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Sleep Spindles

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522097/sleep-spindle-density-in-narcolepsy
#1
Julie Anja Engelhard Christensen, Miki Nikolic, Mathias Hvidtfelt, Birgitte Rahbek Kornum, Poul Jennum
BACKGROUND: Patients with narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) show alterations in sleep stage transitions, rapid-eye-movement (REM) and non-REM sleep due to the loss of hypocretinergic signaling. However, the sleep microstructure has not yet been evaluated in these patients. We aimed to evaluate whether the sleep spindle (SS) density is altered in patients with NT1 compared to controls and patients with narcolepsy type 2 (NT2). METHODS: All-night polysomnographic recordings from 28 NT1 patients, 19 NT2 patients, 20 controls (C) with narcolepsy-like symptoms, but with normal cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin levels and multiple sleep latency tests, and 18 healthy controls (HC) were included...
June 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506629/hippocampal-information-processing-across-sleep-wake-cycles
#2
REVIEW
Kenji Mizuseki, Hiroyuki Miyawaki
According to a two-stage memory consolidation model, during waking theta states, afferent activity from the neocortex to the hippocampus induces transient synaptic modification in the hippocampus, where the information is deposited as a labile form of memory trace. During subsequent sharp-wave ripples (SPW-Rs), the newly acquired hippocampal information is transferred to the neocortex and stored as a long-lasting memory trace. Consistent with this hypothesis, waking theta states and SPW-Rs distinctly control information flow in the hippocampal-entorhinal loop...
May 12, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493938/sleep-spindle-detection-based-on-non-experts-a-validation-study
#3
Rui Zhao, Jinbo Sun, Xinxin Zhang, Huanju Wu, Peng Liu, Xuejuan Yang, Wei Qin
Accurate and efficient detection of sleep spindles is a methodological challenge. The present study describes a method of using non-experts for manual detection of sleep spindles. We recruited five experts and 168 non-experts to manually identify spindles in stage N2 and stage N3 sleep data using a MATLAB interface. Scorers classified each spindle into definite and indefinite spindle (with weights of 1 and 0.5, respectively). First, a method of optimizing the thresholds of the expert/non-expert group consensus according to the results of experts and non-experts themselves is described...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465166/sleeping-on-the-motor-engram-the-multifaceted-nature-of-sleep-related-motor-memory-consolidation
#4
REVIEW
Bradley R King, Kerstin Hoedlmoser, Franziska Hirschauer, Nina Dolfen, Genevieve Albouy
For the past two decades, it has generally been accepted that sleep benefits motor memory consolidation processes. This notion, however, has been challenged by recent studies and thus the sleep and motor memory story is equivocal. Currently, and in contrast to the declarative memory domain, a comprehensive overview and synthesis of the effects of post-learning sleep on the behavioral and neural correlates of motor memory consolidation is not available. We therefore provide an extensive review of the literature in order to highlight that sleep-dependent motor memory consolidation depends upon multiple boundary conditions, including particular features of the motor task, the recruitment of relevant neural substrates (and the hippocampus in particular), as well as the specific architecture of the intervening sleep period (specifically, sleep spindle and slow wave activity)...
April 29, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454598/the-accuracy-night-to-night-variability-and-stability-of-frontopolar-sleep-electroencephalography-biomarkers
#5
Daniel J Levendowski, Luigi Ferini-Strambi, Charlene Gamaldo, Mindy Cetel, Robert Rosenberg, Philip R Westbrook
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To assess the validity of sleep architecture and sleep continuity biomarkers obtained from a portable, multichannel forehead electroencephalography (EEG) recorder. METHODS: Forty-seven subjects simultaneously underwent polysomnography (PSG) while wearing a multichannel frontopolar EEG recording device (Sleep Profiler). The PSG recordings independently staged by 5 registered polysomnographic technologists were compared for agreement with the autoscored sleep EEG before and after expert review...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444788/night-sleep-in-patients-with-vegetative-state
#6
Yuri G Pavlov, Steffen Gais, Friedemann Müller, Monika Schönauer, Barbara Schäpers, Jan Born, Boris Kotchoubey
Polysomnographic recording of night sleep was carried out in 15 patients with the diagnosis vegetative state (syn. unresponsive wakefulness syndrome). Sleep scoring was performed by three raters, and confirmed by means of a spectral power analysis of the electroencephalogram, electrooculogram and electromyogram. All patients but one exhibited at least some signs of sleep. In particular, sleep stage N1 was found in 13 patients, N2 in 14 patients, N3 in nine patients, and rapid eye movement sleep in 10 patients...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431164/low-activity-microstates-during-sleep
#7
Hiroyuki Miyawaki, Yazan N Billeh, Kamran Diba
Study Objectives: To better understand the distinct activity patterns of the brain during sleep, we observed and investigated periods of diminished oscillatory and population spiking activity lasting for seconds during non-REM sleep, which we call "LOW" activity sleep. Methods: We analyzed spiking and local field potential (LFP) activity of hippocampal CA1 region alongside neocortical electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) in 19 sessions from four male Long-Evans rats (262-363g) during natural wake/sleep across the 24-hr cycle, as well as data from other brain regions obtained from http://crcns...
April 18, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425191/thank-god-it-s-friday-sleep-improved
#8
Helena Petersen, Göran Kecklund, Paolo D'Onofrio, John Axelsson, Torbjörn Åkerstedt
The weekend is usually seen as a window of recovery. Thus, sleep before a day off may be less impaired than that before a workday. However, very few polysomnographical studies have investigated this hypothesis. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare sleep before a workday with that before a weekend. Seventeen teachers participated. Sleep was recorded with polysomnography on one weekday night during the workweek, and on a workday (Friday) followed by a day off. Sleep diaries and actigraphs were also used...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422976/reactivation-or-transformation-motor-memory-consolidation-associated-with-cerebral-activation-time-locked-to-sleep-spindles
#9
Stuart Fogel, Genevieve Albouy, Bradley R King, Ovidiu Lungu, Catherine Vien, Arnaud Bore, Basile Pinsard, Habib Benali, Julie Carrier, Julien Doyon
Motor memory consolidation is thought to depend on sleep-dependent reactivation of brain areas recruited during learning. However, up to this point, there has been no direct evidence to support this assertion in humans, and the physiological processes supporting such reactivation are unknown. Here, simultaneous electroencephalographic and functional magnetic resonance imaging (EEG-fMRI) recordings were conducted during post-learning sleep to directly investigate the spindle-related reactivation of a memory trace formed during motor sequence learning (MSL), and its relationship to overnight enhancement in performance (reflecting consolidation)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422648/fast-and-stable-signal-deconvolution-via-compressible-state-space-models
#10
Abbas Kazemipour, Ji Liu, Krystyna Solarana, Daniel Nagode, Patrick Kanold, Min Wu, Behtash Babadi
OBJECTIVE: Common biological measurements are in the form of noisy convolutions of signals of interest with possibly unknown and transient blurring kernels. Examples include EEG and calcium imaging data. Thus, signal deconvolution of these measurements is crucial in understanding the underlying biological processes. The objective of this paper is to develop fast and stable solutions for signal deconvolution from noisy, blurred and undersampled data, where the signals are in the form of discrete events distributed in time and space...
April 13, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377708/increased-evoked-potentials-to-arousing-auditory-stimuli-during-sleep-implication-for-the-understanding-of-dream-recall
#11
Raphael Vallat, Tarek Lajnef, Jean-Baptiste Eichenlaub, Christian Berthomier, Karim Jerbi, Dominique Morlet, Perrine M Ruby
High dream recallers (HR) show a larger brain reactivity to auditory stimuli during wakefulness and sleep as compared to low dream recallers (LR) and also more intra-sleep wakefulness (ISW), but no other modification of the sleep macrostructure. To further understand the possible causal link between brain responses, ISW and dream recall, we investigated the sleep microstructure of HR and LR, and tested whether the amplitude of auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) was predictive of arousing reactions during sleep...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370532/sleep-dependent-consolidation-of-face-recognition-and-its-relationship-to-rem-sleep-duration-rem-density-and-stage-2-sleep-spindles
#12
Elizaveta Solomonova, Philippe Stenstrom, Emilie Schon, Alexandra Duquette, Simon Dubé, Christian O'Reilly, Tore Nielsen
Face recognition is a highly specialized capability that has implicit and explicit memory components. Studies show that learning tasks with facial components are dependent on rapid eye movement and non-rapid eye movement sleep features, including rapid eye movement sleep density and fast sleep spindles. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between sleep-dependent consolidation of memory for faces and partial rapid eye movement sleep deprivation, rapid eye movement density, and fast and slow non-rapid eye movement sleep spindles...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365867/inactivation-of-the-tuberomammillary-nucleus-by-gabaa-receptor-agonist-promotes-slow-wave-sleep-in-freely-moving-rats-and-histamine-treated-rats
#13
Jun-Fan Xie, Kun Fan, Can Wang, Peng Xie, Min Hou, Le Xin, Guang-Fu Cui, Lin-Xin Wang, Yu-Feng Shao, Yi-Ping Hou
A prominent hypothesis, the "flip-flop switch" model, predicts that histaminergic (HAergic) neurons in the tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN), an important component of the ascending arousal system, are inactivated by GABA mainly from the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus to allow the appearance and maintenance of sleep. However, which sleep state and the band of EEG activity induced by GABAergic inactivation of the TMN are unclear. In this study, alterations of sleep-wake states and cortical EEG power spectral density were investigated following muscimol, a GABAA-receptor agonist, microinjected bilaterally into the TMN in freely moving rats and HA pretreated rats, respectively...
April 1, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364465/coordination-of-slow-waves-with-sleep-spindles-predicts-sleep-dependent-memory-consolidation-in-schizophrenia
#14
Charmaine Demanuele, Ullrich Bartsch, Bengi Baran, Sheraz Khan, Mark G Vangel, Roy Cox, Matti Hämäläinen, Matthew W Jones, Robert Stickgold, Dara S Manoach
Study Objectives: Schizophrenia patients have correlated deficits in sleep spindle density and sleep-dependent memory consolidation. In addition to spindle density, memory consolidation is thought to rely on the precise temporal coordination of spindles with slow waves (SWs). We investigated whether this coordination is intact in schizophrenia and its relation to motor procedural memory consolidation. Methods: Twenty-one chronic medicated schizophrenia patients and 17 demographically matched healthy controls underwent two nights of polysomnography, with training on the finger tapping motor sequence task (MST) on the second night and testing the following morning...
January 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364428/enhanced-memory-consolidation-via-automatic-sound-stimulation-during-non-rem-sleep
#15
Miika M Leminen, Jussi Virkkala, Emma Saure, Teemu Paajanen, Phyllis C Zee, Giovanni Santostasi, Christer Hublin, Kiti Müller, Tarja Porkka-Heiskanen, Minna Huotilainen, Tiina Paunio
Introduction: Slow-wave sleep (SWS) slow waves and sleep spindle activity have been shown to be crucial for memory consolidation. Recently, memory consolidation has been causally facilitated in human participants via auditory stimuli phase-locked to SWS slow waves. Aims: Here, we aimed to develop a new acoustic stimulus protocol to facilitate learning and to validate it using different memory tasks. Most importantly, the stimulation setup was automated to be applicable for ambulatory home use...
March 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364418/the-benefit-of-directed-forgetting-persists-after-a-daytime-nap-the-role-of-spindles-and-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-in-the-consolidation-of-relevant-memories
#16
Borbála Blaskovich, Ágnes Szollosi, Ferenc Gombos, Mihály Racsmány, Péter Simor
Study Objectives: We aimed to investigate the effect of directed forgetting instruction on memory retention after a 2-hour delay involving a daytime nap or an equivalent amount of time spent awake. We examined the associations between sleep-specific oscillations and the retention of relevant and irrelevant study materials. Methods: We applied a list-method directed forgetting paradigm manipulating the perceived relevance of previously encoded lists of words. Participants were randomly assigned to either a nap or an awake group, and to a remember or a forget subgroup...
March 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364415/using-oscillating-sounds-to-manipulate-sleep-spindles
#17
James W Antony, Ken A Paller
Introduction: EEG oscillations known as sleep spindles have been linked with various aspects of cognition, but the specific functions they signal remain controversial. Two types of EEG sleep spindles have been distinguished: slow spindles at 11-13.5 Hz and fast spindles at 13.5-16 Hz. Slow spindles exhibit a frontal scalp topography, whereas fast spindles exhibit a posterior scalp topography and have been preferentially linked with memory consolidation during sleep. To advance understanding beyond that provided from correlative studies of spindles, we aimed to develop a new method to systematically manipulate spindles...
March 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337134/acoustic-enhancement-of-sleep-slow-oscillations-and-concomitant-memory-improvement-in-older-adults
#18
Nelly A Papalambros, Giovanni Santostasi, Roneil G Malkani, Rosemary Braun, Sandra Weintraub, Ken A Paller, Phyllis C Zee
Acoustic stimulation methods applied during sleep in young adults can increase slow wave activity (SWA) and improve sleep-dependent memory retention. It is unknown whether this approach enhances SWA and memory in older adults, who generally have reduced SWA compared to younger adults. Additionally, older adults are at risk for age-related cognitive impairment and therefore may benefit from non-invasive interventions. The aim of this study was to determine if acoustic stimulation can increase SWA and improve declarative memory in healthy older adults...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335000/better-than-sham-a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-neurofeedback-study-in-primary-insomnia
#19
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Manuel Schabus, Hermann Griessenberger, Maria-Teresa Gnjezda, Dominik P J Heib, Malgorzata Wislowska, Kerstin Hoedlmoser
See Thibault et al. (doi:10.1093/awx033) for a scientific commentary on this article.Neurofeedback training builds upon the simple concept of instrumental conditioning, i.e. behaviour that is rewarded is more likely to reoccur, an effect Thorndike referred to as the 'law of effect'. In the case of neurofeedback, information about specific electroencephalographic activity is fed back to the participant who is rewarded whenever the desired electroencephalography pattern is generated. If some kind of hyperarousal needs to be addressed, the neurofeedback community considers sensorimotor rhythm neurofeedback as the gold standard...
April 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334879/altered-sleep-homeostasis-correlates-with-cognitive-impairment-in-patients-with-focal-epilepsy
#20
Melanie Boly, Benjamin Jones, Graham Findlay, Erin Plumley, Armand Mensen, Bruce Hermann, Guilio Tononi, Rama Maganti
In animal studies, both seizures and interictal spikes induce synaptic potentiation. Recent evidence suggests that electroencephalogram slow wave activity during sleep reflects synaptic potentiation during wake, and that its homeostatic decrease during the night is associated with synaptic renormalization and its beneficial effects. Here we asked whether epileptic activity induces plastic changes that can be revealed by high-density electroencephalography recordings during sleep in 15 patients with focal epilepsy and 15 control subjects...
April 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
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