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Sleep Spindles

Jan Cosgrave, Katharina Wulff, Philip Gehrman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review is designed to give an overview of the latest developments in research exploring the relationship between sleep and psychosis, with particular attention paid to the evidence for a causal relationship between the two. RECENT FINDINGS: The most interesting avenues currently in pursuit are focused upon sleep spindle deficits which may hallmark an endophenotype; explorations of the continuum of psychotic experiences, and experimental manipulations to explore the evidence for bidirectional causality; inflammatory markers, psychosis and sleep disturbances and finally, treatment approaches for sleep in psychosis and the subsequent impact on positive experiences...
March 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Scott A Cairney, Anna Á Váli Guttesen, Nicole El Marj, Bernhard P Staresina
How are brief encounters transformed into lasting memories? Previous research has established the role of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, along with its electrophysiological signatures of slow oscillations (SOs) and spindles, for memory consolidation [1-4]. In related work, experimental manipulations have demonstrated that NREM sleep provides a window of opportunity to selectively strengthen particular memory traces via the delivery of auditory cues [5-10], a procedure known as targeted memory reactivation (TMR)...
March 2, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Jessica Page, Caroline Lustenberger, Flavio Fr Hlich
Widespread change in behavior and the underlying brain network substrate is a hallmark of early development. Sleep plays a fundamental role in this process. Both slow waves and spindles are key features of non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM) that exhibit pronounced developmental trajectories from infancy to adulthood. Yet, these prominent features of NREM sleep are poorly understood in infants and toddlers in the age range of 12 to 30 months. Moreover, it is unknown how network dynamics of NREM sleep are associated with outcomes of early development...
February 2, 2018: Sleep
Lone Baandrup, Julie A E Christensen, Birgitte Fagerlund, Poul Jennum
Neurocognitive impairment is a trait marker of schizophrenia, but no effective treatment has yet been identified. Sleep spindle deficits have been associated with diminished sleep-dependent memory learning. We examined whether this link could be extended into various cognitive domains by investigating the association of a neurocognitive test battery (the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia) with sleep spindle activity and morphology. We examined 37 outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia and medicated with both antipsychotics and benzodiazepines...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
Pablo E Brockmann, Felipe Damiani, Eduardo Pincheira, Francisca Daiber, Sergio Ruiz, Francisco Aboitiz, Raffaele Ferri, Oliviero Bruni
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To assess spindle activity as possible markers for neurocognitive consequences in children with mild obstructive sleep apnea. METHODS: Children aged 6-11 years diagnosed with mild OSA (i.e., an apnea hypopnea index <5.0) were recruited and compared with age and gender-matched healthy controls. Polysomnographic recordings were analyzed for sleep microstructure and spindle activity. All children completed also an intelligence test battery (i.e...
February 9, 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Ping Chai Koo, Matthias Moelle, Lisa Marshall
Despite many reports on beneficial effects of anodal slow oscillatory-transcranial direct current stimulation (so-tDCS) during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep on memory consolidation, frequent negative outcomes have also been observed. Our working hypothesis is that so-tDCS efficacy is strongly dependent upon the susceptibility of the underlying network. One component determining susceptibility of the network is hypothesized to be reflected in learning or 'task-induced' plastic changes. Another component is hypothesized to represent inter-individual confounds...
February 24, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Renee E Shimizu, Patrick M Connolly, Nicola Cellini, Diana M Armstrong, Lexus T Hernandez, Rolando Estrada, Mario Aguilar, Michael P Weisend, Sara C Mednick, Stephen B Simons
Sounds associated with newly learned information that are replayed during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep can improve recall in simple tasks. The mechanism for this improvement is presumed to be reactivation of the newly learned memory during sleep when consolidation takes place. We have developed an EEG-based closed-loop system to precisely deliver sensory stimulation at the time of down-state to up-state transitions during NREM sleep. Here, we demonstrate that applying this technology to participants performing a realistic navigation task in virtual reality results in a significant improvement in navigation efficiency after sleep that is accompanied by increases in the spectral power especially in the fast (12-15 Hz) sleep spindle band...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Aurora D'Atri, Luana Novelli, Michele Ferrara, Oliviero Bruni, Luigi De Gennaro
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Massive changes in brain morphology and function in the first years of life reveal a postero-anterior trajectory of cortical maturation accompanied by regional modifications of NREM sleep. One of the most sensible marker of this maturation process is represented by electroencephalographic (EEG) activity within the frequency range of sleep spindles. However, direct evidence that these changes actually reflect maturational modifications of fast and slow spindles still lacks...
February 2018: Sleep Medicine
Sébrina Aubin, Julie A E Christensen, Poul Jennum, Tore Nielsen, Ron Kupers, Maurice Ptito
The loss of vision, particularly when it occurs early in life, is associated with compensatory cortical plasticity not only in the visual cortical areas, but throughout the entire brain. The absence of visual input to the retina can also induce changes in entrainment of the circadian rhythm, as light is the primary zeitgeber of the master biological clock found in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus. In addition, a greater number of sleep disturbances is often reported in blind individuals. Here, we examined various electroencephalographic microstructural components of sleep, both during rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep and non-REM (NREM) sleep, between blind individuals, including both of early and late onset, and normal-sighted controls...
February 2018: Sleep Medicine
Donald J Hagler, Istvan Ulbert, Lucia Wittner, Lorand Erőss, Joseph R Madsen, Orrin Devinsky, Werner Doyle, Daniel Fabo, Sydney S Cash, Eric Halgren
Sleep spindles are a cardinal feature in human NREM sleep and may be important for memory consolidation. We studied the intracortical organization of spindles in men and women by recording spontaneous sleep spindles from different cortical layers using linear microelectrode arrays. Two patterns of spindle generation were identified using visual inspection, and confirmed with factor analysis. Spindles (10-16Hz) were largest and most common in upper and middle channels, with limited involvement of deep channels...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Armando D'Agostino, Anna Castelnovo, Simone Cavallotti, Cecilia Casetta, Matteo Marcatili, Orsola Gambini, Mariapaola Canevini, Giulio Tononi, Brady Riedner, Fabio Ferrarelli, Simone Sarasso
Sleep spindles and slow waves are the main brain oscillations occurring in non-REM sleep. Several lines of evidence suggest that spindles are initiated within the thalamus, whereas slow waves are generated and modulated in the cortex. A decrease in sleep spindle activity has been described in Schizophrenia (SCZ), including chronic, early course, and early onset patients. In contrast, slow waves have been inconsistently found to be reduced in SCZ, possibly due to confounds like duration of illness and antipsychotic medication exposure...
February 9, 2018: NPJ Schizophrenia
Ju Lynn Ong, Amiya Patanaik, Nicholas I Y N Chee, Xuan Kai Lee, Jia-Hou Poh, Michael W L Chee
Study Objectives: Slow oscillations (SO) during sleep contribute to the consolidation of learned material. How the encoding of declarative memories during subsequent wakefulness might benefit from their enhancement during sleep is less clear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the impact of acoustically enhanced SO during a nap on subsequent encoding of declarative material. Methods: Thirty-seven healthy young adults were studied under two conditions: stimulation (STIM) and no stimulation (SHAM), in counter-balanced order following a night of sleep restriction (4h time-in-bed; TIB)...
February 7, 2018: Sleep
Ximena Omlin, Francesco Crivelli, Monika Näf, Lorenz Heinicke, Jelena Skorucak, Alexander Malafeev, Antonio Fernandez Guerrero, Robert Riener, Peter Achermann
Rocking movements appear to affect human sleep. Recent research suggested a facilitated transition from wake to sleep and a boosting of slow oscillations and sleep spindles due to lateral rocking movements during an afternoon nap. This study aimed at investigating the effect of vestibular stimulation on sleep onset, nocturnal sleep and its potential to increase sleep spindles and slow waves, which could influence memory performance. Polysomnography was recorded in 18 males (age: 20-28 years) during three nights: movement until sleep onset (C1), movement for 2 hours (C2), and one baseline (B) without motion...
February 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ilona Merikanto, Liisa Kuula, Tommi Makkonen, Róbert Bódizs, Risto Halonen, Kati Heinonen, Jari Lahti, Katri Räikkönen, Anu-Katriina Pesonen
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML version of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.
January 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
Claudia Schilling, Lena Gappa, Michael Schredl, Fabian Streit, Jens Treutlein, Josef Frank, Michael Deuschle, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Marcella Rietschel, Stephanie H Witt
Study Objectives: Sleep spindles are a hallmark of NREM stage 2 sleep. Fast sleep spindles correlate with cognitive functioning, and are reduced in schizophrenia. Although spindles are highly genetically determined, distinct genetic mechanisms influencing sleep spindle activity have not been identified so far. Spindles are generated within a thalamo-cortical network. Dopaminergic neurotransmission modulates activity within this network and importantly depends on activity of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT)...
January 6, 2018: Sleep
Soohyun Lee, Seunghwan Kim, Jee Hyun Choi
Equivalent dipole source localization is a well-established approach to localizing the electrical activity in electroencephalogram (EEG). So far, source localization has been used primarily in localizing the epileptic source in human epileptic patients. Currently, source localization techniques have been applied to account for localizing epileptic source among the epileptic patients. Here, we present the first application of source localization in the field of sleep spindle in mouse brain. The spatial distribution of cortical potential was obtained by high density EEG and then the anterior and posterior sleep spindles were classified based on the K-mean clustering algorithm...
December 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
Anna Castelnovo, Bianca Graziano, Fabio Ferrarelli, Armando D'Agostino
Sleep abnormalities have recently gained renewed attention in patients diagnosed with Schizophrenia. Disrupted thalamocortical brain oscillations hold promise as putative biomarkers or endophenotypes of the disorder. Despite an increase of studies related to sleep spindle and slow wave activity, findings remain in part contradictory. Although sleep spindle deficits have been confirmed in several groups of patients with chronic, medicated Schizophrenia, data on the early stages of the disorder and in unmedicated subjects are still insufficient...
December 27, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
Arnaud Boutin, Basile Pinsard, Arnaud Boré, Julie Carrier, Stuart M Fogel, Julien Doyon
Sleep benefits motor memory consolidation. This mnemonic process is thought to be mediated by thalamo-cortical spindle activity during NREM-stage2 sleep episodes as well as changes in striatal and hippocampal activity. However, direct experimental evidence supporting the contribution of such sleep-dependent physiological mechanisms to motor memory consolidation in humans is lacking. In the present study, we combined EEG and fMRI sleep recordings following practice of a motor sequence learning (MSL) task to determine whether spindle oscillations support sleep-dependent motor memory consolidation by transiently synchronizing and coordinating specialized cortical and subcortical networks...
December 22, 2017: NeuroImage
Péter P Ujma, Boris N Konrad, Ferenc Gombos, Péter Simor, Adrián Pótári, Lisa Genzel, Marcel Pawlowski, Axel Steiger, Róbert Bódizs, Martin Dresler
The shape of the EEG spectrum in sleep relies on genetic and anatomical factors and forms an individual "EEG fingerprint". Spectral components of EEG were shown to be connected to mental ability both in sleep and wakefulness. EEG sleep spindle correlates of intelligence, however, exhibit a sexual dimorphism, with a more pronounced association to intelligence in females than males. In a sample of 151 healthy individuals, we investigated how intelligence is related to spectral components of full-night sleep EEG, while controlling for the effects of age...
December 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
Randolph F Helfrich, Bryce A Mander, William J Jagust, Robert T Knight, Matthew P Walker
The coupled interaction between slow-wave oscillations and sleep spindles during non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep has been proposed to support memory consolidation. However, little evidence in humans supports this theory. Moreover, whether such dynamic coupling is impaired as a consequence of brain aging in later life, contributing to cognitive and memory decline, is unknown. Combining electroencephalography (EEG), structural MRI, and sleep-dependent memory assessment, we addressed these questions in cognitively normal young and older adults...
January 3, 2018: Neuron
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