate how it is transmitted from animals to humans. During the height of the Ebola outbreak in West Africa, some public health messages addressed the link among Ebola, wild animals, and humans...
January 2018: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451615/entomological-and-epidemiological-aspects-of-dengue-epidemics-in-fortaleza-cear%C3%A3-brazil-2001-2012
#9
Rhaquel de Morais Alves Barbosa Oliveira, Fernanda Montenegro de Carvalho Araújo, Luciano Pamplona de Góes Cavalcanti
OBJECTIVE: to characterize the entomological and epidemiological aspects of dengue epidemics occurred in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, from 2001 to 2012. METHODS: descriptive study with data from the Information System for Notifiable Diseases (Sinan), Information System of Hospitalizations due to Yellow Fever and Dengue (2001-2009), National Program for Dengue Control (2010-2012), and Rapid Survey of Aedes aegypti Infestation Index, referring to the years in which the incidence of dengue was above 75%...
2018: Epidemiologia e Servicos de Saude: Revista do Sistema Unico de Saude do Brasil
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451426/prioritizing-pediatric-chronic-pain-and-comprehensive-pain-treatment-in-the-context-of-the-opioid-epidemic
#10
Sarah R Martin, Lonnie K Zeltzer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 16, 2018: Pain Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449942/epidemic-potential-by-sexual-activity-distributions
#11
James Moody, Jimi Adams, Martina Morris
For sexually transmitted infections like HIV to propagate through a population, there must be a path linking susceptible cases to currently infectious cases. The existence of such paths depends in part on the degree distribution. Here, we use simulation methods to examine how two features of the degree distribution affect network connectivity: Mean degree captures a volume dimension, while the skewness of the upper tail captures a shape dimension. We find a clear interaction between shape and volume: When mean degree is low, connectivity is greater for long-tailed distributions, but at higher mean degree, connectivity is greater in short-tailed distributions...
December 2017: Network Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449842/pan-influenza-a-protection-by-prime-boost-vaccination-with-cold-adapted-live-attenuated-influenza-vaccine-in-a-mouse-model
#12
Yo Han Jang, Joo Young Kim, Young Ho Byun, Ahyun Son, Jeong-Yoon Lee, Yoon Jae Lee, Jun Chang, Baik Lin Seong
Influenza virus infections continually pose a major public health threat with seasonal epidemics and sporadic pandemics worldwide. While currently licensed influenza vaccines provide only strain-specific protection, antigenic drift and shift occasionally render the viruses resistant to the host immune responses, which highlight the need for a vaccine that provides broad protection against multiple subtypes. In this study, we suggest a vaccination strategy using cold-adapted, live attenuated influenza vaccines (CAIVs) to provide a broad, potent, and safe cross-protection covering antigenically distinct hemagglutinin (HA) groups 1 and 2 influenza viruses...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449577/neutralization-of-il-15-abrogates-experimental-immune-mediated-cholangitis-in-diet-induced-obese-mice
#13
José L Reyes, Danielle T Vannan, Tina Vo, Aliya Gulamhusein, Paul L Beck, Raylene A Reimer, Bertus Eksteen
Obesity is a global epidemic affecting chronic inflammatory diseases. Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease that can occur as an extraintestinal manifestation of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Previously we reported that patients with PSC who are obese have a higher risk of advanced liver disease. Currently it is unknown how obesity accelerates or worsens PSC. We evaluated the progression of PSC in an antigen-driven cholangitis mouse model of diet-induced obesity. Obesity was induced in our murine model of immune-mediated cholangitis (OVAbil)...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449388/complete-genome-sequences-of-two-vesicular-stomatitis-new-jersey-viruses-representing-the-2012-u-s-epidemic-strain-and-its-closest-relative-endemic-strain-from-southern-mexico
#14
Lauro Velazquez-Salinas, Steven J Pauszek, Antonio Verdugo-Rodriguez, Luis L Rodriguez
We report here the complete genome sequences of two vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus (VSNJV) field strains isolated from epithelial lesions from naturally infected animals in Mexico and the United States. The close phylogenetic relationship of these isolates makes them an ideal model for assessing potential genetic factors linked with the emergence of VSNJV in the United States.
February 15, 2018: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449058/-epidemiology-of-lower-extremity-artery-disease
#15
Victor Aboyans, Marie-Antoinette Sevestre, Ileana Désormais, Philippe Lacroix, Gerry Fowkes, Michael H Criqui
It is estimated that more than 200 million individuals are affected by lower extremity artery disease (LEAD) worldwide. This prevalence has increased between 2000 and 2010 by 25%, especially in low/middle income countries. In France, about one million people are affected by this condition. Almost two-thirds of patients with LEAD are asymptomatic. This explains the interest of the measurement of the ankle-brachial index (ABI), an objective and harmless diagnostic tool. An ABI≤0.90 is considered as diagnostic for LEAD...
February 12, 2018: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448965/temporo-spatial-dynamics-and-behavioural-patterns-of-2012-cholera-epidemic-in-the-african-mega-city-of-conakry-guinea
#16
Alexandre Blake, Veronique Sarr Keita, Delphine Sauvageot, Mamadou Saliou, Berthe Marie Njanpop, Fode Sory, Bertrand Sudre, Koivogui Lamine, Martin Mengel, Bradford D Gessner, Keita Sakoba
BACKGROUND: Cholera is endemic in Guinea, having suffered consecutive outbreaks from 2004 to 2008 followed by a lull until the 2012 epidemic. Here we describe the temporal-spatial and behavioural characteristics of cholera cases in Conakry during a three-year period, including the large-scale 2012 epidemic. METHODS: We used the national and African Cholera Surveillance Network (Africhol) surveillance data collected from every cholera treatment centre in Conakry city from August 2011 to December 2013...
February 15, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448724/environmental-applications-of-nano-sized-recycled-aggregates-the-effect-of-sterilization-and-adsorption
#17
Hyung-Sun Yoon, Ik-Hyun Lim, Seong-Gyu Seo, Jeongdong Choi, Won-Chun Park, Eun-Sik Kim
To evaluate the sterilize efficiency of nano-sized recycled aggregates (RAs), several types of RAs were examined for the purpose of environmental stamping out procedure. The poultry (e.g., chicken) was selected as a target livestock of epidemic disease, and the blast furnace slag (BFS), fly ash (FA), slaked lime (SL), nano-cerium (n-Ce) and shell (Sh) were used as the RAs materials. The fermented solution of effective microorganisms (EM) was added to decompose the target livestock. Various kinds of lab-scale reactor were operated to examine the effects of RAs volume; high and low volume of RAs (e...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448478/effect-of-risk-perception-on-epidemic-spreading-in-temporal-networks
#18
Antoine Moinet, Romualdo Pastor-Satorras, Alain Barrat
Many progresses in the understanding of epidemic spreading models have been obtained thanks to numerous modeling efforts and analytical and numerical studies, considering host populations with very different structures and properties, including complex and temporal interaction networks. Moreover, a number of recent studies have started to go beyond the assumption of an absence of coupling between the spread of a disease and the structure of the contacts on which it unfolds. Models including awareness of the spread have been proposed, to mimic possible precautionary measures taken by individuals that decrease their risk of infection, but have mostly considered static networks...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448360/enhancement-of-large-fluctuations-to-extinction-in-adaptive-networks
#19
Jason Hindes, Ira B Schwartz, Leah B Shaw
During an epidemic, individual nodes in a network may adapt their connections to reduce the chance of infection. A common form of adaption is avoidance rewiring, where a noninfected node breaks a connection to an infected neighbor and forms a new connection to another noninfected node. Here we explore the effects of such adaptivity on stochastic fluctuations in the susceptible-infected-susceptible model, focusing on the largest fluctuations that result in extinction of infection. Using techniques from large-deviation theory, combined with a measurement of heterogeneity in the susceptible degree distribution at the endemic state, we are able to predict and analyze large fluctuations and extinction in adaptive networks...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448315/lumping-of-degree-based-mean-field-and-pair-approximation-equations-for-multistate-contact-processes
#20
Charalampos Kyriakopoulos, Gerrit Grossmann, Verena Wolf, Luca Bortolussi
Contact processes form a large and highly interesting class of dynamic processes on networks, including epidemic and information-spreading networks. While devising stochastic models of such processes is relatively easy, analyzing them is very challenging from a computational point of view, particularly for large networks appearing in real applications. One strategy to reduce the complexity of their analysis is to rely on approximations, often in terms of a set of differential equations capturing the evolution of a random node, distinguishing nodes with different topological contexts (i...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
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