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Lps challenge model

Weiyang Zheng, Bingjue Ye, Xue Liang, Liyan Shui, Guohua Lou, Yanning Liu, Min Zheng
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Serum procalcitonin (PCT) is elevated in acute liver failure (ALF), but the expression of PCT in the liver has not been elucidated. We aimed to clarify the regulation of hepatic PCT expression and the cell sources in ALF. METHODS: Human monocytic leukemia line U937 cells were treated with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-l3-acetate (PMA) (100 ng/ mL) for 24 h to induce activated macrophages. In the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1 μg/mL), activated macrophages and human hepatocyte line L02 cells were incubated with LPS or co-cultured for 0, 2, 6, and 24 h...
June 15, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Meghan G Patton, Trevor L Gillum, Mandy C Szymanski, Lacey M Gould, Claire J Lauterbach, Roger A Vaughan, Matthew R Kuennen
This work investigated the ability of a 6-day heat acclimation protocol to impart heat acclimation-mediated cross-tolerance (HACT) in C2C12 myotubes, as indicated by changes in inflammatory and apoptotic responses to subsequent lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Myotubes were incubated at 40 °C for 2 h/day over 6 days (HA) or maintained for 6 days at 37 °C (C). Following 24 h recovery, myotubes from each group received either no stimulation or 500 ng/ml LPS for 2 h (HA + LPS and C + LPS, respectively)...
June 16, 2018: Cell Stress & Chaperones
Wei Zhou, Li Su, Xingyu Duan, Xi Chen, Aislinn Hays, Satya Upadhyayula, Juili Shivde, Huizhi Wang, Yong Li, Dingming Huang, Shuang Liang
Periodontitis is one of the most prevalent inflammatory diseases, characterized by gingival inflammation and alveolar bone loss. MicroRNAs (MiRNAs) are important regulators of inflammation and involved in periodontitis pathogenesis. In this work, we studied the roles of microRNA-21 (miR-21) in periodontitis. MiR-21 is up-regulated in both periodontitis patients and the mice that induced with periodontitis. We tested the roles of miR-21 in the macrophages challenged by periodontitis pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis (P...
June 5, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Ting-Ting Zhang, Rui Xue, Shi-Yong Fan, Qiong-Yin Fan, Lei An, Juan Li, Lei Zhu, Yu-Hua Ran, Li-Ming Zhang, Bo-Hua Zhong, Yun-Feng Li, Cai-Ying Ye, You-Zhi Zhang
BACKGROUND: Diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP) is a common and distressing complication in patients with diabetes, and the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) and serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are recommended as first-line drugs for DNP. Ammoxetine is a novel and potent SNRI that exhibited a strong analgesic effect on models of neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia-related pain, and inflammatory pain in our primary study. The present study was undertaken to investigate the chronic treatment properties of ammoxetine on DNP and the underlying mechanisms for its effects...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Alexandra Brinkhoff, Annette Sieberichs, Harald Engler, Sebastian Dolff, Sven Benson, Johannes Korth, Manfred Schedlowski, Andreas Kribben, Oliver Witzke, Benjamin Wilde
Objective: Sepsis is one of the leading causes of the deaths in hospitals. During sepsis, patients are exposed to endotoxemia, which may contribute to the dysregulation of the immune system frequently observed in sepsis. This dysregulation leads to impaired pro-inflammatory responses and may increase the risk for secondary infections in sepsis. The experimental human endotoxemia model is widely used as a model system to study the acute effects of endotoxemia. Under physiological circumstances, the immune system is tightly regulated...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Megan Leigh Lewis, Mitchell Kesler, Sydney A Candy, Jong M Rho, Quentin J Pittman
OBJECTIVE: In different cohorts, 5%-30% of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) also have epilepsy. The high co-occurrence of these disorders suggests that a common mechanistic link may exist. The underlying pathophysiology of this comorbidity remains unknown. To investigate the mechanism(s) involved in the pathogenesis of ASD and epilepsy, we developed and validated a novel mouse model that concurrently exhibits hallmark features of both disorders. METHODS: We utilized inbred BTBR T+ Itpr3tf/J (BTBR) mice that exhibit the core behavioral characteristics of ASD (ie, impaired sociability, altered vocalizations, and restricted interests)...
June 2, 2018: Epilepsia
Kevin G Burfeind, Xinxia Zhu, Peter R Levasseur, Katherine A Michaelis, Mason A Norgard, Daniel L Marks
Hypothalamic inflammation is a key component of acute sickness behavior and cachexia, yet mechanisms of inflammatory signaling in the central nervous system remain unclear. Previous work from our lab and others showed that while MyD88 is an important inflammatory signaling pathway for sickness behavior, MyD88 knockout (MyD88KO) mice still experience sickness behavior after inflammatory stimuli challenge. We found that after systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge, MyD88KO mice showed elevated expression of several cytokine and chemokine genes in the hypothalamus...
May 28, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Xinyu Li, Jingxin Li, Yafen Wei, Lihong Zhou, Ping Yin, Yongdan Liu, Shanshan Wu, Li Liu, Chong Lu
BACKGROUND--The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of onjisaponin B (OB) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cognitive deficits. METHODS--The rats were divided into four groups: sham group, LPS group (the model group), LPS + OB (1 mg/kg) group, LPS + OB (2 mg/kg) group. OB were treated three days before surgery and thereafter continuously for 7 days. Three days later, rats were intracerebroventricularly injected with LPS. The levels of inflammatory cytokines, and the capability of free radial scavenging in serum and hippocampus were determined after the LPS challenge...
May 27, 2018: Current Neurovascular Research
Luigi Menghini, Lidia Leporini, Giulia Vecchiotti, Marcello Locatelli, Simone Carradori, Claudio Ferrante, Gokhan Zengin, Lucia Recinella, Annalisa Chiavaroli, Sheila Leone, Luigi Brunetti, Giustino Orlando
Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) has been previously reported to be active as a protective agent in multiple experimental models of oxidative stress, inflammation and cancer. These findings refer to the protective effects of stigmas, not byproducts such as tepals and anthers. In this context, the aims of the present work were to characterize the phytochemical profile of saffron stigmas (CST) and high quality byproducts (tepals + anthers - CTA) extracts. Additionally, we studied the antioxidant and chelating effects of CST and CTA extracts by preliminary in vitro assay...
July 2018: Food Research International
Zheng Pang, Robert D Junkins, Renee Raudonis, Adam J MacNeil, Craig McCormick, Zhenyu Cheng, Tong-Jun Lin
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize the conserved molecular patterns in microorganisms and trigger myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88) and/or TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF) pathways that are critical for host defense against microbial infection. However, the molecular mechanisms that govern TLR signaling remain incompletely understood. Regulator of calcineurin-1 (RCAN1), a small evolutionarily conserved protein that inhibits calcineurin phosphatase activity, suppresses inflammation during Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection...
2018: PloS One
Shu-Bin Fang, Hong-Yu Zhang, Ai-Yun Jiang, Xing-Liang Fan, Yong-Dong Lin, Cheng-Lin Li, Cong Wang, Xiang-Ci Meng, Qing-Ling Fu
BACKGROUND: Human induced pluripotent stem cells-derived mesenchymal stem cells (iPSC-MSCs) have been shown to be effective in Type 2 helper T cells (Th2)-dominant eosinophilic allergic airway inflammation. However, the role of iPSC-MSCs in Type 17 helper T cells (Th17)-dominant neutrophilic airway inflammation remains poorly studied. Therefore, this study was to explore the effects of iPSC-MSCs on an experimental mouse model of steroid-resistant neutrophilic airway inflammation and further determine the underlying mechanisms...
May 24, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Shathiswaran N Andy, Vijayapandi Pandy, Zazali Alias, Habsah Abdul Kadir
AIM: Neuroinflammation is a critical pathogenic mechanism of most neurodegenerative disorders especially, Alzheimer's disease (AD). Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are known to induce neuroinflammation which is evident from significant upsurge of pro-inflammatory mediators in in vitro BV-2 microglial cells and in vivo animal models. In present study, we investigated anti-neuroinflammatory properties of deoxyelephantopin (DET) isolated from Elephantopus scaber in LPS-induced neuroinflammatory rat model...
May 21, 2018: Life Sciences
Ze-Qun Li, Zhi-Yuan Yan, Bo-Jun Lan, Yi-Qun Dong, Ye Xiong
Depression, regulated by central nervous system (CNS), is a significant inflammatory disorder. Neuroligin3 (NLGN3) has been implicated in brain functions. In the study, a chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) model in wild type (WT) or NLGN3-knockout (KO) mice was established to explore the role of NLGN3 in regulating depression and to reveal the underlying molecular mechanism. The results indicated that NLGN3-knockout markedly reversed the loss of body weight, the reduction of sucrose consumption, the decrease of immobile time in the forced swimming tests (FST) and tail suspension tests (TST) induced by CUMS paradigm...
May 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Ruthy Glass, Sara Norton, Nicholas Fox, Alexander W Kusnecov
Stimulation of the immune system during pregnancy, known as maternal immune activation (MIA), can cause long-lasting neurobiological and behavioral changes in the offspring. This phenomenon has been implicated in the etiology of developmental psychiatric disorders, such as autism and schizophrenia. Much of this evidence is predicated on animal models using bacterial agents such as LPS and/or viral mimics such as Poly I:C, both of which act through toll-like receptors. However, fewer studies have examined the role of direct activation of maternal T-cells during pregnancy using microbial agents...
May 14, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Elham Amini, Mojtaba Golpich, Abdoreza S Farjam, Behnam Kamalidehghan, Zahurin Mohamed, Norlinah M Ibrahim, Abolhassan Ahmadiani, Azman A Raymond
There is increasing evidence pointing toward the role of inflammatory processes in epileptic seizures, and reciprocally, prolonged seizures induce more inflammation in the brain. In this regard, effective strategies to control epilepsy resulting from neuroinflammation could be targeted. Based on the available data, preconditioning (PC) with low dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS) through the regulation of the TLR4 signaling pathway provides neuroprotection against subsequent challenge with injury in the brain. To test this, we examined the effects of a single and chronic brain LPS PC, which is expected to lead to reduction of inflammation against epileptic seizures induced by electroconvulsive shock (ECS)...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Ranran Li, Piotr S Kowalski, Henriëtte W M Morselt, Ilona Schepel, Rianne M Jongman, Adnan Aslan, Marcel H J Ruiters, Jan G Zijlstra, Grietje Molema, Matijs van Meurs, Jan A A M Kamps
Microvascular endothelial cells play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of sepsis-induced inflammatory responses and multiple organ failure. Therefore, they represent an important target for pharmacological intervention in the treatment of sepsis. Glucocorticosteroids were widely used in the treatment of sepsis but vast evidence to support their systemic use is lacking. The limited effects of glucocorticoids in the treatment of sepsis may be explained by differential effects of drug initiated NF-κB inhibition in different cell types and insufficient drug delivery in target cells...
2018: PloS One
Inge C M Hoogland, Dunja Westhoff, Joo-Yeon Engelen-Lee, Jeroen Melief, Mercedes Valls Serón, Judith H M P Houben-Weerts, Inge Huitinga, David J van Westerloo, Tom van der Poll, Willem A van Gool, Diederik van de Beek
Background: Microglial activation after systemic infection has been suggested to mediate sepsis-associated delirium. A systematic review of animal studies suggested distinct differences between microglial activation after systemic challenge with live bacteria and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Here, we describe a mouse model of microglial activation after systemic challenge with live Escherichia coli ( E. coli ) and compare results with systemic challenge with LPS. Methods: Sixty mice were intraperitoneally injected with E...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Ángeles Domínguez-Soto, Miriam Simón-Fuentes, Mateo de Las Casas-Engel, Víctor D Cuevas, María López-Bravo, Jorge Domínguez-Andrés, Paula Saz-Leal, David Sancho, Carlos Ardavín, Juliana Ochoa-Grullón, Silvia Sánchez-Ramón, Miguel A Vega, Angel L Corbí
IVIg is an approved therapy for immunodeficiency and for several autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. However, the molecular basis for the IVIg anti-inflammatory activity remains to be fully explained and cannot be extrapolated from studies on animal models of disease. We now report that IVIg impairs the generation of human monocyte-derived anti-inflammatory macrophages by inducing JNK activation and activin A production and limits proinflammatory macrophage differentiation by inhibiting GM-CSF-driven STAT5 activation...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Stefan M Cokelaere, Saskia G M Plomp, Esther de Boef, Mike de Leeuw, Sophie Bool, Chris H A van de Lest, P René van Weeren, Nicoline M Korthagen
Synovial inflammation is an important characteristic of arthritic disorders like osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Orally administered non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as celecoxib are among the most widely prescribed drugs to manage these debilitating diseases. Intra-articular delivery in biodegradable in situ forming hydrogels overcomes adverse systemic effects and prolongs drug retention in the joint. In this study two formulations of celecoxib (40 mg/g and 120 mg/g) in a propyl-capped PCLA-PEG-PCLA triblock copolymer were sequentially evaluated in a multiple LPS challenge equine synovitis model...
May 2, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Iveta Vojtechova, Tomas Petrasek, Kristyna Maleninska, Hana Brozka, Hana Tejkalova, Jiri Horacek, Ales Stuchlik, Karel Vales
Infection during the prenatal or neonatal stages of life is considered one of the major risk factors for the development of mental diseases such as schizophrenia or autism. However, the impacts of such an immune challenge on adult behavior are still not clear. In our study, we used a model of early postnatal immune activation by the application of bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to rat pups at a dose of 2 mg/kg from postnatal day (PD) 5 to PD 9. In adulthood, the rats were tested in a battery of tasks probing various aspects of behavior: spontaneous activity (open field test), social behavior (social interactions and female bedding exploration), anxiety (elevated plus maze), cognition (active place avoidance in Carousel) and emotional response (ultrasonic vocalization recording)...
May 2, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
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