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Sleep Spindles

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790302/formation-and-suppression-of-acoustic-memories-during-human-sleep
#1
Thomas Andrillon, Daniel Pressnitzer, Damien Léger, Sid Kouider
Sleep and memory are deeply related, but the nature of the neuroplastic processes induced by sleep remains unclear. Here, we report that memory traces can be both formed or suppressed during sleep, depending on sleep phase. We played samples of acoustic noise to sleeping human listeners. Repeated exposure to a novel noise during Rapid Eye Movements (REM) or light non-REM (NREM) sleep leads to improvements in behavioral performance upon awakening. Strikingly, the same exposure during deep NREM sleep leads to impaired performance upon awakening...
August 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764392/the-pacemaker-role-of-thalamic-reticular-nucleus-in-controlling-spike-wave-discharges-and-spindles
#2
Denggui Fan, Fucheng Liao, Qingyun Wang
Absence epilepsy, characterized by 2-4 Hz spike-wave discharges (SWDs), can be caused by pathological interactions within the thalamocortical system. Cortical spindling oscillations are also demonstrated to involve the oscillatory thalamocortical rhythms generated by the synaptic circuitry of the thalamus and cortex. This implies that SWDs and spindling oscillations can share the common thalamocortical mechanism. Additionally, the thalamic reticular nucleus (RE) is hypothesized to regulate the onsets and propagations of both the epileptic SWDs and sleep spindles...
July 2017: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756948/the-sleeping-infant-brain-anticipates-development
#3
Manuela Friedrich, Ines Wilhelm, Matthias Mölle, Jan Born, Angela D Friederici
From the age of 3 months, infants learn relations between objects and co-occurring words [1]. These very first representations of object-word pairings in infant memory are considered as non-symbolic proto-words comprising specific visual-auditory associations that can already be formed in the first months of life [2-5]. Genuine words that refer to semantic long-term memory have not been evidenced prior to 9 months of age [6-9]. Sleep is known to facilitate the reorganization of memories [9-14], but its impact on the perceptual-to-semantic trend in early development is unknown...
August 7, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755545/stereo-electroencephalography-identifies-n2-sleep-and-spindles-in-human-hippocampus
#4
Nicolas Carpentier, Thierry Cecchin, Laurent Koessler, Valérie Louis-Dorr, Jacques Jonas, Jean-Pierre Vignal, Marc Carpentier, William Szurhaj, Patrice Bourgin, Louis Maillard
OBJECTIVES: To describe the hippocampal stereo-electroencephalogram during sleep according to sleep stages (including N2 sleep) and cycles, together with the hippocampal spindles. METHODS: All patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy undergoing intra-hippocampal implantation between August 2012 and June 2013 at Nancy University Hospital were screened. Six patients with explored hippocampus devoid of pathological features were analyzed. During one night, we identified continuous periods of successive N2, N3 and REM sleep for two full cycles...
July 8, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747777/sleep-and-memory-spindles-take-charge
#5
Katherine Whalley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 27, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735929/electrophysiological-and-microstructural-features-of-sleep-in%C3%A2-children%C3%A2-at-high-risk-for-depression-a-preliminary-study
#6
Gianluca Sesso, Flora Bat-Pitault, Aurore Guyon, Sabine Plancoulaine, Tommaso Banfi, Giulia Milioli, Liborio Parrino, Ugo Faraguna, Patricia Franco
OBJECTIVE: This preliminary study investigated electrophysiological and microstructural features of sleep in children and adolescents 4-18 years of age who were born to depressed mothers. METHODS: A total of 31 healthy subjects (15 male and 16 female) participated in the study. In this sample, 20 children born to mothers diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) were designated as "high-risk"; 11 children born to mothers without a personal history of depression were designated as "low-risk...
August 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722249/memory-in-3-month-old-infants-benefits-from-a-short-nap
#7
Klára Horváth, Benjamin Hannon, Peter P Ujma, Ferenc Gombos, Kim Plunkett
A broad range of studies demonstrate that sleep has a facilitating role in memory consolidation (see Rasch & Born, ). Whether sleep-dependent memory consolidation is also apparent in infants in their first few months of life has not been investigated. We demonstrate that 3-month-old infants only remember a cartoon face approximately 1.5-2 hours after its first presentation when a period of sleep followed learning. Furthermore, habituation time, that is, the time to become bored with a stimulus shown repetitively, correlated negatively with the density of infant sleep spindles, implying that processing speed is linked to specific electroencephalographic components of sleep...
July 18, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690583/correlating-interictal-spikes-with-sigma-and-delta-dynamics-during-non-rapid-eye-movement-sleep
#8
Frédéric Zubler, Annalisa Rubino, Giorgio Lo Russo, Kaspar Schindler, Lino Nobili
Interictal spikes (IS) are one of the major hallmarks of epilepsy. Understanding the factors promoting or suppressing IS would increase our comprehension of epilepsy and possibly open new avenues for therapy. Sleep strongly influences epileptic activity, and the modulatory effects of the different sleep stages on IS have been studied for decades. However, several aspects are still disputed, in particular the role of sleep spindles and slow waves in the activation of IS during Non-REM sleep. Here, we correlate the rate of IS with quantitative measures derived from stereo-EEG during one Non-REM cycle in 10 patients suffering from drug-resistant epilepsy due to type 2 focal cortical dysplasia...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689981/thalamic-spindles-promote-memory-formation-during-sleep-through-triple-phase-locking-of-cortical-thalamic-and-hippocampal-rhythms
#9
Charles-Francois V Latchoumane, Hong-Viet V Ngo, Jan Born, Hee-Sup Shin
While the interaction of the cardinal rhythms of non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep-the thalamo-cortical spindles, hippocampal ripples, and the cortical slow oscillations-is thought to be critical for memory consolidation during sleep, the role spindles play in this interaction is elusive. Combining optogenetics with a closed-loop stimulation approach in mice, we show here that only thalamic spindles induced in-phase with cortical slow oscillation up-states, but not out-of-phase-induced spindles, improve consolidation of hippocampus-dependent memory during sleep...
July 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670270/using-meg-to-understand-the-progression-of-light-sleep-and-the-emergence-and-functional-roles-of-spindles-and-k-complexes
#10
Andreas A Ioannides, Lichan Liu, Vahe Poghosyan, George K Kostopoulos
We used tomographic analysis of MEG signals to characterize regional spectral changes in the brain at sleep onset and during light sleep. We identified two key processes that may causally link to loss of consciousness during the quiet or "core" periods of NREM1. First, active inhibition in the frontal lobe leads to delta and theta spectral power increases. Second, activation suppression leads to sharp drop of spectral power in alpha and higher frequencies in posterior parietal cortex. During NREM2 core periods, the changes identified in NREM1 become more widespread, but focal increases also emerge in alpha and low sigma band power in frontal midline cortical structures, suggesting reemergence of some monitoring of internal and external environment...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649997/characterizing-sleep-spindles-in-11-630-individuals-from-the-national-sleep-research-resource
#11
S M Purcell, D S Manoach, C Demanuele, B E Cade, S Mariani, R Cox, G Panagiotaropoulou, R Saxena, J Q Pan, J W Smoller, S Redline, R Stickgold
Sleep spindles are characteristic electroencephalogram (EEG) signatures of stage 2 non-rapid eye movement sleep. Implicated in sleep regulation and cognitive functioning, spindles may represent heritable biomarkers of neuropsychiatric disease. Here we characterize spindles in 11,630 individuals aged 4 to 97 years, as a prelude to future genetic studies. Spindle properties are highly reliable but exhibit distinct developmental trajectories. Across the night, we observe complex patterns of age- and frequency-dependent dynamics, including signatures of circadian modulation...
June 26, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647492/eszopiclone-for-persistent-negative-symptoms-in-schizophrenia-an-unintended-n-of-1-study
#12
Urvakhsh Meherwan Mehta, Vinutha Ravishankar, Jagadisha Thirthalli
Persistent negative and cognitive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia pose a significant challenge to clinicians. Being a heterogeneous cluster of symptoms with potentially distinct underlying pathogenesis, it is important to examine novel therapies based on emerging neurobiological evidence. Eszopiclone is known to enhance the deficient sleep spindles that are related to impairments in learning and memory in schizophrenia. In this report we highlight the potential utility of eszopiclone in treating persistent negative symptoms in a patient with chronic schizophrenia...
June 21, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637840/promoting-sleep-oscillations-and-their-functional-coupling-by-transcranial-stimulation-enhances-memory-consolidation-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#13
Julia Ladenbauer, Josef Ladenbauer, Nadine Külzow, Rebecca de Boor, Elena Avramova, Ulrike Grittner, Agnes Flöel
Alzheimer's disease (AD) not only involves loss of memory functions, but also prominent deterioration of sleep physiology, which is already evident at the stage of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Cortical slow oscillations (SO; 0.5-1 Hz) and thalamocortical spindle activity (12-15 Hz) during sleep, and their temporal coordination, are considered critical for memory formation. We investigated the potential of slow oscillatory transcranial direct current stimulation (so-tDCS), applied during a daytime nap in a sleep-state-dependent manner, to modulate these activity patterns and sleep-related memory consolidation in nine male and seven female human patients with MCI...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600157/multichannel-sleep-spindle-detection-using-sparse-low-rank-optimization
#14
Ankit Parekh, Ivan W Selesnick, Ricardo S Osorio, Andrew W Varga, David M Rapoport, Indu Ayappa
BACKGROUND: Automated single-channel spindle detectors, for human sleep EEG, are blind to the presence of spindles in other recorded channels unlike visual annotation by a human expert. NEW METHOD: We propose a multichannel spindle detection method that aims to detect global and local spindle activity in human sleep EEG. Using a non-linear signal model, which assumes the input EEG to be the sum of a transient and an oscillatory component, we propose a multichannel transient separation algorithm...
June 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572762/evaluating-and-improving-automatic-sleep-spindle-detection-by-using-multi-objective-evolutionary-algorithms
#15
Min-Yin Liu, Adam Huang, Norden E Huang
Sleep spindles are brief bursts of brain activity in the sigma frequency range (11-16 Hz) measured by electroencephalography (EEG) mostly during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) stage 2 sleep. These oscillations are of great biological and clinical interests because they potentially play an important role in identifying and characterizing the processes of various neurological disorders. Conventionally, sleep spindles are identified by expert sleep clinicians via visual inspection of EEG signals. The process is laborious and the results are inconsistent among different experts...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541914/an-ultralow-power-sleep-spindle-detection-system-on-chip
#16
Saam Iranmanesh, Esther Rodriguez-Villegas
This paper describes a full system-on-chip to automatically detect sleep spindle events from scalp EEG signals. These events, which are known to play an important role on memory consolidation during sleep, are also characteristic of a number of neurological diseases. The operation of the system is based on a previously reported algorithm, which used the Teager energy operator, together with the Spectral Edge Frequency (SEF50) achieving more than 70% sensitivity and 98% specificity. The algorithm is now converted into a hardware analog based customized implementation in order to achieve extremely low levels of power...
August 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541306/coordination-of-cortical-and-thalamic-activity-during-non-rem-sleep-in-humans
#17
Rachel A Mak-McCully, Matthieu Rolland, Anna Sargsyan, Chris Gonzalez, Michel Magnin, Patrick Chauvel, Marc Rey, Hélène Bastuji, Eric Halgren
Every night, the human brain produces thousands of downstates and spindles during non-REM sleep. Previous studies indicate that spindles originate thalamically and downstates cortically, loosely grouping spindle occurrence. However, the mechanisms whereby the thalamus and cortex interact in generating these sleep phenomena remain poorly understood. Using bipolar depth recordings, we report here a sequence wherein: (1) convergent cortical downstates lead thalamic downstates; (2) thalamic downstates hyperpolarize thalamic cells, thus triggering spindles; and (3) thalamic spindles are focally projected back to cortex, arriving during the down-to-upstate transition when the cortex replays memories...
May 25, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522097/sleep-spindle-density-in-narcolepsy
#18
Julie Anja Engelhard Christensen, Miki Nikolic, Mathias Hvidtfelt, Birgitte Rahbek Kornum, Poul Jennum
BACKGROUND: Patients with narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) show alterations in sleep stage transitions, rapid-eye-movement (REM) and non-REM sleep due to the loss of hypocretinergic signaling. However, the sleep microstructure has not yet been evaluated in these patients. We aimed to evaluate whether the sleep spindle (SS) density is altered in patients with NT1 compared to controls and patients with narcolepsy type 2 (NT2). METHODS: All-night polysomnographic recordings from 28 NT1 patients, 19 NT2 patients, 20 controls (C) with narcolepsy-like symptoms, but with normal cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin levels and multiple sleep latency tests, and 18 healthy controls (HC) were included...
June 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506629/hippocampal-information-processing-across-sleep-wake-cycles
#19
REVIEW
Kenji Mizuseki, Hiroyuki Miyawaki
According to a two-stage memory consolidation model, during waking theta states, afferent activity from the neocortex to the hippocampus induces transient synaptic modification in the hippocampus, where the information is deposited as a labile form of memory trace. During subsequent sharp-wave ripples (SPW-Rs), the newly acquired hippocampal information is transferred to the neocortex and stored as a long-lasting memory trace. Consistent with this hypothesis, waking theta states and SPW-Rs distinctly control information flow in the hippocampal-entorhinal loop...
May 12, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493938/sleep-spindle-detection-based-on-non-experts-a-validation-study
#20
Rui Zhao, Jinbo Sun, Xinxin Zhang, Huanju Wu, Peng Liu, Xuejuan Yang, Wei Qin
Accurate and efficient detection of sleep spindles is a methodological challenge. The present study describes a method of using non-experts for manual detection of sleep spindles. We recruited five experts and 168 non-experts to manually identify spindles in stage N2 and stage N3 sleep data using a MATLAB interface. Scorers classified each spindle into definite and indefinite spindle (with weights of 1 and 0.5, respectively). First, a method of optimizing the thresholds of the expert/non-expert group consensus according to the results of experts and non-experts themselves is described...
2017: PloS One
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