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Svetlana A Semerikova, Yuliya Y Khrunyk, Martin Lascoux, Vladimir L Semerikov
The origin of conifer genera, the main components of mountain temperate and boreal forests, was deemed to arise in the Mesozoic, although paleontological records and molecular data point to a recent diversification, presumably related to Neogene cooling. The geographical area(s) where the modern lines of conifers emerged remains uncertain, as is the sequence of events leading to their present distribution. To gain further insights into the biogeography of firs (Abies), we conducted phylogenetic analyses of chloroplast, mitochondrial and nuclear markers...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Tuo Yang, Li-Min Lu, Wei Wang, Jian-Hua Li, Steven R Manchester, Jun Wen, Zhi-Duan Chen
Sabiaceae comprises three genera and ca. 80 species with an amphi-Pacific tropical disjunct distribution. It has been unclear whether the family is monophyletic, where the family belongs within the angiosperm phylogeny, and when and how is present-day disjunct distribution originated. To address these questions, we conducted a phylogenetic analysis of Sabiaceae with comprehensive sampling of the family and basal eudicots using six chloroplast DNA loci (atpB, rbcL, matK, ndhF, atpB-rbcL and trnL-trnF). Our results support the monophyly of Sabiaceae s...
March 13, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Jin-Mei Zhang, Jordi López-Pujol, Xun Gong, Hua-Feng Wang, Roser Vilatersana, Shi-Liang Zhou
According to the present taxonomical treatment, Paeonia subsect. Delavayanae consists of only two species (P. delavayi and P. ludlowii) endemic to the Himalayan-Hengduan Mountains. Although P. ludlowii can be distinguished from P. delavayi on the basis of a series of morphological characters, the species delimitation remains controversial because the more widespread one, P. delavayi, exhibits considerable morphological diversity. Both chloroplast DNA markers and nuclear microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (nSSR) are used herein to reveal genetic diversity and relationships of the two taxa included in this subsection, and ecological niche modeling (ENM) is employed to get insights into their paleodistribution...
March 7, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
E L Lushnikova, D E Semenov, D B Nikityuk, E V Koldysheva, M G Klinnikova
The study examined the myocardial ultrastructural alterations in rats maintained on various atherogenic diets. It revealed the complex ultrastructural alterations of cardiomyocytes and endotheliocytes (including the lytic and destructive changes of the intracellular organelles, upregulation of the autophagocytosis in the cardiomyocytes, and necrobiosis with apoptosis of endotheliocytes) reflecting the cytopathic features of circulating cholesterol and lipoproteins, whose elevation determined the intensity of destructive processes...
March 5, 2018: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Marcio B DaSilva, Ricardo Pinto-da-Rocha, Juan J Morrone
Based on a cladistic biogeographic analysis of 6 species-level phylogenies of harvestman taxa, we searched for congruence in the historical relationships of 12 areas of endemism of the Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest. We constructed general area cladograms using Primary Brooks Parsimony Analysis (BPA), BPA of nodes, and paralogy-free subtree analysis. These analyses resulted in 6 general area cladograms, that allow to infer a general pattern of the relationships among areas of endemism from the Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest...
October 2017: Current Zoology
Laurène A Lecaudey, Ulrich K Schliewen, Alexander G Osinov, Eric B Taylor, Louis Bernatchez, Steven J Weiss
Phylogenetic studies focusing on Salmonidae have revealed significant obstacles in trying to clarify some interspecific relationships within the Salmoninae subfamily, due to a limited number of markers typed, conflicting phylogenetic signals and ancient hybridization events. To infer reliable phylogenetic relationships, evaluate several putative scenarios of ancient hybridization, and estimate divergence times within Salmoninae, we applied restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) to 43 samples, including 26 genetic lineages across 21 species, largely representing the subfamily, with an emphasis on the genus Salvelinus...
February 22, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Wilson J E M Costa, Pedro F Amorim, José Leonardo O Mattos
The Caatinga is the largest nucleus of seasonally dry tropical forests in South America, but little is known about the evolutionary history and biogeography of endemic organisms. Evolutionary diversification and distribution of terrestrial vertebrates endemic to the Caatinga have been explained by palaeogeographical Neogene episodes, mostly related to changes in the course of the São Francisco River, the largest river in the region. Our objective is to estimate the timing of divergence of two endemic groups of short-lived seasonal killifishes inhabiting all ecoregions of the Caatinga, testing the occurrence of synchronic events of spatial diversification in light of available data on regional palaeogeography...
2018: PloS One
Shuang Tian, Yixuan Kou, Zhirong Zhang, Lin Yuan, Derong Li, Jordi López-Pujol, Dengmei Fan, Zhiyong Zhang
BACKGROUND: Mountains have not only provided refuge for species, but also offered dispersal corridors during the Neogene and Quaternary global climate changes. Compared with a plethora of studies on the refuge role of China's mountain ranges, their dispersal corridor role has received little attention in plant phylogeographic studies. Using phylogeographic data of Eomecon chionantha Hance (Papaveraceae), this study explicitly tested whether the Nanling Mountains, which spans from west to east for more than 1000 km in subtropical China, could have functioned as a dispersal corridor during the late Quaternary in addition to a glacial refugium...
February 9, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Michael D Pirie, Paul J M Maas, Rutger A Wilschut, Heleen Melchers-Sharrott, Lars W Chatrou
Much of the immense present day biological diversity of Neotropical rainforests originated from the Miocene onwards, a period of geological and ecological upheaval in South America. We assess the impact of the Andean orogeny, drainage of Lake Pebas and closure of the Panama isthmus on two clades of tropical trees (Cremastosperma, ca 31 spp.; and Mosannona, ca 14 spp.; both Annonaceae). Phylogenetic inference revealed similar patterns of geographically restricted clades and molecular dating showed diversifications in the different areas occurred in parallel, with timing consistent with Andean vicariance and Central American geodispersal...
January 2018: Royal Society Open Science
N V Zelenkov
The first anatomically assembled skeletal remains of Neogene birds in Russia have been found. The head and a fragment of the vertebral column of a duck (Anatidae) and a hind limb of a perching bird (Passeriformes) from the Middle Miocene of the Krasnodar Region (Tsurevsky Formation) comprise the earliest known Miocene birds from European Russia. The skull of a very small duck (smaller than any extant species of Eurasian ducks) shows a combination of morphological characters characteristic of the extant species of Tadorna and Nettapus, and could belong to a representative of the fossil genus Mioquerquedula...
November 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
Ewa Slotwinski, Dave Almy, Ryan Viator, Mohamed Abouzied, Frank Klein, Jennifer Rice
Neogen Corp. has developed Veratox for Almond Allergen for use in the quantitative analysis and screening of almond protein residues in food products, such as cookies, crackers, chocolate bars, cereals, beverages, and clean-in-place rinses. Quantitation with Veratox for Almond Allergen ranges from 2.5 to 25 ppm and, with dilution, it can be extended for highly positive samples. This paper describes the findings of internal testing and validation studies designed to establish product claims for the assay of Veratox for Almond Allergen...
January 1, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
Min Deng, Xiao-Long Jiang, Andrew L Hipp, Paul S Manos, Marlene Hahn
The evolutionary history of Quercus section Cyclobalanopsis, a dominant lineage in East Asian evergreen broadleaved forests (EBLFs), has not been comprehensively studied using molecular tools. In this study, we reconstruct the first comprehensive phylogeny of this lineage using a genomic approach (restriction-site associated DNA sequencing, RAD-seq), sampling 35 of the ca. 90 species currently recognized, representing all main morphological groups of section Cyclobalanopsis. In addition, 10 other species of Quercus and two outgroups were also sampled...
February 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Liang Luo, Jiafu Qi, Hongxiang Li, Yueqi Dong, Shuai Zhang, Xichen Zhang, Xiaoxia Yu, Lingyan Luo
The Cangdong Sag is a complex Cenozoic rift basin at the center of the Bohai Bay Basin. Cenozoic structures in the Cangdong Sag can be subdivided into the Cangdong Fault System in the west and the Xuxi Fault System in the east. The geometry of the boundary faults varies along the axes of half-grabens. According to the cross-sectional strata geometry, unconformity and planar structural pattern, the Cenozoic structural evolution of the Cangdong Sag can be divided into four distinct stages: (1) major Paleocene initial rift, (2) latest Paleocene-early Eocene intensive rift, (3) late Eocene-Oligocene strike-slip superimposed rift, and (4) Neogene to present-day post-rift depression...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Danny Shpeley, Wesley Hunting, George E Ball
Primarily a taxonomic review of the West Indian elements of the selenophorine Harpalini, this paper includes a classification, a key, descriptions and illustrations of taxa, re-rankings, and new synonymies. In total, 45 species and subspecies are treated, six of which are described as new. A new genus and new species are as follows, with type localities in parentheses: Paraulacoryssusgen. n., (type species Selenophorus puertoricensis Mutchler, 1934); Neodiachipteryx davidsonisp. n., (Zamba, Dominican Republic); Selenophorus spinosussp...
2017: ZooKeys
Alexis Gabriel Rozenbaum, Dotan Shaked Gelband, Mordechai Stein, Henk K Mienis, Rivka Rabinovich
Despite the extensive geological and paleontological searches in the south Levant, no terrestrial fauna of late Neogene age was yet reported. Here, we report the first evidence of "ancient deer"-cervid in the late Miocene (Tortonian) lacustrine section of the Bira Formation at Hagal Stream, Jordan Valley, northern Israel. The section comprises rich assemblage of macrofauna fossils, mostly freshwater mollusks. The mammalian bone was discovered among the macrofauna fossils, and is described as an almost complete left humerus of an adult animal identified as an artiodactyls element probably of a cervid...
2017: PloS One
Katherine O Ivens, Joseph L Baumert, Robert L Hutkins, Steve L Taylor
Milk and milk products are among the most important allergenic food ingredients, both in the United States and throughout the world; cheeses are among the most important of these milk products. Milk contains several major antigenic proteins, each with differing susceptibilities to proteolytic enzymes. The extent of proteolysis in cheese varies as a result of conditions during manufacture and ripening. Proteolysis has the potential to degrade antigenic and allergenic epitopes that are important for residue detection and elicitation of allergic reactions...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Food Science
Francesco Ballarin, Shuqiang Li
Caves may offer suitable refugia for troglophilic invertebrates during periods of unfavourable climatic conditions because of their stable microclimates. As a consequence, allopatric divergence from their epigean counterparts may occur, leading to formation of truly hypogean communities (the Climatic Relict Hypothesis). Unlike the well-studied effects of Pleistocene glaciations, we know little about how ancient climate changes drove the development of cave-dwelling organisms living at both middle and lower latitudes...
October 21, 2017: Global Change Biology
Hanchao Jiang, Shiming Wan, Xiaolin Ma, Ning Zhong, Debo Zhao
The Late Cenozoic East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) enhancement has been attributed to several factors, such as uplift of the Tibetan Plateau, retreat of the Paratethys Sea, and global cooling related to polar ice volume increment. However, the fundamental forcing factors remain enigmatic due to the absence of long and continuous climate records and sensitive indicators. Here we reanalyzed the published grain-size record of Sikouzi fine sediments in the western Chinese Loess Plateau through end-member (EM) modeling...
2017: PloS One
Matthew R Borths, Nancy J Stevens
Throughout the Paleogene, most terrestrial carnivore niches in Afro-Arabia were occupied by Hyaenodonta, an extinct lineage of placental mammals. By the end of the Miocene, terrestrial carnivore niches had shifted to members of Carnivora, a clade with Eurasian origins. The transition from a hyaenodont-carnivore fauna to a carnivoran-carnivore fauna coincides with other ecological changes in Afro-Arabia as tectonic conditions in the African Rift System altered climatic conditions and facilitated faunal exchange with Eurasia...
2017: PloS One
Anatoli Brouchkov, Marsel Kabilov, Svetlana Filippova, Olga Baturina, Victor Rogov, Valery Galchenko, Andrey Mulyukin, Oksana Fursova, Gennady Pogorelko
Permanently frozen (approx. 3.5Ma) alluvial Neogene sediments exposed in the Aldan river valley at the Mammoth Mountain (Eastern Siberia) are unique, ancient, and poorly studied permafrost environments. So far, the structure of the indigenous bacterial community has remained unknown. Use of 16S metagenomic analysis with total DNA isolation using DNA Spin Kit for Soil (MO-Bio) and QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit (Qiagen) has revealed the major and minor bacterial lineages in the permafrost alluvium sediments. In sum, 61 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) with 31,239 reads (Qiagen kit) and 15,404 reads (Mo-Bio kit) could be assigned to the known taxa...
December 15, 2017: Gene
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