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Lps challenge model

Niket Yadav, Harish Chandra
There is a continuing need for discovering novel primary or adjunct therapeutic agents to treat inflammatory conditions and infections. Natural products have inspired the discovery of several modern therapeutics; however, there is a paucity of mechanistic information on their mode of action. This study investigated the therapeutic potential and mode of action of corn mint's (Mentha arvensis) leaf extract (ME) in alveolar macrophages (AMs) challenged with model pro-inflammatory (LPS), pro- oxidant (LPS or H2O2), and infection (Mycobacterium) agents and contribution of its dominant constituents rosmarinic acid, l-menthol, and l-menthone...
October 8, 2017: Immunobiology
Rishi Sharma, Soo-Young Kim, Anjali Sharma, Zhi Zhang, Siva Pramodh Kambhampati, Sujatha Kannan, Rangaramanujam M Kannan
Brain related disorders have outmatched cancer and cardiovascular diseases worldwide as the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. The lack of effective therapies and the relatively dry central nervous system (CNS) drug pipeline pose formidable challenge. Superior, targeted delivery of current clinically approved drugs may offer significant potential. Minocycline has shown promise for the treatment of neurological diseases owing to its ability to penetrate the blood brain barrier (BBB), and potency. Despite its potential in the clinic, and in preclinical models, the high doses needed to affect a positive therapeutic response has led to side effects...
October 13, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Yuling Chen, Daolin Mou, Liang Hu, Jie Zhen, Lianqiang Che, Zhengfeng Fang, Shengyu Xu, Yan Lin, Bin Feng, Jian Li, De Wu
Maternal nutrition during gestation is involved in the offspring's intestinal development and immunity. The aim of this study was to (1) determine the effects of maternal energy on intestinal digestion and absorption function in offspring, using pigs as a model; and (2) to evaluate the potential effect and mechanisms of maternal energy in modulating immune responses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged piglets. After mating, thirty-six nine-parity sows (Landrace × Yorkshire), body weight (BW) (initial body weight 233...
October 13, 2017: Nutrients
Ravi S Keshari, Robert Silasi, Cristina Lupu, Fletcher B Taylor, Florea Lupu
Sepsis concurrently activate both coagulation and complement systems. While complement activation by bacteria is well-documented, work in mice and in vitro suggests that coagulation proteases can directly cleave complement proteins. We aimed to determine if generation of coagulation proteases in vivo can activate the complement cascade in two highly coagulopathic models. We compared temporal changes in activation biomarkers of coagulation (thrombin-antithrombin, TAT), fibrinolysis (plasmin-antiplasmin, PAP) and complement (C3b, C5a, C5b-9) in baboons infused with factor Xa and phospholipids (FXa/PCPS) vs...
October 11, 2017: Blood
Limei Wan, Dongmei Meng, Hong Wang, Shanhe Wan, Shunjun Jiang, Shanshan Huang, Li Wei, Pengjiu Yu
Acute lung injury (ALI) is a life-threatening syndrome which causes a high mortality rate worldwide. In traditional medicine, lots of aromatic plants-such as some Thymus species-are used for treatment of various lung diseases including pertussis, bronchitis, and asthma. Thymol, one of the primary active constituent derived from Thymus vulgaris (thyme), has been reported to exhibit potent anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities in vivo and in vitro. The present study aims to investigate the protective effects of thymol in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung injury mice model...
October 10, 2017: Inflammation
Bing Catherine Wu, Amy Huei-Yi Lee, Robert E W Hancock
Innate defense regulator (IDR) peptide-1002 is a synthetic host defense peptide derivative with strong anti-inflammatory properties. Extending previous data, IDR-1002 suppressed in vitro inflammatory responses in RAW 264.7 murine monocyte/macrophage cells challenged with the TLR4 agonist LPS and TLR2 agonists lipoteichoic acid and zymosan. To investigate the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of IDR-1002 in vivo, the PMA-induced mouse ear inflammation model was used. Topical IDR-1002 treatment successfully dampened PMA-induced ear edema, proinflammatory cytokine production, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species release, and neutrophil recruitment in the ears of CD1 mice...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Zunpeng Liu, Xue Yuan, Min Liu, Gabriela Fernandes, Yejia Zhang, Shuting Yang, Ciprian N Ionita, Shuying Yang
Repair and regeneration of inflammation-induced bone loss remains a clinical challenge. LL37, an antimicrobial peptide, plays critical roles in cell migration, cytokine production, apoptosis, and angiogenesis. Migration of stem cells to the affected site and promotion of vascularization are essential for tissue engineering therapy, including bone regeneration. However, it is largely unknown whether LL37 affects mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) behavior and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2)-mediated bone repair during the bone pathologic remodeling process...
September 14, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
Nicholas Bodor, Zoltán Zubovics, István Kurucz, Sandor Sólyom, Erik Bodor
OBJECTIVES: Loteprednol etabonate (LE) is the first, highly successful soft corticosteroid (SC) designed using the 'inactive metabolite' approach, starting with ∆(1) -cortienic acid (d-CA). The next generation of SCs based on d-CA was etiprednol dicloacetate (ED). The 17α-dichloroacetyl function serves both as a unique pharmacophore and as the source of the molecule's softness. Highly potent SCs were designed based on a combination of ED and LE, introducing 6, 9 and 16 substituents in the molecule...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Yilin Deng, Chen Chen, Heguo Yu, Hua Diao, Cuicui Shi, Yugang Wang, Guangming Li, Min Shi
We investigated the protective effects exerted by oridonin, the main active constituent of the Chinese medicinal herb Rabdosiarubescens, against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/D-galactosamine (D-Gal)-induced acute liver injury (ALI). An ALI model was induced in mice using LPS (40 μg/0.5 ml) and D-Gal (5 mg/0.5 ml). The mice were randomly divided into the following five groups of six mice each: one control group (a), one ALI group (b), two oridonin treatment groups (c and d), and one oridonin control group (e). Oridonin (0...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
Claudia Sangiorgi, Davide Vallese, Isabella Gnemmi, Fabio Bucchieri, Bruno Balbi, Paola Brun, Angelo Leone, Andrea Giordano, Everly Conway de Macario, Alberto Jl Macario, Francesco Cappello, Antonino Di Stefano
HSP60 has been implicated in chronic inflammatory disease pathogenesis, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but the mechanisms by which this chaperonin would act are poorly understood. A number of studies suggest a role for extracellular HSP60, since it can be secreted from cells and bind Toll-like receptors; however, the effects of this stimulation have never been extensively studied. We investigated the effects (pro- or anti-inflammatory) of HSP60 in human bronchial epithelial cells (16-HBE) alone and in comparison with oxidative, inflammatory, or bacterial challenges...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology
Carmen De Miguel, Ijeoma E Obi, Dao H Ho, Analia S Loria, Jennifer S Pollock
Early life stress (ELS) in humans is associated with elevated pro-inflammatory markers. We hypothesized that ELS induces activation of the immune response in a rat model of ELS, maternal separation (MatSep), in adulthood. MatSep involves separating pups from the dam from postnatal day 2 to postnatal day 14 for 3hrs/day. Control rats are non-separated littermates. We determined circulating and renal immune cell numbers, renal immune cell activation markers, renal cytokine levels, and the renal inflammatory gene expression response to low dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in male MatSep and control rats...
September 27, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Thomas C Darton, Stephen Baker, Arlo Randall, Sabina Dongol, Abhilasha Karkey, Merryn Voysey, Michael J Carter, Claire Jones, Krista Trappl, Jozelyn Pablo, Chris Hung, Andy Teng, Adam Shandling, Tim Le, Cassidy Walker, Douglas Molina, Jason Andrews, Amit Arjyal, Buddha Basnyat, Andrew J Pollard, Christoph J Blohmke
Current diagnostic tests for typhoid fever, the disease caused by Salmonella Typhi, are poor. We aimed to identify serodiagnostic signatures of typhoid fever by assessing microarray signals to 4,445 S. Typhi antigens in sera from 41 participants challenged with oral S. Typhi. We found broad, heterogeneous antibody responses with increasing IgM/IgA signals at diagnosis. In down-selected 250-antigen arrays we validated responses in a second challenge cohort (n = 30), and selected diagnostic signatures using machine learning and multivariable modeling...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Silvy Mardiguian, Emma Ladds, Roberta Turner, Hazel Shepherd, Sandra J Campbell, Daniel C Anthony
BACKGROUND: Increased relapse rates in multiple sclerosis (MS) as a consequence of peripheral immune system activation, owing to infection for example, have been widely reported, but the mechanism remains unclear. Acute brain injury models can be exacerbated by augmenting the hepatic acute phase response (APR). Here, we explored the contribution of the hepatic APR to relapse in two rodent models of MS. METHODS: Mice with MOG-CFA-induced chronic relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalitis (CR-EAE) were killed before, during and after the first phase of disease, and the brain and liver chemokine, cytokine and acute phase protein (APP) mRNA expression profile was determined...
September 30, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Aijun Jia, Yueling Wang, Wenjin Sun, Bing Xiao, Lin Mu, Yan Wei, Li Xu, Cong Peng, Dongshan Zhang, Huahao Shen, Xudong Xiang
Neutrophilic asthma (NA) is associated with a severe disease course and poor response to corticosteroids. The present study aimed to compare the effects of various concentrations of house dust mite (HDM) allergens, ovalbumin (OVA), the major egg allergen, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in combination on the onset of severe NA. Female C57BL/6 mice were grouped according to a random number table and intranasally sensitized with HDM/LPS/OVA extracts on days 0, 1 and 2 of the study. In group 1, mice received 50 µg HDM + 50 µg OVA + 15 µg LPS, mice in group 2 received 50 µg HDM + 100 µg OVA + 15 µg LPS, mice in group 3 received 100 µg HDM + 50 µg OVA + 15 µg LPS and those in group 4 received 100 µg HDM + 100 µg OVA + 15 µg LPS, while mice in the control group received saline only...
September 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Jisun Kim, Yeon-Hui Jeong, Eun-Jung Lee, Jin-Sun Park, Hyemyung Seo, Hee-Sun Kim
Microglial priming is caused by aging and neurodegenerative diseases, and is characterized by an exaggerated microglial inflammatory response to secondary and sub-threshold challenges. In the present study, we examined the effects of the matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) inhibitor (M8I) on the brain of aged normal and leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) G2019S Parkinson's disease (PD) model mice systemically stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The results indicated that Iba-1 positive microglia and GFAP-positive astrocytes, which were increased by LPS, significantly decreased by M8I in aged normal and PD model mice...
November 18, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Alan Yi-Hui Hsu, Decheng Wang, Theodore Gurol, Wenqing Zhou, Xiaoguang Zhu, Hsiu-Yi Lu, Qing Deng
Neutrophilic inflammation is essential for defending against invading pathogens, but can also be detrimental in many clinical settings. The hematopoietic-specific small Rho-GTPase Rac2 regulates multiple pathways that are essential for neutrophil activation, including adhesion, migration, degranulation and production of reactive oxygen species. This study tested the hypothesis that partially suppressing rac2 in neutrophils with a microRNA would inhibit neutrophil migration and activation, which will reduce the immunological damage caused by systemic inflammation...
September 27, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
Jordanna G Jayne, Timothy J Bensman, Justin B Schaal, A Young J Park, Elza Kimura, Dat Tran, Michael E Selsted, Paul M Beringer
Acute lung injury (ALI) is a clinical syndrome characterized by acute respiratory failure and is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Rhesus theta defensin-1 (RTD-1) is an antimicrobial peptide with immunomodulatory activity. As airway inflammation and neutrophil recruitment and activation are hallmarks of ALI, we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of RTD-1 in pre-clinical models of the disease. We investigated the effect of RTD-1 on neutrophil chemotaxis and macrophage-driven pulmonary inflammation with human peripheral neutrophils and LPS-stimulated murine alveolar macrophage (MH-S) cells...
September 27, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Lifei Shao, Xiaojuan Liu, Shunxing Zhu, Chun Liu, Yilu Gao, Xide Xu
The role of inflammation in neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease is gradually recognized and leads to an urgent challenge. Smad ubiquitination regulatory factor 1 (Smurf1), one member of the HECT family, is up-regulated by proinflammatory cytokines and associated with apoptosis in acute spinal cord injury. However, the function of Smurf1 through promoting neuronal necroptosis is still limited in the central nervous system (CNS). Hence, we developed a neuroinflammatory model in adult rats following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) lateral ventral injection to elaborate whether Smurf1 is involved in necroptosis in CNS injury...
September 22, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Jin Mi Chun, A Reum Lee, Hyo Seon Kim, A Yeong Lee, Gyo Jeong Gu, Byeong Cheol Moon, Bo-In Kwon
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The root of Peucedanum japonicum Thunberg is traditionally used to treat coughs, colds, headache and inflammatory diseases in Korea and Japan. Its effects on allergic lung inflammation have not been investigated. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the anti-asthmatic effects of Peucedanum japonicum extract (PJE) using a murine model of asthma and a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophage cell line. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mice underwent two rounds of sensitization with ovalbumin 1 week apart followed by four intranasal ovalbumin challenges on days 13-16...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Laura A Muruato, Daniel Tapia, Christopher L Hatcher, Mridul Kalita, Paul J Brett, Anthony E Gregory, James E Samuel, Richard W Titball, Alfredo G Torres
Burkholderia pseudomallei (Bpm) is a Gram negative, facultative intracellular pathogen that causes the disease melioidosis in humans and other mammals. Respiratory infection with B. pseudomallei leads to a fulminant and often fatal disease. It has previously been shown that glycoconjugate vaccines can provide significant protection against lethal challenge; however, the limited number of known Burkholderia antigens has slowed progress towards vaccine development. The objective of this study was to identify novel antigens and evaluate their protective capacity when incorporated into a nano-glycoconjugate vaccine platform...
September 13, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
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