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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811394/overview-and-current-management-of-computerized-adaptive-testing-in-licensing-certification-examinations
#1
Dong Gi Seo
Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) has been implemented in the high stakes examinations such as National Council Licensure Examination-Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN) in the United States since 1994. After that, The National Registry Emergency Medical Technician (NREMT) in the United States adopted a CAT to certify an Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) in 2007. It aimed at introducing CAT for the implementation in the medical health licensing examinations. Most CATs are based on the item response theory (IRT) which hypothesizes that both examinee and item has own characteristics that does not change...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Educational Evaluation for Health Professions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806179/interpreting-magnesium-status-to-enhance-clinical-care-key-indicators
#2
Rebecca B Costello, Forrest Nielsen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To update advances in identifying factors affecting magnesium (Mg) status that assist in providing improved evidence-based clinical decision-making for assessing Mg status. RECENT FINDINGS: Findings from recent cohort studies, small randomized control trials, and multiple meta-analyses reinforce earlier work that serum Mg concentrations, urinary Mg excretion, and Mg dietary intakes are inversely associated with cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, and diabetes...
August 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806116/systemic-therapy-for-stage-iv-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-american-society-of-clinical-oncology-clinical-practice-guideline-update
#3
Nasser Hanna, David Johnson, Sarah Temin, Sherman Baker, Julie Brahmer, Peter M Ellis, Giuseppe Giaccone, Paul J Hesketh, Ishmael Jaiyesimi, Natasha B Leighl, Gregory J Riely, Joan H Schiller, Bryan J Schneider, Thomas J Smith, Joan Tashbar, William A Biermann, Gregory Masters
Purpose Provide evidence-based recommendations updating the 2015 ASCO guideline on systemic therapy for patients with stage IV non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods The ASCO NSCLC Expert Panel made recommendations based on a systematic review of randomized controlled trials from February 2014 to December 2016 plus the Cancer Care Ontario Program in Evidence-Based Care's update of a previous ASCO search. Results This guideline update reflects changes in evidence since the previous guideline update. Fourteen randomized controlled trials provide the evidence base; earlier phase trials also informed recommendation development...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805585/understanding-and-treating-pain-syndromes-in-parkinson-s-disease
#4
Marialuisa Gandolfi, Christian Geroin, Angelo Antonini, Nicola Smania, Michele Tinazzi
Pain affects many people with Parkinson's disease (PD) and diminishes their quality of life. Different types of pain have been described, but their related pathophysiological mechanisms remain unclear. The aim of this chapter is to provide movement disorders specialists an update about the pathophysiology of pain and a practical guide for the management of pain syndromes in clinical practice. This chapter reviews current knowledge on the pathophysiological mechanisms of sensory changes and pain in PD, as well as assessment and treatment procedures to manage these symptoms...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805246/associations-between-belief-inflexibility-and-dimensions-of-delusions-a-meta-analytic-review-of-two-approaches-to-assessing-belief-flexibility
#5
Chen Zhu, Xiaoqi Sun, Suzanne Ho-Wai So
OBJECTIVES: Belief inflexibility has been suggested to maintain delusions. Different measures of assessing belief inflexibility have been developed, and it remains unclear whether patients with delusions display belief inflexibility similarly across measures. As delusions consist of multiple dimensions, the aim of this meta-analytic review was to examine how belief inflexibility is related to different aspects of delusions (conviction, distress, and preoccupation) and to compare these associations between interview-based and task-based measures of belief inflexibility...
August 14, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801526/an-update-on-hormone-therapy-in-postmenopausal-women-mini-review-for-the-basic-scientist
#6
Virginia M Miller, S Mitchell Harman
The worlds of observational, clinical and basic science collided in 2002 with the publication of results of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI), a large scale, prospective, blinded, randomized-controlled trial designed to provide evidence regarding use of hormone treatment to prevent cardiovascular disease in menopausal women. The results of the WHI dramatically changed clinical practice, negatively impacted funding for hormone research and left scientists to unravel the "why" of the results. Now over a decade and a half since the initial publication of the WHI results, basic and clinical scientists often do not interpret the results of the WHI with the precision needed to move the science forward...
August 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801423/comparative-efficacy-and-acceptability-of-antidepressants-psychological-interventions-and-their-combination-for-depressive-disorder-in-children-and-adolescents-protocol-for-a-network-meta-analysis
#7
Xinyu Zhou, Andrea Cipriani, Yuqing Zhang, Pim Cuijpers, Sarah E Hetrick, John R Weisz, Juncai Pu, Cinzia Del Giovane, Toshiaki A Furukawa, Jürgen Barth, David Coghill, Stefan Leucht, Lining Yang, Arun V Ravindran, Peng Xie
INTRODUCTION: Depressive disorder is common in children and adolescents, with important consequences and serious impairments in terms of personal and social functioning. While both pharmacological and psychological interventions have been shown to be effective, there is still uncertainty about the balance between these and what treatment strategy should be preferred in clinical practice. Therefore, we aim to compare and rank in a network meta-analysis (NMA) the commonly used psychological, pharmacological and combined interventions for depressive disorder in children and adolescents...
August 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798016/bayesian-analysis-a-practical-approach-to-interpret-clinical-trials-and-create-clinical-practice-guidelines
#8
John A Bittl, Yulei He
Bayesian analysis is firmly grounded in the science of probability and has been increasingly supplementing or replacing traditional approaches based on P values. In this review, we present gradually more complex examples, along with programming code and data sets, to show how Bayesian analysis takes evidence from randomized clinical trials to update what is already known about specific treatments in cardiovascular medicine. In the example of revascularization choices for diabetic patients who have multivessel coronary artery disease, we combine the results of the FREEDOM trial (Future Revascularization Evaluation in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus: Optimal Management of Multivessel Disease) with prior probability distributions to show how strongly we should believe in the new Class I recommendation ("should be done") for a preference of bypass surgery over percutaneous coronary intervention...
August 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796682/a-guide-to-terminology-for-rh-immunoprophylaxis
#9
S Gerald Sandler, John T Queenan
Rh immunoprophylaxis for Rh-negative women requires an understanding of terminology used for Rh blood typing laboratory reports. The pathophysiology of Rh hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn was elucidated by studies in rhesus monkeys. Subsequent studies revealed that the human blood group antigen responsible for Rh hemolytic disease of the newborn (D antigen) is related to, but different from, the rhesus monkey antigen. Weak expression of the D antigen on red cells, originally termed D, is currently reported by laboratories as a "serologic weak D phenotype," which can be further defined by RHD genotyping to be either an RHD weak D type or a partial D phenotype...
August 4, 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792780/an-update-nih-research-funding-for-palliative-medicine-2011-2015
#10
Elizabeth Brown, R Sean Morrison, Laura P Gelfman
BACKGROUND: The evidence base to support palliative care clinical practice is inadequate and opportunities to improve the palliative care evidence base remain despite the field's rapid growth. OBJECTIVE: To examine current NIH funding of palliative medicine research, changes since our 2013 report, and trends since our 2008 report. DESIGN: We sought to identify NIH funding of palliative medicine from 2011 to 2015 in two stages: (I) we searched the NIH grants database "RePorter" for grants with key words "palliative care," "end-of-life care," "hospice," and "end of life" and (II) we identified palliative care researchers likely to have secured NIH funding using three strategies...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792570/-the-global-model-of-public-mental-health-and-recovery-mentors
#11
Jean-François Pelletier, Émilie Auclair
Objectives The aim of this paper is to revisit the Global Model of Public Mental Health (GMPMH) in light of the 4th Civic Forum. Recovery mentors of the University of Recovery chaired this public event, which was held in East-end Montreal, Canada, in 2016. The University of Recovery is a concept of co-learning among its members.Methods Being able to refer to international conventions and human rights standards is a key component of a genuine global approach that is supportive of individuals and communities in their quest for recovery and full citizenship...
2017: Santé Mentale Au Québec
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791693/atypical-antipsychotics-for-disruptive-behaviour-disorders-in-children-and-youths
#12
REVIEW
Jik H Loy, Sally N Merry, Sarah E Hetrick, Karolina Stasiak
BACKGROUND: This is an update of the original Cochrane Review, last published in 2012 (Loy 2012). Children and youths with disruptive behaviour disorders may present to health services, where they may be treated with atypical antipsychotics. There is increasing usage of atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of disruptive behaviour disorders. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect and safety of atypical antipsychotics, compared to placebo, for treating disruptive behaviour disorders in children and youths...
August 9, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782737/contemporary-grading-of-prostate-cancer-2017-update-for-pathologists-and-clinicians
#13
Silvia Gasparrini, Alessia Cimadamore, Marina Scarpelli, Francesco Massari, Andrea Doria, Roberta Mazzucchelli, Liang Cheng, Antonio Lopez-Beltran, Rodolfo Montironi
The Gleason grading system for prostate cancer (PCa) was developed in the 1960s by DF Gleason. Due to changes in PCa detection and treatment, the application of the Gleason grading system has changed considerably in pathology routine practice. Two consensus conferences were held in 2005 and in 2014 to update PCa Gleason grading. This review provides a summary of the changes in the grading of PCa from the original Gleason grading system to the prognostic grade grouping, as well as a discussion of the clinical significance of the percentage of Gleason patterns 4 and 5...
August 4, 2017: Asian Journal of Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781150/2016-guidelines-for-the-use-of-antifungal-agents-in-patients-with-invasive-fungal-diseases-in-taiwan
#14
REVIEW
Hsiang-Chi Kung, Po-Yen Huang, Wei-Ting Chen, Bor-Sheng Ko, Yee-Chun Chen, Shan-Chwen Chang, Yin-Ching Chuang
The Infectious Diseases Society of Taiwan, Medical Foundation in Memory of Dr. Deh-Lin Cheng, Foundation of Professor Wei-Chuan Hsieh for Infectious Diseases Research and Education, and CY Lee's Research Foundation for Pediatric Infectious Diseases and Vaccines have updated the guidelines for the use of antifungal agents in adult patients with invasive fungal diseases in Taiwan. This guideline replaces the 2009 version. Recommendations are provided for Candida, Cryptococcus, Aspergillus and Mucormycetes. The focus is based on up-to-date evidence on indications for treatment or prophylaxis of the most common clinical problems...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780782/endophthalmitis-prophylaxis-for-cataract-surgery
#15
Aravind Haripriya, Zervin R Baam, David F Chang
Endophthalmitis after cataract surgery is a rare but potentially devastating complication. There is great variability in endophthalmitis prophylaxis practice patterns worldwide. Treatment varies globally and is based on the microbiological profile and availability of formulations. Periocular povidone-iodine antisepsis is universally adopted and considered the standard of care in most practices. Perioperative topical antibiotics are also very popular despite the lack of level 1 evidence confirming efficacy. Based on growing observational evidence, routine intracameral antibiotic prophylaxis is increasing, especially where approved commercial intraocular preparations are available...
July 2017: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764149/need-for-changes-in-the-practical-physiology-curriculum-of-medical-undergraduates
#16
Rajni Goyal, Rajveer Garg, Puneet Raj Goyal
INTRODUCTION: Physiology is one of the foundation sciences for the medical curriculum. It forms the basis of all life sciences. Physiology practical classes in India are divided into three sections: exercises in haematology, exercises on humans and experiments on amphibians. Faculty and students of medical schools in India are of the opinion that animal experiments should be discontinued, that the curriculum in experimental physiology and pharmacology needs to be updated, that the same understanding of topics could be obtained by using alternative methods and that there is an urgent need to introduce alternatives of animal experiments...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763076/-study-plan-2016-of-the-licentiate-of-medical-surgery-of-the-faculty-of-higher-studies-iztacala
#17
Adolfo René Méndez-Cruz, Xavier de Jesús Novales-Castro, Lilia Isabel Ramírez-García, Eugenio Camarena-Ocampo, Julia Reyes-Reali, Uriel Calderón-Abundes, Dante Amato
The 2016 undergraduate medical degree curriculum at the Facultad de Estudios Superiores Iztacala of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) is presented. It is the result of a long institutional reflection and academic dialog process of approximately three years, which culminated in its approval by UNAM's Academic Council for the Biology, Chemistry, and Health Sciences areas on January 25, 2016. Its most relevant characteristics are: modular organization, four knowledge areas (biomedical, methodological, socio-psychological, and humanistic and medical practice), and new modules such as Seminar of socio-psycho-biological integration; Genetics and molecular biology; Biochemistry and cellular biology; Pharmacological basis of therapeutics; Infectious diseases, microbiology and parasitology; Medical ethics; Public health; and Evidence-based medicine - clinical epidemiology...
May 2017: Gaceta Médica de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758610/reducing-second-gram-negative-antibiotic-therapy-on-pediatric-oncology-and-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-services
#18
Rachel L Wattier, Emily R Levy, Amit J Sabnis, Christopher C Dvorak, Andrew D Auerbach
OBJECTIVE To evaluate interventions to reduce avoidable antibiotic use on pediatric oncology and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) services. DESIGN Interrupted time series. SETTING Academic pediatric hospital with separate oncology and HSCT services. PARTICIPANTS Children admitted to the services during baseline (October 2011-August 2013) and 2 intervention periods, September 2013-June 2015 and July 2015-June 2016, including 1,525 oncology hospitalizations and 301 HSCT hospitalizations. INTERVENTION In phase 1, we completed an update of the institutional febrile neutropenia (FN) guideline for the pediatric oncology service, recommending first-line β-lactam monotherapy rather than routine use of 2 gram-negative agents...
July 31, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757642/mexican-origin-male-perspectives-of-diet-related-behaviors-associated-with-weight-management
#19
L A Valdez, A Amezquita, S P Hooker, D O Garcia
BACKGROUND: Prevalence rates of obesity and related diseases are quickly reaching epidemic proportions among Hispanic males in the United States. Hispanic males suffer from the highest prevalence of obesity-related diseases when compared to all other racial/ethnic groups. Despite evidence showing that weight loss can significantly reduce the risk of obesity-related health implications, literature informing best practices to engage Hispanic males in weight management programs is scarce...
July 31, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756639/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-adults-2016-clinical-practice-guidelines-by-the-chinese-thoracic-society-chinese-medical-association
#20
REVIEW
Bin Cao, Yi Huang, Dan-Yang She, Qi-Jian Cheng, Fan Hong, Xin-Lun Tian, Jin-Fu Xu, Jing Zhang, Yu Chen, Ning Shen, Hui Wang, Mei Jiang, Xiang-Yan Zhang, Yi Shi, Bei He, Li-Xian He, You-Ning Liu, Jie-Ming Qu
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in adults is an infectious disease with high morbidity in China and the rest of the world. With the changing pattern in the etiological profile of CAP and advances in medical techniques in diagnosis and treatment over time, Chinese Thoracic Society of Chinese Medical Association updated its CAP guideline in 2016 to address the standard management of CAP in Chinese adults. Extensive and comprehensive literature search was made to collect the data and evidence for experts to review and evaluate the level of evidence...
July 29, 2017: Clinical Respiratory Journal
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