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Event related potentials

Nigel W Beebe
Mosquitoes' importance as vectors of pathogens that drive disease underscores the importance of precise and comparable methods of taxa identification among their species. While several molecular targets have been used to study mosquitoes since the initiation of PCR in the 1980s, its application to mosquito identification took off in the early 1990s. This review follows the research's recent journey into the use of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome oxidase 1 (COI or COX1) as a DNA barcode target for mosquito species identification - a target whose utility for discriminating mosquitoes is now escalating...
March 22, 2018: Parasitology
Timm Rosburg, Michael Weigl, Ronja Thiel, Ralph Mager
Mismatch negativity (MMN) represents an event-related potential (ERP) component which is elicited by deviant sound events in an otherwise regular, repetitive stimulation. The MMN amplitude typically decreases when two identical deviants are presented in direct succession, but it remains stable when the two deviants vary from the standard in different features. Less is known about such repetition effects on another ERP component, the P3a, which usually follows the MMN. In the current study, we investigated how the P3a was affected by identical and non-identical repetitions of sound deviants...
March 22, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Ummuhan Isoglu-Alkac, M Numan Ermutlu, Gökçer Eskikurt, İlker Yücesir, Sernaz Demirel Temel, Tan Temel
Physical exercise and the training effects of repeated practice of skills over an extended period of time may have additive effects on brain networks and functions. Various motor skills and attentional styles can be developed by athletes engaged in different sports. In this study, the effects of fast ball sports and dance training on attention were investigated by event related potentials (ERP). ERP were recorded in auditory and visual tasks in professional dancer, professional fast ball sports athlete (FBSA) and healthy control volunteer groups consisting of twelve subjects each...
April 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Wajid Mumtaz, Pham Lam Vuong, Aamir Saeed Malik, Rusdi Bin Abd Rashid
The screening test for alcohol use disorder (AUD) patients has been of subjective nature and could be misleading in particular cases such as a misreporting the actual quantity of alcohol intake. Although the neuroimaging modality such as electroencephalography (EEG) has shown promising research results in achieving objectivity during the screening and diagnosis of AUD patients. However, the translation of these findings for clinical applications has been largely understudied and hence less clear. This study advocates the use of EEG as a diagnostic and screening tool for AUD patients that may help the clinicians during clinical decision making...
April 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Annelein Meisner, Samuel Jacquiod, Basten L Snoek, Freddy C Ten Hooven, Wim H van der Putten
It is increasingly acknowledged that climate change is influencing terrestrial ecosystems by increased drought and rainfall intensities. Soil microbes are key drivers of many processes in terrestrial systems and rely on water in soil pores to fulfill their life cycles and functions. However, little is known on how drought and rainfall fluctuations, which affect the composition and structure of microbial communities, persist once original moisture conditions have been restored. Here, we study how simulated short-term drying and re-wetting events shape the community composition of soil fungi and prokaryotes...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Simona Lattanzi, Francesco Brigo, Claudia Cagnetti, Alberto Verrotti, Gaetano Zaccara, Mauro Silvestrini
Introduction: Up to 30% of the patients diagnosed with epilepsy will continue suffering from seizures despite treatment with antiepileptic drugs, either in monotherapy or polytherapy. Hence, there remains the need to develop new effective and well-tolerated therapies. Aim: The objective of this article was to review the evidence for the efficacy and safety of eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) as adjunctive treatment in adult patients with focal onset seizures. Evidence review: ESL is the newest, third-generation, single enantiomer member of the dibenzazepine family...
2018: Core Evidence
Andrea Negro, Angela Koverech, Paolo Martelletti
Migraine is an important socioeconomic burden and is ranked the sixth cause of years of life lost because of disability in the general population and the third cause of years of life lost in people younger than 50 years. The cornerstone of pharmacological treatment is represented by the acute therapy. The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) receptor subtype 1B /1D agonists, called triptans, are nowadays the first-line acute therapy for patients who experience moderate-to-severe migraine attacks. Unfortunately, a high percentage of patients are not satisfied with this acute treatment, either for lack of response or side effects...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
Francesco Panza, Madia Lozupone, Vincenzo Solfrizzi, Rodolfo Sardone, Vittorio Dibello, Luca Di Lena, Francesca D'Urso, Roberta Stallone, Massimo Petruzzi, Gianluigi Giannelli, Nicola Quaranta, Antonello Bellomo, Antonio Greco, Antonio Daniele, Davide Seripa, Giancarlo Logroscino
Frailty, a critical intermediate status of the aging process that is at increased risk for negative health-related events, includes physical, cognitive, and psychosocial domains or phenotypes. Cognitive frailty is a condition recently defined by operationalized criteria describing coexisting physical frailty and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), with two proposed subtypes: potentially reversible cognitive frailty (physical frailty/MCI) and reversible cognitive frailty (physical frailty/pre-MCI subjective cognitive decline)...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Will Penny, Jorge Iglesias-Fuster, Yakeel T Quiroz, Francisco Javier Lopera, Maria A Bobes
Dynamic causal modeling (DCM) is a framework for making inferences about changes in brain connectivity using neuroimaging data. We fitted DCMs to high-density EEG data from subjects performing a semantic picture matching task. The subjects are carriers of the PSEN1 mutation, which leads to early onset Alzheimer's disease, but at the time of EEG acquisition in 1999, these subjects were cognitively unimpaired. We asked 1) what is the optimal model architecture for explaining the event-related potentials in this population, 2) which connections are different between this Presymptomatic Carrier (PreC) group and a Non-Carrier (NonC) group performing the same task, and 3) which network connections are predictive of subsequent Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) trajectories...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Penny J Tricker, Abdeljalil ElHabti, Jessica Schmidt, Delphine Fleury
Drought and heat stress cause losses in wheat productivity in major growing regions worldwide, and both the occurrence and the severity of these events is likely to increase with global climate change. Water deficits and high temperatures frequently occur simultaneously at sensitive growth stages, reducing wheat yields by reducing grain number or weight. Although genetic variation and underlying quantitative trait loci for either individual stress are known, the combination of the two stresses has rarely been studied...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Alexandre de Matos Soeiro, Victor Arrais Araújo, Júlia Pitombo Vella, Aline Siqueira Bossa, Bruno Biselli, Tatiana de Carvalho Andreucci Torres Leal, Maria Carolina Feres de Almeida Soeiro, Carlos V Serrano, Christian Mueller, Mucio Tavares de Oliveira Junior
BACKGROUND: Some small studies have related higher levels of thyrotropin (TSH) to potentially worse prognosis in acute coronary syndromes. However, this relationship remains uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the outcomes of patients with acute coronary syndromes in relation to the value of TSH at admission. METHODS: Observational and retrospective study with 505 patients (446 in group I [TSH ≤ 4 mIU/L] and 59 in group II [TSH > 4 mIU/L]) with acute coronary syndromes between May 2010 and May 2014...
February 2018: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
Raquel González, Clara Pons-Duran, Mireia Piqueras, John J Aponte, Feiko O Ter Kuile, Clara Menéndez
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for malaria for all women who live in moderate to high malaria transmission areas in Africa. However, parasite resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine has been increasing steadily in some areas of the region. Moreover, HIV-infected women on cotrimoxazole prophylaxis cannot receive sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine because of potential drug interactions. Thus, there is an urgent need to identify alternative drugs for prevention of malaria in pregnancy...
March 21, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Tonnishtha Dasgupta, Marjolein Dijkstra
Colloidal photonic crystals, which show a complete band gap in the visible region, have numerous applications in fibre optics, energy storage and conversion, and optical wave guides. Intriguingly, two of the best examples of photonic crystals, the diamond and pyrochlore structure, can be self-assembled into the colloidal MgCu2 Laves phase crystal from a simple binary hard-sphere mixture. For these colloidal length scales thermal and gravitational energies are often comparable and therefore it is worthwhile to study the sedimentation phase behavior of these systems...
March 21, 2018: Soft Matter
Og-Geum Woo, Soon-Hee Kim, Seok Keun Cho, Sang-Hoon Kim, Han Nim Lee, Taijoon Chung, Seong Wook Yang, Jae-Hoon Lee
BPH1 acts as a substrate receptor of CRL3 complex and negatively regulates ABA-mediated cellular responses. The study on its function provides information that helps further understand the relationship between ABA signaling and UPS. Abscisic acid (ABA) plays a crucial role in a variety of cellular processes, including seed dormancy, inhibition of seedling growth, and drought resistance in plants. Cullin3-RING E3 ligase (CRL3) complex is a type of multi-subunit E3 ligase, and BTB/POZ protein, a component of CRL3 complex, functions as a receptor to determine a specific substrate...
March 21, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
Annet Bluschke, Krutika Gohil, Maxi Petzold, Veit Roessner, Christian Beste
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder affecting cognitive control. These functions are important to achieve goals when different actions need to be executed in close succession. This type of multi-component behavior, which often further requires the processing of information from different modalities, is important for everyday activities. Yet, possible changes in neurophysiological mechanisms have not been investigated in adolescent ADHD. We examined N = 31 adolescent ADHD patients and N = 35 healthy controls (HC) in two Stop-Change experiments using either uni-modal or bi-modal stimuli to trigger stop and change processes...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Hanna Schneegans, Klaus Hoenig, Martin Ruchsow, Manfred Spitzer, Bernhard J Connemann, Markus Kiefer
Deficits in inhibitory function are assumed to underlie psychopathology in bipolar disorder (BD), especially in states of mania. A subdomain of inhibition, semantic inhibition (SI), referring to the suppression of irrelevant word meanings, may underlie formal thought disorder, such as flights of ideas. In the present study, we investigated SI in patients with BD during semantic ambiguity resolution using behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) measures. We presented 14 patients with BD with current manic, hypomanic, or mixed clinical states and 28 healthy controls sequentially with word triplets containing either a homonym (e...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Ashley Haubert, Matt Walsh, Rachel Boyd, Megan Morris, Megan Wiedbusch, Mike Krusmark, Glenn Gunzelmann
Cognitive fatigue emerges in wide-ranging tasks and domains, but traditional vigilance tasks provide a well-studied context in which to explore the mechanisms underlying it. Though a variety of experimental methodologies have been used to investigate cognitive fatigue in vigilance, relatively little research has utilized electroencephalography (EEG), specifically event-related potentials (ERPs), to explore the nature of cognitive fatigue, also known as the vigilance decrement. Moreover, much of the research that has been done on vigilance and ERPs uses non-traditional vigilance paradigms, limiting generalizability to the established body of behavioral results and corresponding theories...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Lucas Morin, Kristina Johnell, Marie-Laure Laroche, Johan Fastbom, Jonas W Wastesson
Objective: Polypharmacy is the concomitant use of several drugs by a single person, and it increases the risk of adverse drug-related events in older adults. Little is known about the epidemiology of polypharmacy at the population level. We aimed to measure the prevalence and incidence of polypharmacy and to investigate the associated factors. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted using register data with national coverage in Sweden. A total of 1,742,336 individuals aged ≥65 years at baseline (November 1, 2010) were included and followed until death or the end of the study (December 20, 2013)...
2018: Clinical Epidemiology
Paul Baran, Selina Hansen, Georg H Waetzig, Mohammad Akbarzadeh, Larissa Lamertz, Heinrich J Huber, M Reza Ahmadian, Jens M Moll, Jürgen Scheller
Interleukin (IL-)6 is the major pro-inflammatory cytokine within the IL-6 family. IL-6 signals via glycoprotein 130 (gp130) and the membrane-bound or soluble IL-6 receptor (IL-6R), referred to as classic or trans-signaling, respectively. Whereas inflammation triggers IL-6 expression, eventually rising to nanogram per mL serum levels, soluble IL-6R (sIL-6R) and soluble gp130 (sgp130) are constitutively present in the upper nanogram per mL range. Calculations based on intermolecular affinities have suggested that systemic IL-6 is immediately trapped in IL-6:sIL-6R and IL-6:sIL-6R:sgp130 complexes, indicating that sIL-6R and sgp130 constitute a buffer system that increases the serum half-life of IL-6 or restricts systemic IL-6 signaling...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Fiona Reardon, David A Graham, Tracy A Clegg, Jamie A Tratalos, Padraig O'Sullivan, Simon J More
A compulsory national programme to eradicate bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDv) began in Ireland on 1 January, 2013. The objective of the current study was to quantify the role of Trojan dams (animal(s) not persistently infected (PI) with BVDv but carrying PI foetus(es) and introduced to the herd while pregnant with the PI foetus(es)) in the farm-to-farm spread of BVDv in Ireland, and to identify herd-level risk factors for producing or introducing a Trojan dam. The study population included all BVD+ calves born in Ireland between 1 January, 2013 and 31 December, 2015, along with their dams...
April 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
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