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Sleep Spindles

Chelsea M Reynolds, Michael Gradisar, Michelle A Short
Evidence of night-to-night variation in adolescent sleep spindle characteristics is lacking. Twelve adolescents (M = 15.8 ± 0.8 years, eight males) participated in a laboratory study involving 9 nights with 10 hr sleep opportunity. Sleep electroencephalograph was analysed and intra-class coefficients calculated to determine the reliability of sleep spindles across multiple nights of recording. Slow spindle amplitude and fast spindle density, duration and amplitude characteristics all had acceptable reliability within a single night of sleep recording...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
Hanna den Bakker, Michael S Sidorov, Zheng Fan, David J Lee, Lynne M Bird, Catherine J Chu, Benjamin D Philpot
Background: Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by intellectual disability, speech and motor impairments, epilepsy, abnormal sleep, and phenotypic overlap with autism. Individuals with AS display characteristic EEG patterns including high-amplitude rhythmic delta waves. Here, we sought to quantitatively explore EEG architecture in AS beyond known spectral power phenotypes. We were motivated by studies of functional connectivity and sleep spindles in autism to study these EEG readouts in children with AS...
2018: Molecular Autism
Tae-Won Yang, Byeongsu Park, Keun Tae Kim, Jin-Sun Jun, Young-Soo Kim, Soon-Tae Lee, Keun-Hwa Jung, Kon Chu, Sang Kun Lee, Ki-Young Jung
RATIONALE: Fatal familial insomnia (FFI) is a human prion disease that is characterized by sleep-wake cycle deterioration, loss of slow-wave sleep, and motor overactivation over the daily 24-hour period. PATIENT CONCERNS: Here, we report the case of a 57-year-old man who had an irregular sleep-wake cycle and exhibited frequent movements and vocalizations during sleep. DIAGNOSES: Video-polysomnography showed disrupted sleep structure, rapid alternation between sleep stages, and an absence of sleep spindles and slow-wave sleep...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Bengi Baran, David Correll, Tessa C Vuper, Alexandra Morgan, Simon J Durrant, Dara S Manoach, Robert Stickgold
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia are the strongest predictor of disability and effective treatment is lacking. This reflects our limited mechanistic understanding and consequent lack of treatment targets. In schizophrenia, impaired sleep-dependent memory consolidation correlates with reduced sleep spindle activity, suggesting sleep spindles as a potentially treatable mechanism. In the present study we investigated whether sleep-dependent memory consolidation deficits in schizophrenia are selective...
April 26, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Sara E Alger, Elizabeth A Kensinger, Jessica D Payne
Sleep preferentially preserves aspects of memory that are most salient and valuable to remember at the expense of memory for less relevant details. Daytime naps and nocturnal sleep enhance this emotional memory trade-off effect, with memory for emotional components correlated with slow-wave sleep during the day and rapid eye movement sleep overnight. However, these studies have primarily sampled from young adult populations. Sleep and memory are altered by middle age, and the aim of the present study was to examine how age affects sleep-based mechanisms of emotional memory prioritization, using a daytime nap protocol to compare young to middle-aged adults...
April 4, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Franziska Rudzik, Laurie Thiesse, Reto Pieren, Jean Marc Wunderli, Mark Brink, Maria Foraster, Harris Héritier, Ikenna C Eze, Corrado Garbazza, Danielle Vienneau, Nicole Probst-Hensch, Martin Röösli, Christian Cajochen
Study Objectives: Night-time transportation noise elicits awakenings, sleep-stage changes, and electro-encephalographic (EEG) arousals. Here, we investigated the potential sleep-protective role of sleep spindles on noise-induced sleep alterations. Methods: Twenty-six young (19-33 years, 12 women) and 18 older (52-70 years, 9 women) healthy volunteers underwent a repeated measures polysomnographic six-day laboratory study. Participants spent one noise-free baseline night, followed by four transportation noise exposure nights (road traffic or railway noise; continuous or intermittent: average sound levels of 45 dB, maximum sound levels of 50-62 dB), and one noise-free recovery night...
April 25, 2018: Sleep
Ivan Skelin, Scott Kilianski, Bruce L McNaughton
Memory consolidation is a gradual process through which episodic memories become incorporated into long-term 'semantic' representations. It likely involves reactivation of neural activity encoding the recent experience during non-REM sleep. A critical prerequisite for memory consolidation is precise coordination of reactivation events between the hippocampus and cortical/subcortical structures, facilitated by the coupling of local field potential (LFP) oscillations (slow oscillations, sleep spindles and sharp wave/ripples) between these structures...
April 13, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Klára Horváth, Kim Plunkett
Daytime napping undergoes a remarkable change in early childhood, and research regarding its relationship to cognitive development has recently accelerated. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of this relationship focusing on children aged <5 years. First, we evaluate different studies on the basis of the experimental design used and the specific cognitive processes they investigate. Second, we analyze how the napping status of children may modulate the relationship between learning and napping...
2018: Nature and Science of Sleep
Bálint Bús, Károly Antal, Zsuzsa Emri
Spindle oscillations are generated predominantly during sleep state II, through cyclical interactions between thalamocortical and reticular neurons. Inhibition from reticular cells is critical for this activity; it enables burst firing by the de-inactivation of T-type Ca2+ channels. While the effect of different channelopathies on spindling is extensively investigated, our knowledge about the role of intrathalamic connections is limited. Therefore, we explored how the connection pattern and the density of reticular inhibitory synapses affect spindle activity in a thalamic network model...
March 2018: Acta Biologica Hungarica
Fiona C Baker, Negin Sattari, Massimiliano de Zambotti, Aimee Goldstone, William A Alaynick, Sara C Mednick
Age and sex are two of the three major risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (ApoE-e4 allele is the third), with women having a two-fold greater risk for Alzheimer's disease after the age of 75 years. Sex differences have been shown across a wide range of cognitive skills in young and older adults, and evidence supports a role for sex steroids, especially estradiol, in protecting against the development of cognitive decline in women. Sleep may also be a protective factor against age-related cognitive decline, since specific electrophysiological sleep events (e...
March 21, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Jan Cosgrave, Katharina Wulff, Philip Gehrman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review is designed to give an overview of the latest developments in research exploring the relationship between sleep and psychosis, with particular attention paid to the evidence for a causal relationship between the two. RECENT FINDINGS: The most interesting avenues currently in pursuit are focused upon sleep spindle deficits which may hallmark an endophenotype; explorations of the continuum of psychotic experiences, and experimental manipulations to explore the evidence for bidirectional causality; inflammatory markers, psychosis and sleep disturbances and finally, treatment approaches for sleep in psychosis and the subsequent impact on positive experiences...
May 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Scott A Cairney, Anna Á Váli Guttesen, Nicole El Marj, Bernhard P Staresina
How are brief encounters transformed into lasting memories? Previous research has established the role of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, along with its electrophysiological signatures of slow oscillations (SOs) and spindles, for memory consolidation [1-4]. In related work, experimental manipulations have demonstrated that NREM sleep provides a window of opportunity to selectively strengthen particular memory traces via the delivery of auditory cues [5-10], a procedure known as targeted memory reactivation (TMR)...
March 19, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Jessica Page, Caroline Lustenberger, Flavio Fr Hlich
Widespread change in behavior and the underlying brain network substrate is a hallmark of early development. Sleep plays a fundamental role in this process. Both slow waves and spindles are key features of nonrapid eye movement sleep (NREM) that exhibit pronounced developmental trajectories from infancy to adulthood. Yet, these prominent features of NREM sleep are poorly understood in infants and toddlers in the age range of 12 to 30 months. Moreover, it is unknown how network dynamics of NREM sleep are associated with outcomes of early development...
April 1, 2018: Sleep
Lone Baandrup, Julie A E Christensen, Birgitte Fagerlund, Poul Jennum
Neurocognitive impairment is a trait marker of schizophrenia, but no effective treatment has yet been identified. Sleep spindle deficits have been associated with diminished sleep-dependent memory learning. We examined whether this link could be extended into various cognitive domains by investigating the association of a neurocognitive test battery (the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia) with sleep spindle activity and morphology. We examined 37 outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia and medicated with both antipsychotics and benzodiazepines...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
Pablo E Brockmann, Felipe Damiani, Eduardo Pincheira, Francisca Daiber, Sergio Ruiz, Francisco Aboitiz, Raffaele Ferri, Oliviero Bruni
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To assess spindle activity as possible markers for neurocognitive consequences in children with mild obstructive sleep apnea. METHODS: Children aged 6-11 years diagnosed with mild OSA (i.e., an apnea hypopnea index <5.0) were recruited and compared with age and gender-matched healthy controls. Polysomnographic recordings were analyzed for sleep microstructure and spindle activity. All children completed also an intelligence test battery (i.e...
May 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Ping Chai Koo, Matthias Mölle, Lisa Marshall
Despite many reports on beneficial effects of anodal slow oscillatory-transcranial direct current stimulation (so-tDCS) during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep on memory consolidation, frequent negative outcomes have also been observed. Our working hypothesis is that so-tDCS efficacy is strongly dependent upon the susceptibility of the underlying network. One component determining susceptibility of the network is hypothesized to be reflected in learning or 'task-induced' plastic changes. Another component is hypothesized to represent inter-individual confounds...
April 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Renee E Shimizu, Patrick M Connolly, Nicola Cellini, Diana M Armstrong, Lexus T Hernandez, Rolando Estrada, Mario Aguilar, Michael P Weisend, Sara C Mednick, Stephen B Simons
Sounds associated with newly learned information that are replayed during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep can improve recall in simple tasks. The mechanism for this improvement is presumed to be reactivation of the newly learned memory during sleep when consolidation takes place. We have developed an EEG-based closed-loop system to precisely deliver sensory stimulation at the time of down-state to up-state transitions during NREM sleep. Here, we demonstrate that applying this technology to participants performing a realistic navigation task in virtual reality results in a significant improvement in navigation efficiency after sleep that is accompanied by increases in the spectral power especially in the fast (12-15 Hz) sleep spindle band...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Aurora D'Atri, Luana Novelli, Michele Ferrara, Oliviero Bruni, Luigi De Gennaro
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Massive changes in brain morphology and function in the first years of life reveal a postero-anterior trajectory of cortical maturation accompanied by regional modifications of NREM sleep. One of the most sensible marker of this maturation process is represented by electroencephalographic (EEG) activity within the frequency range of sleep spindles. However, direct evidence that these changes actually reflect maturational modifications of fast and slow spindles still lacks...
February 2018: Sleep Medicine
Sébrina Aubin, Julie A E Christensen, Poul Jennum, Tore Nielsen, Ron Kupers, Maurice Ptito
The loss of vision, particularly when it occurs early in life, is associated with compensatory cortical plasticity not only in the visual cortical areas, but throughout the entire brain. The absence of visual input to the retina can also induce changes in entrainment of the circadian rhythm, as light is the primary zeitgeber of the master biological clock found in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus. In addition, a greater number of sleep disturbances is often reported in blind individuals. Here, we examined various electroencephalographic microstructural components of sleep, both during rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep and non-REM (NREM) sleep, between blind individuals, including both of early and late onset, and normal-sighted controls...
February 2018: Sleep Medicine
Donald J Hagler, István Ulbert, Lucia Wittner, Loránd Erőss, Joseph R Madsen, Orrin Devinsky, Werner Doyle, Dániel Fabó, Sydney S Cash, Eric Halgren
Sleep spindles are a cardinal feature in human NREM sleep and may be important for memory consolidation. We studied the intracortical organization of spindles in men and women by recording spontaneous sleep spindles from different cortical layers using linear microelectrode arrays. Two patterns of spindle generation were identified using visual inspection, and confirmed with factor analysis. Spindles (10-16 Hz) were largest and most common in upper and middle channels, with limited involvement of deep channels...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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