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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043392/complex-interventions-can-increase-osteoporosis-investigations-and-treatment-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
REVIEW
M Kastner, L Perrier, S E P Munce, C C Adhihetty, A Lau, J Hamid, V Treister, J Chan, Y Lai, S E Straus
Osteoporosis is affecting over 200 million people worldwide. Despite available guidelines, care for these patients remains sub-optimal. We developed an osteoporosis tool to address the multiple dimensions of chronic disease management. Findings from its evaluation showed a significant increase from baseline in osteoporosis investigations and treatment, so we are revising this tool to include multiple chronic conditions including an update of evidence about osteoporosis. Our objectives were to conduct a systematic review of osteoporosis interventions in adults at risk for osteoporosis...
October 18, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042809/implementation-of-gina-guidelines-in-asthma-management-by-primary-care-physicians-in-vietnam
#2
Vinh Nhu Nguyen, Quynh Nhat Nguyen, Pham Le An, Niels H Chavannes
BACKGROUND: Asthma control is suboptimal in Vietnam. Lack of knowledge of primary care physicians (PCPs) for asthma management may potentially be one of the causes. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and practice of PCPs' asthma management based on the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) guidelines (2015 update). METHODS: A cross-sectional study with convenience sampling was conducted among PCPs in an urban and rural area of Vietnam using questionnaires related to asthma patients daily practice: use of spirometry and the asthma control test (ACT), prescription of asthma medications, and frequency of consultations...
2017: International Journal of General Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040555/the-effectiveness-of-varenicline-versus-nicotine-replacement-therapy-on-long-term-smoking-cessation-in-primary-care-a-prospective-cohort-study-of-electronic-medical-records
#3
Gemma M J Taylor, Amy E Taylor, Kyla H Thomas, Timothy Jones, Richard M Martin, Marcus R Munafò, Frank Windmeijer, Neil M Davies
Background: There is limited evidence about the effectiveness of varenicline and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) for long-term smoking cessation in primary care, or whether the treatment effectiveness differs by socioeconomic position (SEP). Therefore, we estimated the long-term effectiveness of varenicline versus NRT (> 2 years) on smoking cessation, and investigated whether effectiveness differs by SEP. Methods: This is a prospective cohort study of electronic medical records from 654 general practices in England, within the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, using three different analytical methods: multivariable logistic regression, propensity score matching and instrumental variable analyses...
June 26, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039160/influenza-vaccines-for-preventing-acute-otitis-media-in-infants-and-children
#4
REVIEW
Mohd N Norhayati, Jacqueline J Ho, Mohd Y Azman
BACKGROUND: Acute otitis media (AOM) is one of the most common infectious diseases in children. It has been reported that 64% of infants have an episode of AOM by the age of six months and 86% by one year. Although most cases of AOM are due to bacterial infection, it is commonly triggered by a viral infection. In most children AOM is self limiting, but it does carry a risk of complications. Since antibiotic treatment increases the risk of antibiotic resistance, influenza vaccines might be an effective way of reducing this risk by preventing the development of AOM...
October 17, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038204/do-we-need-a-patient-centered-target-for-systolic-blood-pressure-in-hypertensive-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#5
Eric Yuk Fai Wan, Esther Yee Tak Yu, Colman Siu Cheung Fung, Weng Yee Chin, Daniel Yee Tak Fong, Anca Ka Chun Chan, Cindy Lo Kuen Lam
The current trend on diabetes mellitus management advocates replacing the paradigm from a uniform to an individualized patient-centered systolic blood pressure (SBP), but there is no consensus on the achieved treatment goals of SBP level. The study aimed at evaluating the association between SBP and the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and all-cause mortality for diabetic patients to identify patient-centered treatment targets. A retrospective study was conducted on 95 086 Chinese adult primary care patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension...
October 16, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036756/acupuncture-or-acupressure-for-induction-of-labour
#6
REVIEW
Caroline A Smith, Mike Armour, Hannah G Dahlen
BACKGROUND: This is one of a series of reviews of methods of cervical ripening and labour induction. The use of complementary therapies is increasing. Women may look to complementary therapies during pregnancy and childbirth to be used alongside conventional medical practice. Acupuncture involves the insertion of very fine needles into specific points of the body. Acupressure is using the thumbs or fingers to apply pressure to specific points. The limited observational studies to date suggest acupuncture for induction of labour has no known adverse effects to the fetus, and may be effective...
October 17, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034736/family-history-collection-practices-national-survey-of-pediatric-primary-care-providers
#7
Beth A Tarini, Michele C Gornick, Brian J Zikmund-Fisher, Howard M Saal, Laurie Edmondson, Wendy R Uhlmann
While family history (FH) collection is a core responsibility of pediatric primary care providers (PCPs), few details about this practice are known. We surveyed a random national sample of 1200 pediatricians and family medicine physicians about FH collection practices. A total of 86% of respondents (n = 289 pediatricians; n = 152 family medicine physicians) indicated that they collect a FH "always" or "most of the time" with 77% reporting collection at the first visit, regardless of whether it is a health maintenance or problem-focused visit...
October 1, 2017: Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033627/impact-of-primary-care-exercise-referral-schemes-on-the-health-of-patients-with-obesity
#8
Helen M Parretti, Suzanne E Bartington, Tim Badcock, Lucy Hughes, Joan L Duda, Kate Jolly
Primary care exercise referral schemes (ERSs) are a potentially useful setting to promote physical activity (PA). It is not established, however, whether interventions to increase PA, such as ERSs, have differing health outcomes according to the participants' body mass index (BMI). This paper summarizes evidence for the impact of primary care ERSs on the health of people with obesity and reports findings of a reanalysis of the EMPOWER study, providing the first data to report differential outcomes of ERSs by BMI category...
2017: Pragmatic and Observational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026729/probiotics-in-children-what-is-the-evidence
#9
REVIEW
Iva Hojsak
The number of papers discussing probiotics increases tremendously that limits the possibility for primary care physicians and clinicians to stay updated. Therefore, the aim of this paper will be to summarize available evidence of probiotic use in well-defined clinical indications of importance for pediatricians. Based on currently available evidence certain probiotic strains (Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG [LGG] and Saccharomyces boulardii) have proven effect in the treatment of acute gastroenteritis and prevention of antibiotic associated diarrhea...
September 2017: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025846/cohort-profile-for-the-mastermind-study-using-the-clinical-practice-research-datalink-cprd-to-investigate-stratification-of-response-to-treatment-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#10
Lauren R Rodgers, Michael N Weedon, William E Henley, Andrew T Hattersley, Beverley M Shields
PURPOSE: This is a retrospective cohort study using observational data from anonymised primary care records. We identify and extract all patients with type 2 diabetes and associated clinical data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) to inform models of disease progression and stratification of treatment. PARTICIPANTS: Data were extracted from CPRD on 8 August 2016. The initial data set contained all patients (n=313 485) in the database who had received a type 2 diabetes medication...
October 12, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025194/procalcitonin-to-initiate-or-discontinue-antibiotics-in-acute-respiratory-tract-infections
#11
REVIEW
Philipp Schuetz, Yannick Wirz, Ramon Sager, Mirjam Christ-Crain, Daiana Stolz, Michael Tamm, Lila Bouadma, Charles E Luyt, Michel Wolff, Jean Chastre, Florence Tubach, Kristina B Kristoffersen, Olaf Burkhardt, Tobias Welte, Stefan Schroeder, Vandack Nobre, Long Wei, Heiner C Bucher, Neera Bhatnagar, Djillali Annane, Konrad Reinhart, Angela Branche, Pierre Damas, Maarten Nijsten, Dylan W de Lange, Rodrigo O Deliberato, Stella Ss Lima, Vera Maravić-Stojković, Alessia Verduri, Bin Cao, Yahya Shehabi, Albertus Beishuizen, Jens-Ulrik S Jensen, Caspar Corti, Jos A Van Oers, Ann R Falsey, Evelien de Jong, Carolina F Oliveira, Bianca Beghe, Matthias Briel, Beat Mueller
BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) comprise of a large and heterogeneous group of infections including bacterial, viral, and other aetiologies. In recent years, procalcitonin (PCT), a blood marker for bacterial infections, has emerged as a promising tool to improve decisions about antibiotic therapy (PCT-guided antibiotic therapy). Several randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have demonstrated the feasibility of using procalcitonin for starting and stopping antibiotics in different patient populations with ARIs and different settings ranging from primary care settings to emergency departments, hospital wards, and intensive care units...
October 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025025/the-importance-of-historical-residential-address-information-in-longitudinal-studies-using-administrative-health-data
#12
David Youens, David B Preen, Mark N Harris, Rachael E Moorin
Background: When information on changes in address or migration of people to or from a study jurisdiction is unavailable in longitudinal studies, issues relating to loss-to-follow-up and misclassification bias may result. This study investigated how estimations of associations between general practitioner (GP) contact and hospital use were affected by incomplete address and migration data. Methods: This was a retrospective population-based cohort study of Western Australians from 1990 to 2004...
August 18, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024367/commissioning-guidance-for-weight-assessment-and-management-in-adults-and-children-with-severe-complex-obesity
#13
REVIEW
R Welbourn, J Hopkins, J B Dixon, N Finer, C Hughes, R Viner, J Wass
The challenge of managing the epidemic of patients with severe and complex obesity disease in secondary care is largely unmet. In England, the National Institute of Health and Care Excellence and the National Health Service England have published guidance on the provision of specialist (non-surgical) weight management services. We have undertaken a systematic review of 'what evidence exists for what should happen in/commissioning of: primary or secondary care weight assessment and management clinics in patients needing specialist care for severe and complex obesity?' using an accredited methodology to produce a model for organization of multidisciplinary team clinics that could be developed in every healthcare system, as an update to a previous review...
October 10, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994739/managing-early-childhood-caries-with-atraumatic-restorative-treatment-and-topical-silver-and-fluoride-agents
#14
REVIEW
Duangporn Duangthip, Kitty Jieyi Chen, Sherry Shiqian Gao, Edward Chin Man Lo, Chun Hung Chu
Early childhood caries (ECC) is a significant global health problem affecting millions of preschool children worldwide. In general, preschool children from families with 20% of the lowest family incomes suffered about 80% of the ECC. Most, if not all, surveys indicated that the great majority of ECC was left untreated. Untreated caries progresses into the dental pulp, causing pain and infection. It can spread systemically, affecting a child's growth, development and general health. Fundamental caries management is based on the conventional restorative approach...
October 10, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994306/pharmacological-treatments-and-infectious-diseases-in-pediatric-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#15
Valeria Dipasquale, Claudio Romano
The incidence of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is rising, as is the employment of immunosuppressive and biological drugs. Most patients with IBD receive immunosuppressive therapies during the course of the disease. These molecules are a double-edged sword; while they can help control disease activity, they also increase the risk of infections. Therefore, it is important that pediatricians involved in primary care, pediatric gastroenterologists, and infectious disease physicians have a thorough knowledge of the infections that can affect patients with IBD...
October 10, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990242/blood-utilization-in-revision-versus-first-time-cardiac-surgery-an-update-in-the-era-of-patient-blood-management
#16
Nadia B Hensley, Megan P Kostibas, William W Yang, Todd C Crawford, Kaushik Mandal, Pranjal B Gupta, Steven M Frank, Charles H Brown
BACKGROUND: Relative to first-time (primary) cardiac surgery, revision cardiac surgery is associated with increased transfusion requirements, but studies comparing these cohorts were performed before patient blood management (PBM) and blood conservation measures were commonplace. The current study was performed as an update to determine if this finding is still evident in the PBM era. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Primary and revision cardiac surgery cases were compared in a retrospective database analysis at a single tertiary care referral center...
October 8, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986184/no-353-treatments-for-overactive-bladder-focus-on-pharmacotherapy-an-addendum
#17
Roxana Geoffrion
OBJECTIVE: This technical update addendum reviews success rates and comparative evidence of the anticholinergic fesoterodine, as well as mechanism of action, safety profile, success rates, and comparative evidence of the β3 agonist mirabegron in the treatment of non-neurogenic overactive bladder syndrome (OAB). This adds to OAB pharmacotherapy recommendations initially published in 2012. INTENDED USERS: Residents and other trainees, primary care practitioners, gynaecologists, urologists, urogynaecologists, and other health care providers who assess, counsel, and treat women with OAB...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974331/major-publications-in-the-critical-care-pharmacotherapy-literature-january-december-2016
#18
REVIEW
Deanna Horner, Diana Altshuler, Chris Droege, Joel Feih, Kevin Ferguson, Mallory Fiorenza, Kasey Greathouse, Leslie Hamilton, Caitlin Pfaff, Lauren Roller, Joanna Stollings, Adrian Wong
PURPOSE: To summarize select critical care pharmacotherapy guidelines and studies published in 2016. SUMMARY: The Critical Care Pharmacotherapy Literature Update (CCPLU) Group screened 31 journals monthly for relevant pharmacotherapy articles and selected 107 articles for review over the course of 2016. Of those included in the monthly CCPLU, three guidelines and seven primary literature studies are reviewed here. The guideline updates included are as follows: hospital-acquired pneumonia and ventilator-associated pneumonia management, sustained neuromuscular blocking agent use, and reversal of antithrombotics in intracranial hemorrhage (ICH)...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974250/statistical-analysis-plan-for-the-urodynamics-for-prostate-surgery-trial-randomised-evaluation-of-assessment-methods-upstream
#19
Grace J Young, Amanda L Lewis, J Athene Lane, Helen L Winton, Marcus J Drake, Peter S Blair
BACKGROUND: Current management for men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) is a pathway that results in prostate surgery in a significant proportion. While helpful in relieving benign prostatic obstruction (BPO), surgery may be ineffective for men suffering from difficulties not relating to BPO. The UPSTREAM trial started recruitment in October 2014 with the aim of establishing whether a care pathway including urodynamics (a diagnostic tool for BPO and thus an indication of whether surgery is needed) is no worse for men, in terms of symptomatic outcome, than one without (routine care)...
October 3, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972017/expanding-medicaid-access-without-expanding-medicaid-why-did-some-nonexpansion-states-continue-the-primary-care-fee-bump
#20
Adam S Wilk, Leigh C Evans, David K Jones
Six states that have rejected the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act's (ACA) Medicaid expansion nonetheless extended the primary care "fee bump," by which the federal government increased Medicaid fees for primary care services up to 100 percent of Medicare fees during 2013-14. We conducted semistructured interviews with leaders in five of these states, as well as in three comparison states, to examine why they would continue a provision of the ACA that moderately expands access at significant state expense while rejecting the expansion and its large federal match, focusing on relevant economic, political, and procedural factors...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law
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