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Sleep Spindles

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893249/sleep-spindles-and-intelligence-in-early-childhood-developmental-and-trait-dependent-aspects
#1
Péter P Ujma, Piroska Sándor, Sára Szakadát, Ferenc Gombos, Róbert Bódizs
Sleep spindles act as a powerful marker of individual differences in cognitive ability. Sleep spindle parameters correlate with both age-related changes in cognitive abilities and with the age-independent concept of IQ. While some studies have specifically demonstrated the relationship between sleep spindles and intelligence in young children, our previous work in older subjects revealed sex differences in the sleep spindle correlates of IQ, which was never investigated in small children before. We investigated the relationship between age, Raven Colored Progressive Matrices (CPM) scores and sleep spindles in 28 young children (age 4-8 years, 15 girls)...
December 2016: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887994/tactile-stimulation-during-sleep-alters-slow-oscillation-and-spindle-densities-but-not-motor-skill
#2
Sofia Isabel Ribeiro Pereira, Felipe Beijamini, Frederik D Weber, Roberta Almeida Vincenzi, Felipe Augusto Cini da Silva, Fernando Mazzilli Louzada
Studies using targeted memory reactivation have shown that presentation of auditory or olfactory contextual cues during sleep can bias hippocampal reactivations towards the preferential replay of the cue-associated material, thereby resulting in enhanced consolidation of that information. If the same cortical ensembles are indeed used for encoding and storage of a given piece of information, forcing the sleeping brain to re-engage in task-intrinsic information processing should disturb the natural ongoing consolidation processes and therefore impair possible sleep benefits...
November 23, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855061/rotating-waves-during-human-sleep-spindles-organize-global-patterns-of-activity-that-repeat-precisely-through-the-night
#3
Lyle Muller, Giovanni Piantoni, Dominik Koller, Sydney S Cash, Eric Halgren, Terrence J Sejnowski
During sleep, the thalamus generates a characteristic pattern of transient, 11-15 Hz sleep spindle oscillations, which synchronize the cortex through large-scale thalamocortical loops. Spindles have been increasingly demonstrated to be critical for sleep-dependent consolidation of memory, but the specific neural mechanism for this process remains unclear. We show here that cortical spindles are spatiotemporally organized into circular wave-like patterns, organizing neuronal activity over tens of milliseconds, within the timescale for storing memories in large-scale networks across the cortex via spike-time dependent plasticity...
November 15, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853537/global-field-synchronization-reveals-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-as-most-synchronized-brain-state-in-the-human-eeg
#4
Peter Achermann, Thomas Rusterholz, Roland Dürr, Thomas König, Leila Tarokh
Sleep is characterized by a loss of consciousness, which has been attributed to a breakdown of functional connectivity between brain regions. Global field synchronization (GFS) can estimate functional connectivity of brain processes. GFS is a frequency-dependent measure of global synchronicity of multi-channel EEG data. Our aim was to explore and extend the hypothesis of disconnection during sleep by comparing GFS spectra of different vigilance states. The analysis was performed on eight healthy adult male subjects...
October 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849520/cellular-and-neurochemical-basis-of-sleep-stages-in-the-thalamocortical-network
#5
Giri P Krishnan, Sylvain Chauvette, Isaac Shamie, Sara Soltani, Igor Timofeev, Sydney S Cash, Eric Halgren, Maxim Bazhenov
The link between the combined action of neuromodulators in the brain and global brain states remains a mystery. In this study, using biophysically realistic models of the thalamocortical network, we identified the critical intrinsic and synaptic mechanisms, associated with the putative action of acetylcholine (ACh), GABA and monoamines, which lead to transitions between primary brain vigilance states (waking, non-rapid eye movement sleep [NREM] and REM sleep) within an ultradian cycle. Using ECoG recordings from humans and LFP recordings from cats and mice, we found that during NREM sleep the power of spindle and delta oscillations is negatively correlated in humans and positively correlated in animal recordings...
November 16, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815989/sleep-spindles-a-physiological-marker-of-age-related-changes-in-gray-matter-in-brain-regions-supporting-motor-skill-memory-consolidation
#6
Stuart Fogel, Catherine Vien, Avi Karni, Habib Benali, Julie Carrier, Julien Doyon
Sleep is necessary for the optimal consolidation of procedural learning, and in particular, for motor sequential skills. Motor sequence learning remains intact with age, but sleep-dependent consolidation is impaired, suggesting that memory deficits for procedural skills are specifically impacted by age-related changes in sleep. Age-related changes in spindles may be responsible for impaired motor sequence learning consolidation, but the morphological basis for this deficit is unknown. Here, we found that gray matter in the hippocampus and cerebellum was positively correlated with both sleep spindles and offline improvements in performance in young participants but not in older participants...
October 11, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797541/slow-wave-and-rem-sleep-deprivation-effects-on-explicit-and-implicit-memory-during-sleep
#7
Sarah J Casey, Luke C Solomons, Joerg Steier, Neeraj Kabra, Anna Burnside, Martino F Pengo, John Moxham, Laura H Goldstein, Michael D Kopelman
OBJECTIVE: It has been debated whether different stages in the human sleep cycle preferentially mediate the consolidation of explicit and implicit memories, or whether all of the stages in succession are necessary for optimal consolidation. Here we investigated whether the selective deprivation of slow wave sleep (SWS) or rapid eye movement (REM) sleep over an entire night would have a specific effect on consolidation in explicit and implicit memory tasks. METHOD: Participants completed a set of explicit and implicit memory tasks at night, prior to sleep...
November 2016: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793660/reduced-expression-of-%C3%AE-5gabaa-receptors-elicits-autism-like-alterations-in-eeg-patterns-and-sleep-wake-behavior
#8
Lia Mesbah-Oskui, Antonello Penna, Beverley A Orser, Richard L Horner
A reduction in the activity of GABAA receptors, particularly α5 subunit-containing GABAA receptors (α5GABAARs), has been implicated in the etiology of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Genetically modified mice that lack α5GABAARs (Gabra5(-/-)) exhibit autism-like behaviors and both enhanced and impaired learning and memory, depending on the behavioral task. The aim of this study was to examine the electroencephalogram (EEG) activity and sleep-wake behaviors in Gabra5(-/-) mice and wild-type mice. In addition, since some individuals with ASD can exhibit elevated innate immune response, mice were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 125mg/kg intraperitoneal injection) or vehicle and EEG and sleep-wake patterns were assessed...
October 25, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766089/sleep-changes-in-adolescents-following-procedural-task-training
#9
Rebecca S Nader, Anthony L Murkar, Carlyle T Smith
Recent research has suggested that some of the inter-individual variation in sleep spindle activity is due to innate learning ability. Sleep spindles have also been observed to vary following learning in both young and older adults. We examined the effect of procedural task acquisition on sleep stages and on sleep spindles in an adolescent sample. Participants were 32 adolescents (17 females) between the ages of 12 and 19 years. Spindle activity was examined in three different frequency ranges: 11.00-13.50 Hz (slow), 13...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748249/effects-of-sleep-after-experimental-trauma-on-intrusive-emotional-memories
#10
Birgit Kleim, Julia Wysokowsky, Nuria Schmid, Erich Seifritz, Björn Rasch
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To investigate sleep's effect in the immediate aftermath of experiencing an analog trauma in the laboratory on reducing intrusive emotional memory formation. METHODS: Sixty-five healthy women were exposed to an experimental laboratory trauma. They viewed a neutral and a trauma film in the laboratory and were randomly allocated to either a group that slept following film viewing or a group that remained awake. Sleep was recorded with electroencephalogram in a subgroup of participants in the sleep group...
October 10, 2016: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748246/levels-of-interference-in-long-and-short-term-memory-differentially-modulate-non-rem-and-rem-sleep
#11
Nicolas Fraize, Julien Carponcy, Mickaël Antoine Joseph, Jean-Christophe Comte, Pierre-Hervé Luppi, Paul-Antoine Libourel, Paul-Antoine Salin, Gaël Malleret, Régis Parmentier
STUDY OBJECTIVES: It is commonly accepted that sleep is beneficial to memory processes, but it is still unclear if this benefit originates from improved memory consolidation or enhanced information processing. It has thus been proposed that sleep may also promote forgetting of undesirable and non-essential memories, a process required for optimization of cognitive resources. We tested the hypothesis that non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) promotes forgetting of irrelevant information, more specifically when processing information in working memory (WM), while REM sleep (REMS) facilitates the consolidation of important information...
October 10, 2016: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747974/children-s-initial-sleep-associated-changes-in-motor-skill-are-unrelated-to-long-term-skill-levels
#12
Katharina Zinke, Ines Wilhelm, Müge Bayramoglu, Susanne Klein, Jan Born
Sleep is considered to support the formation of skill memory. In juvenile but not adult song birds learning a tutor's song, a stronger initial deterioration of song performance over night-sleep predicts better song performance in the long run. This and similar observations have stimulated the view of sleep supporting skill formation during development in an unsupervised off-line learning process that, in the absence of external feedback, can initially also enhance inaccuracies in skill performance. Here we explored whether in children learning a motor sequence task, as in song-learning juvenile birds, changes across sleep after initial practice predict performance levels achieved in the long run...
October 16, 2016: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746131/identified-cellular-correlates-of-neocortical-ripple-and-high-gamma-oscillations-during-spindles-of-natural-sleep
#13
Robert G Averkin, Viktor Szemenyei, Sándor Bordé, Gábor Tamás
Ultra-high-frequency network events in the hippocampus are instrumental in a dialogue with the neocortex during memory formation, but the existence of transient ∼200 Hz network events in the neocortex is not clear. Our recordings from neocortical layer II/III of freely behaving rats revealed field potential events at ripple and high-gamma frequencies repeatedly occurring at troughs of spindle oscillations during sleep. Juxtacellular recordings identified subpopulations of fast-spiking, parvalbumin-containing basket cells with epochs of firing at ripple (∼200 Hz) and high-gamma (∼120 Hz) frequencies detected during spindles and centered with millisecond precision at the trough of spindle waves in phase with field potential events but phase shifted relative to pyramidal cell firing...
November 23, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27711165/spatiotemporal-dynamics-of-dexmedetomidine-induced-electroencephalogram-oscillations
#14
Oluwaseun Akeju, Seong-Eun Kim, Rafael Vazquez, James Rhee, Kara J Pavone, Lauren E Hobbs, Patrick L Purdon, Emery N Brown
An improved understanding of the neural correlates of altered arousal states is fundamental for precise brain state targeting in clinical settings. More specifically, electroencephalogram recordings are now increasingly being used to relate drug-specific oscillatory dynamics to clinically desired altered arousal states. Dexmedetomidine is an anesthetic adjunct typically administered in operating rooms and intensive care units to produce and maintain a sedative brain state. However, a high-density electroencephalogram characterization of the neural correlates of the dexmedetomidine-induced altered arousal state has not been previously accomplished...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707435/progression-of-polysomnographic-abnormalities-in-mucolipidosis-ii-i-cell-disease
#15
William I Wooten, Marianne S Muhlebach, Joseph Muenzer, Ceila E Loughlin, Bradley V Vaughn
Mucolipidosis II (Inclusion cell or I-cell disease) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder clinically comparable to the mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS), characterized by progressive respiratory and neurologic deterioration. Sleep problems, especially obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and disrupted sleep architecture, are observed in other lysosomal storage diseases but have not been described in mucolipidosis II. We report the progression of polysomnographic abnormalities in a child with mucolipidosis II, demonstrated by worsening sleep-related hypoventilation, OSA, and sleep state fragmentation despite advancing PAP therapy...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707084/generalized-seizures-after-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury-occur-at-the-transition-from-slow-wave-to-rapid-eye-movement-sleep
#16
Pedro Andrade, Jari Nissinen, Asla Pitkanen
Sleep disturbances commonly occur after traumatic brain injury and may predispose patients to epileptic seizures. We hypothesized that unprovoked seizure occurrence after traumatic brain injury depends on the sleep-wake cycle, and that the electrographic characteristics of a given sleep stage provide biomarkers for post-traumatic epilepsy. We show in a rat lateral fluid-percussion model that 92% of spontaneous generalized seizures occur during the transition from stage III to rapid-eye-movement sleep. Moreover, a reduction in spindle duration and dominant frequency during the transition stage present as specific and sensitive non-invasive biomarkers for experimentally induced post-traumatic epilepsy with generalized electrographic seizures...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663065/what-are-sleep-spindle-deficits-telling-us-about-schizophrenia
#17
Fabio Ferrarelli, Giulio Tononi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 15, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634797/coordination-of-slow-waves-with-sleep-spindles-predicts-sleep-dependent-memory-consolidation-in-schizophrenia
#18
Charmaine Demanuele, Ullrich Bartsch, Bengi Baran, Sheraz Khan, Mark G Vangel, Roy Cox, Matti Hämäläinen, Matthew W Jones, Robert Stickgold, Dara S Manoach
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Schizophrenia patients have correlated deficits in sleep spindle density and sleep-dependent memory consolidation. In addition to spindle density, memory consolidation is thought to rely on the precise temporal coordination of spindles with slow waves (SWs). We investigated whether this coordination is intact in schizophrenia and its relation to motor procedural memory consolidation. METHODS: Twenty-one chronic medicated schizophrenia patients and 17 demographically-matched healthy controls underwent two nights of polysomnography with training on the finger tapping motor sequence task (MST) on the second night and testing the following morning...
September 9, 2016: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27626227/sleep-spindles-and-intellectual-ability-epiphenomenon-or-directly-related
#19
Zhuo Fang, Valya Sergeeva, Laura B Ray, Jeremy Viczko, Adrian M Owen, Stuart M Fogel
Sleep spindles-short, phasic, oscillatory bursts of activity that characterize non-rapid eye movement sleep-are one of the only electrophysiological oscillations identified as a biological marker of human intelligence (e.g., cognitive abilities commonly assessed using intelligence quotient tests). However, spindles are also important for sleep maintenance and are modulated by circadian factors. Thus, the possibility remains that the relationship between spindles and intelligence quotient may be an epiphenomenon of a putative relationship between good quality sleep and cognitive ability or perhaps modulated by circadian factors such as morningness-eveningness tendencies...
January 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623266/neuroscience-a-sleep-rhythm-with-multiple-facets
#20
Ping Chai Koo, Lisa Marshall
Sleep spindles were one of the first rhythms associated with learning and memory consolidation. Current research shows spindles can reflect features of trait and time-varying properties of neuroplasticity. A new study has now used feedback-controlled spindle frequency stimulation to show that sleep spindles modulate endogenous brain electric activity and behavior.
September 12, 2016: Current Biology: CB
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