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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897226/viral-and-host-characteristics-of-recent-and-established-hiv-1-infections-in-kisumu-based-on-a-multiassay-approach
#1
Newton Otecko, Seth Inzaule, Collins Odhiambo, George Otieno, Valarie Opollo, Alex Morwabe, Kennedy Were, Kenneth Ndiege, Fredrick Otieno, Andrea A Kim, Clement Zeh
Integrated approaches provide better understanding of HIV/AIDS epidemics. We optimised a multiassay algorithm (MAA) and assessed HIV incidence, correlates of recent infections, viral diversity, plus transmission clusters among participants screened for Kisumu Incidence Cohort Study (KICoS1) (2007-2009). We performed BED-CEIA, Limiting antigen (LAg) avidity, Biorad avidity, and viral load (VL) tests on HIV-positive samples. Genotypic analyses focused on HIV-1 pol gene. Correlates of testing recent by MAA were assessed using logistic regression model...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790419/quantification-of-dna-extracted-from-formalin-fixed-paraffin-embeded-tissue-comparison-of-three-techniques-effect-on-pcr-efficiency
#2
Dushyant Kumar, Manoj Kumar Panigrahi, Moushumi Suryavanshi, Anurag Mehta, Kandarpa Kumar Saikia
INTRODUCTION: Mutation detection from Formalin Fixed Paraffin-Embedding (FFPE) tissue in molecular lab became a necessary tool for defining potential targeted drug. Accurate quantification of DNA extracted from FFPE tissue is necessary for downstream applications like Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), sequencing etc. AIM: To check and define which method for FFPE DNA quantification is suitable for downstream processes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this experimental experience study Biorad Smartspec Plus spectrophotomery, Qubit Fluorometer, and Qiagen Rotorgene qPCR was used to compare 20 FFPE DNA quantification in Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Institute and Research Centre, in 2015 and quantified amount of DNA used for PCR reaction...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784934/high-throughput-sequencing-an-overview-of-sequencing-chemistry
#3
REVIEW
Sheetal Ambardar, Rikita Gupta, Deepika Trakroo, Rup Lal, Jyoti Vakhlu
In the present century sequencing is to the DNA science, what gel electrophoresis was to it in the last century. From 1977 to 2016 three generation of the sequencing technologies of various types have been developed. Second and third generation sequencing technologies referred commonly to as next generation sequencing technology, has evolved significantly with increase in sequencing speed, decrease in sequencing cost, since its inception in 2004. GS FLX by 454 Life Sciences/Roche diagnostics, Genome Analyzer, HiSeq, MiSeq and NextSeq by Illumina, Inc...
December 2016: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716411/genetic-histochemical-and-biochemical-studies-on-goat-tse-cases-from-cyprus
#4
Susanne Niedermeyer, Martin Eiden, Pavlos Toumazos, Penelope Papasavva-Stylianou, Ioannis Ioannou, Theodoros Sklaviadis, Cynthia Panagiotidis, Jan Langeveld, Alex Bossers, Thorsten Kuczius, Martin Kaatz, Martin H Groschup, Christine Fast
Scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) are transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE's) affecting sheep and goats. Susceptibility of goats to scrapie is influenced by polymorphisms of the prion protein gene (PRNP) of the host. Five polymorphisms are associated with reduced susceptibility to TSE's. In the study presented here caprine samples from a scrapie eradication program on Cyprus were genotyped and further characterized using BioRad TeSeE rapid test, histological, immunohistochemical and biochemical methods...
October 6, 2016: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27561203/selection-and-validation-of-reliable-reference-genes-for-rt-qpcr-analysis-in-a-large-cohort-of-pituitary-adenomas
#5
Kjersti Ringvoll Normann, Kristin Astrid Berland Øystese, Jens Petter Berg, Tove Lekva, Jon Berg-Johnsen, Jens Bollerslev, Nicoleta Cristina Olarescu
BACKGROUND: Real-time reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) has become the method of choice for quantification of gene expression changes. The most important limitations of RT-qPCR are inappropriate data normalization and inconsistent data analyses. Pituitary adenomas are common tumours, and the appropriate interpretation of increasingly published data within this field is prevented by the lack of a proper selection and validation of stably expressed reference genes. AIM: To find and validate the optimal reference gene or gene combination for reliable RT-qPCR gene expression in both non-functioning (NFPA) and hormone secreting (GH and ACTH) pituitary adenomas...
December 5, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27454561/viral-load-criteria-and-threshold-optimization-to-improve-hiv-incidence-assay-characteristics
#6
Reshma Kassanjee, Christopher D Pilcher, Michael P Busch, Gary Murphy, Shelley N Facente, Sheila M Keating, Elaine Mckinney, Kara Marson, Matthew A Price, Jeffrey N Martin, Susan J Little, Frederick M Hecht, Esper G Kallas, Alex Welte
OBJECTIVE: Assays for classifying HIV infections as 'recent' or 'nonrecent' for incidence surveillance fail to simultaneously achieve large mean durations of 'recent' infection (MDRIs) and low 'false-recent' rates (FRRs), particularly in virally suppressed persons. The potential for optimizing recent infection testing algorithms (RITAs), by introducing viral load criteria and tuning thresholds used to dichotomize quantitative measures, is explored. DESIGN: The Consortium for the Evaluation and Performance of HIV Incidence Assays characterized over 2000 possible RITAs constructed from seven assays (Limiting Antigen, BED, Less-sensitive Vitros, Vitros Avidity, BioRad Avidity, Architect Avidity, and Geenius) applied to 2500 diverse specimens...
September 24, 2016: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27113451/long-term-performance-of-point-of-care-hemoglobin-a1c-assays
#7
Sujaytha Paknikar, Rohan Sarmah, Losika Sivaganeshan, Adam Welke, Al Rizzo, Kirk Larson, Marc Rendell
BACKGROUND: Point-of-care (POC) testing of HbA1c is used as a time-efficient tool to improve treatment and management planning for diabetes in the clinic setting. HbA1c values are the basis for monitoring ongoing response to treatment and to make adjustments to diabetes therapy. Yet, there is ongoing controversy as to the accuracy of POC assays. Diabetes is a lifelong disease, so comparability of results over a long period of time is needed to follow the response to treatment. METHODS: We compared the Afinion™ automated boronate affinity assay and the DCA Vantage immunoassay-based POC techniques to the Tosoh G8 and Bio-Rad Variant II ion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) central laboratory methods in a study lasting 3 years...
November 2016: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27049173/high-prevalence-of-hiv-p24-antigen-among-hiv-antibody-negative-prospective-blood-donors-in-ile-ife-nigeria
#8
Margaret Oluwatoyin Japhet, Moses Olubusuyi Adewumi, Olufisayo Adeyemi Adesina, Emmanuel Donbraye
Blood transfusion service centers in Nigeria screen donated blood for markers of HIV infection using antibody- (Ab) based rapid test and in some centers, positives are re-tested using Ab-based ELISA. Paucity of data exists on p24 antigen prevalence among HIV Ab-negative donors in Nigeria. This study aims at detecting HIV p24 antigen among prospective blood donors in Osun State, Nigeria. Prospective blood donors negative for HIV antibodies using Determine test kit were re-tested using BIORAD GENSCREEN Ultra Ag-Ab ELISA kit, a fourth-generation ELISA kit that detects HIV antibodies/p24 antigen...
2016: Journal of Immunoassay & Immunochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27011676/role-of-signal-to-cut-off-ratios-of-anti-hepatitis-c-virus-antibody-by-enzyme-immunoassays-along-with-id-nat-for-screening-of-whole-blood-donors-in-india
#9
Satyam Arora, Veena Doda
BACKGROUND: The use of elevated signal-to-cut off ratios (S/CO) as an alternate to further supplemental testing (i.e., RIBA) has been included in the guidelines provided by the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention for HCV diagnostic purposes since 2003. With availability of screening by NAT and non availability of RIBA, further confirmation of HCV infection has been possible at the molecular level (RNA). AIMS: To study the role of S/CO ratios of anti hepatitis C virus antibody detection by enzyme immunoassays (EIA) along with ID-NAT for screening of whole blood donors...
January 2016: Asian Journal of Transfusion Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26988426/development-and-evaluation-of-a-modified-fourth-generation-human-immunodeficiency-virus-enzyme-immunoassay-for-cross-sectional-incidence-estimation-in-clade-b-populations
#10
Allison R Kirkpatrick, Eshan U Patel, Connie L Celum, Richard D Moore, Joel N Blankson, Shruti H Mehta, Gregory D Kirk, Joseph B Margolick, Thomas C Quinn, Susan H Eshleman, Oliver Laeyendecker
BACKGROUND: Accurate methods for cross-sectional incidence estimation are needed for HIV surveillance and prevention research. We developed an avidity assay based on the fourth-generation Genetic Systems HIV Combo Ag/Ab EIA (Bio-Rad Combo assay) and evaluated its performance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Bio-Rad Combo assay was modified incubating samples with and without 0.025 M diethylamine (DEA). The avidity index (AI) was calculated as the ratio of the DEA-treated to untreated result for a specific sample...
August 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26936702/a-simple-method-for-determining-the-coagulation-threshold-temperature-of-transparent-tissue-mimicking-thermal-therapy-gel-phantoms-validated-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging-thermometry
#11
N Patrik Brodin, Ari Partanen, Patrik Asp, Craig A Branch, Chandan Guha, Wolfgang A Tomé
PURPOSE: Tissue-mimicking thermal therapy phantoms that coagulate at specific temperatures are valuable tools for developing and evaluating treatment strategies related to thermal therapy. Here, the authors propose a simple and efficient method for determining the coagulation threshold temperature of transparent thermal therapy gel phantoms. METHODS: The authors used a previously published gel phantom recipe with 2% (w/v) of bovine serum albumin as the temperature-sensitive protein...
March 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26908799/prevalence-of-diagnosed-and-undiagnosed-hepatitis-c-in-a-midwestern-urban-emergency-department
#12
Michael S Lyons, Vidhya A Kunnathur, Susan D Rouster, Kimberly W Hart, Matthew I Sperling, Carl J Fichtenbaum, Kenneth E Sherman
BACKGROUND: Targeted hepatitis C virus (HCV) screening is recommended. Implementation of screening in emergency department (ED) settings is challenging and controversial. Understanding HCV epidemiology in EDs could motivate and guide screening efforts. We characterized the prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed HCV in a Midwestern, urban ED. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional seroprevalence study using de-identified blood samples and self-reported health information obtained from consecutively approached ED patients aged 18-64 years...
May 1, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26871567/molecular-epidemiology-and-transmission-dynamics-of-recent-and-long-term-hiv-1-infections-in-rural-western-kenya
#13
Clement Zeh, Seth C Inzaule, Pascale Ondoa, Lillian G Nafisa, Alex Kasembeli, Fredrick Otieno, Hilde Vandenhoudt, Pauli N Amornkul, Lisa A Mills, John N Nkengasong
OBJECTIVE: To identify unique characteristics of recent versus established HIV infections and describe sexual transmission networks, we characterized circulating HIV-1 strains from two randomly selected populations of ART-naïve participants in rural western Kenya. METHODS: Recent HIV infections were identified by the HIV-1 subtype B, E and D, immunoglobulin G capture immunoassay (IgG BED-CEIA) and BioRad avidity assays. Genotypic and phylogenetic analyses were performed on the pol gene to identify transmitted drug resistance (TDR) mutations, characterize HIV subtypes and potential transmission clusters...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26828476/acetaminophen-induced-hepatotoxicity-in-wistar-rats-a-proteomic-approach
#14
Soundharrajan Ilavenil, Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Srisesharam Srigopalram, Young Ock Kim, Paul Agastian, Rajasekhar Baru, Ki Choon Choi, Mariadhas Valan Arasu
Understanding the mechanism of chemical toxicity, which is essential for cross-species and dose extrapolations, is a major challenge for toxicologists. Standard mechanistic studies in animals for examining the toxic and pathological changes associated with the chemical exposure have often been limited to the single end point or pathways. Toxicoproteomics represents a potential aid to the toxicologist to understand the multiple pathways involved in the mechanism of toxicity and also determine the biomarkers that are possible to predictive the toxicological response...
January 28, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26649414/-evaluation-of-risk-factors-for-invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis-and-detection-of-diagnostic-values-of-galactomannan-and-pcr-methods-in-bronchoalveolar-lavage-samples-from-non-neutropenic-intensive-care-unit-patients
#15
Selçuk Özger, Kenan Hızel, Ayşe Kalkancı, Müge Aydoğdu, Füsun Civil, Murat Dizbay, Gül Gürsel
Non-neutropenic intensive care unit (ICU) patients are at particular risk for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. In these cases, radiological and microbiological methods (direct microscopy, culture), which can be used for diagnosis, have quite low sensitivity and specificity. The aims of this study were to evaluate the risk factors for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in non-neutropenic ICU patients and to determine the diagnostic values of galactomannan (GM) antigen and Aspergillus nucleic acid detection methods...
October 2015: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26617061/hemoglobin-hirose-a-rare-beta-chain-variant-causing-falsely-low-hba1c-by-hplc
#16
Mathew P Estey, Karina Rodriguez-Capote, Tolulope Adelowokan, Trefor Higgins
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the underlying cause of unexpectedly low HbA1c results (3.3-3.5%) obtained by HPLC in three siblings undergoing routine screening for type 2 diabetes mellitus. DESIGN AND METHODS: HbA1c was measured using an alternate method based on a different analytical principle (the Siemens DCA 2000+ immunoassay). Hemoglobin fractionation was performed by HPLC on the BioRad Variant II, gel electrophoresis at acid and alkaline pH on the Sebia Hydrasys 2, and capillary electrophoresis on the Sebia Capillarys 2...
April 2016: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26522963/-urinary-infection-by-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-emerging-yeast
#17
B Elkhihal, M Elhalimi, B Ghfir, A Mostachi, M Lyagoubi, S Aoufi
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a commensal yeast of the digestive, respiratory and genito-urinary tract. It is widely used as a probiotic for the treatment of post-antibiotic diarrhea. It most often occurs in immunocompromised patients frequently causing fungemia. We report the case of an adult diabetic patient who had a urinary tract infection due to S. cerevisiae. The disease started with urination associated with urinary frequency burns without fever. The diagnosis was established by the presence of yeasts on direct examination and positivity of culture on Sabouraud-chloramphenicol three times...
December 2015: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26301010/prevalence-sociodemographic-features-and-risk-factors-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-among-pregnant-women-in-southwestern-nigeria
#18
Chinenye Gloria Anaedobe, Adeola Fowotade, Chukwuma Ewean Omoruyi, Rasheed Ajani Bakare
INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis B virus is responsible for 50%-80% of Hepatocellular carcinoma cases worldwide. In Nigeria, vertical transmission remains a major route of Hepatitis B virus infection. Primary (vaccines and post-exposure prophylaxis) and secondary prevention of HBV transmission by appropriate sexual and sanitary practices are not yet optimal in the country yet measures for early detection (serological, molecular) and treatment of infected pregnant women is not a practice. This study aimed at identifying the prevalence and risk factors for Hepatitis B virus infection among pregnant women in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria...
2015: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26230120/cost-effective-procedure-for-streptococcus-pyogenes-immobilized-dna-preparation-and-minipfge-subtyping
#19
Yaumara López, Viana Manrique, Esperanza Niubo, Margarita Valdés-Dapena, Julián Pérez Amarillo, Israel López, Berenice Parra, Gerardo Escalona Venegas, Ana María Riverón, Lilia López-Cánovas
INTRODUCTION: Group A streptococci (GAS) is responsible of several human diseases ranging from mild infection to severe invasive toxin-mediated disease and post-infectious sequelae. Accordingly, a GAS surveillance program based on molecular techniques is advisable for its epidemiological control. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is the gold standard for GAS molecular subtyping, but a major disadvantage is the length of the procedure, which takes 1-3 days of work, minimum. The aim of this study was to develop a rapid and cost-effective procedure for PFGE subtyping of GAS isolates...
July 2015: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26162471/combining-aspergillus-mitochondrial-and-ribosomal-qpcr-in-addition-to-galactomannan-assay-for-early-diagnosis-of-invasive-aspergillosis-in-hematology-patients
#20
A P Bellanger, L Millon, A Berceanu, F Grenouillet, F E Grenouillet, F Larosa, E Deconinck
The combination of two quantitative Aspergillus PCR assays, targeting a mitochondrial and a ribosomal target (AfQPCR), has proved effective for diagnosing invasive aspergillosis (IA) in hematology patients with risk factors and a positive galactomannan antigen (GM). The aim of the present study was to assess the performance of systematic AfQPCR for IA screening in at risk patients in a hematology intensive care unit (ICU). The study was performed in the hematology ICU at Besançon University Hospital from March 2012 to December 2013...
September 2015: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
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