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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901094/late-oligocene-early-miocene-magnetochronology-of-the-mammalian-faunas-in-the-lanzhou-basin-environmental-changes-in-the-ne-margin-of-the-tibetan-plateau
#1
Peng Zhang, Hong Ao, Mark J Dekkers, Yongxiang Li, Zhisheng An
A large number of terrestrial mammalian fossils were reported in the well-exposed Paleogene and Neogene fluvio-lacustrine strata in Western China. Their accurate ages are crucial to understand the mammalian and environmental evolution associated with the step-wise uplift of the Tibetan Plateau. At present their ages are surprisingly poorly constrained. Here, we present a high-resolution magnetostratigraphic dating of the Late Oligocene-Early Miocene mammal assemblages from a 233-m thick fluvio-lacustrine section in the Lanzhou Basin located at the northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, China...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896030/historical-reconstruction-of-climatic-and-elevation-preferences-and-the-evolution-of-cloud-forest-adapted-tree-ferns-in-mesoamerica
#2
Victoria Sosa, Juan Francisco Ornelas, Santiago Ramírez-Barahona, Etelvina Gándara
BACKGROUND: Cloud forests, characterized by a persistent, frequent or seasonal low-level cloud cover and fragmented distribution, are one of the most threatened habitats, especially in the Neotropics. Tree ferns are among the most conspicuous elements in these forests, and ferns are restricted to regions in which minimum temperatures rarely drop below freezing and rainfall is high and evenly distributed around the year. Current phylogeographic data suggest that some of the cloud forest-adapted species remained in situ or expanded to the lowlands during glacial cycles and contracted allopatrically during the interglacials...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881865/bandicoot-fossils-and-dna-elucidate-lineage-antiquity-amongst-xeric-adapted-australasian-marsupials
#3
Benjamin P Kear, Ken P Aplin, Michael Westerman
Bandicoots (Peramelemorphia) are a unique order of Australasian marsupials whose sparse fossil record has been used as prima facie evidence for climate change coincident faunal turnover. In particular, the hypothesized replacement of ancient rainforest-dwelling extinct lineages by antecedents of xeric-tolerant extant taxa during the late Miocene (~10 Ma) has been advocated as a broader pattern evident amongst other marsupial clades. Problematically, however, this is in persistent conflict with DNA phylogenies...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853534/young-relicts-and-old-relicts-a-novel-palaeoendemic-vertebrate-from-the-australian-central-uplands
#4
Paul M Oliver, Peter J McDonald
Climatic change, and in particular aridification, has played a dominant role in shaping Southern Hemisphere biotas since the mid-Neogene. In Australia, ancient and geologically stable ranges within the vast arid zone have functioned as refugia for populations of mesic taxa extirpated from surrounding areas, yet the extent to which relicts may be linked to major aridification events before or after the Pliocene has not been examined in detail. Here we use molecular phylogenetic and morphological data to show that isolated populations of saxicoline geckos in the genus Oedura from the Australian Central Uplands, formerly confounded as a single taxon, actually comprise two divergent species with contrasting histories of isolation...
October 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812188/the-biogeographic-south-north-divide-of-polygonatum-asparagaceae-tribe-polygonateae-within-eastern-asia-and-its-recent-dispersals-in-the-northern-hemisphere
#5
Jia-Jian Wang, Yong-Ping Yang, Hang Sun, Jun Wen, Tao Deng, Ze-Long Nie, Ying Meng
Eastern Asia (EA) is a key region for the diversification of flowering plants in the Northern Hemisphere, but few studies have focused on the biogeographic history within EA in the context of the other northern continents. Polygonatum is an important medicinal genus widely distributed in the Northern Hemisphere with its highest species richness in EA, and it represents an excellent model for studying the evolution of biogeographic patterns in this region. Divergence time estimation was used to examine the biogeographic history of Polygonatum based on nuclear ITS and four plastid sequences (rbcL, matK, psbA-trnH and trnC-petN) from 30 Polygonatum species and 35 outgroup taxa...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807871/low-cysteine-alpha-keratins-and-corneous-beta-proteins-are-initially-formed-in-the-regenerating-tail-epidermis-of-lizard
#6
L Alibardi, F Michieli, L Dalla Valle
During tail regeneration in lizards, the stratified regenerating epidermis progressively gives rise to neogenic scales that form a new epidermal generation. Initially, a soft, un-scaled, pliable, and extensible epidermis is formed that is progressively replaced by a resistant but non-extensible scaled epidermis. This suggests that the initial corneous proteins are later replaced with harder corneous proteins. Using PCR and immunocytochemistry, the present study shows an upregulation in the synthesis of low-cysteine type I and II alpha-keratins and of corneous beta-proteins with a medium cysteine content and a low content in glycine (formerly termed beta-keratins) produced at the beginning of epidermal regeneration...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708037/a-pleistocene-ice-core-record-of-atmospheric-o2-concentrations
#7
D A Stolper, M L Bender, G B Dreyfus, Y Yan, J A Higgins
The history of atmospheric O2 partial pressures (Po2) is inextricably linked to the coevolution of life and Earth's biogeochemical cycles. Reconstructions of past Po2 rely on models and proxies but often markedly disagree. We present a record of Po2 reconstructed using O2/N2 ratios from ancient air trapped in ice. This record indicates that Po2 declined by 7 per mil (0.7%) over the past 800,000 years, requiring that O2 sinks were ~2% larger than sources. This decline is consistent with changes in burial and weathering fluxes of organic carbon and pyrite driven by either Neogene cooling or increasing Pleistocene erosion rates...
September 23, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671620/historical-colonization-and-dispersal-limitation-supplement-climate-and-topography-in-shaping-species-richness-of-african-lizards-reptilia-agaminae
#8
W Daniel Kissling, Anne Blach-Overgaard, Roelof E Zwaan, Philipp Wagner
To what extent deep-time dispersal limitation shapes present-day biodiversity at broad spatial scales remains elusive. Here, we compiled a continental dataset on the distributions of African lizard species in the reptile subfamily Agaminae (a relatively young, Neogene radiation of agamid lizards which ancestors colonized Africa from the Arabian peninsula) and tested to what extent historical colonization and dispersal limitation (i.e. accessibility from areas of geographic origin) can explain present-day species richness relative to current climate, topography, and climate change since the late Miocene (~10 mya), the Pliocene (~3 mya), and the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 0...
September 27, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646682/cyprininae-phylogeny-revealed-independent-origins-of-the-tibetan-plateau-endemic-polyploid-cyprinids-and-their-diversifications-related-to-the-neogene-uplift-of-the-plateau
#9
Xuzhen Wang, Xiaoni Gan, Junbing Li, Yiyu Chen, Shunping He
Origin and diversification of the Tibetan polyploid cyprinids (schizothoracins) may help us to explore relationships between diversification of the cyprinids and the Tibetan Plateau uplift. Cyprininae phylogeny was analyzed using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences to trace origins of polyploidy and diversifications of schizothoracins. Ancestral states reconstruction for ploidy levels indicated that the Cyprininae was diploid origin and the schizothoracin clades tetraploid origins. There were two diversification rate shifts along with diversification of the cyprinine fishes in response to the Tibetan uplift...
September 20, 2016: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621451/twenty-million-year-relationship-between-mammalian-diversity-and-primary-productivity
#10
Susanne A Fritz, Jussi T Eronen, Jan Schnitzler, Christian Hof, Christine M Janis, Andreas Mulch, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, Catherine H Graham
At global and regional scales, primary productivity strongly correlates with richness patterns of extant animals across space, suggesting that resource availability and climatic conditions drive patterns of diversity. However, the existence and consistency of such diversity-productivity relationships through geological history is unclear. Here we provide a comprehensive quantitative test of the diversity-productivity relationship for terrestrial large mammals through time across broad temporal and spatial scales...
September 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604853/terrestrial-biome-distribution-in-the-late-neogene-inferred-from-a-black-carbon-record-in-the-northeastern-equatorial-pacific
#11
Donghyun Kim, Yong Il Lee, Kiseong Hyeong, Chan Min Yoo
The appearance and expansion of C4 plants in the Late Cenozoic was a dramatic example of terrestrial ecological change. The fire hypothesis, which suggests fire as a major cause of C4 grassland is gaining support, yet a more detailed relationship between fire and vegetation-type change remains unresolved. We report the content and stable carbon isotope record of black carbon (BC) in a sediment core retrieved from the northeastern equatorial Pacific that covers the past 14.3 million years. The content record of BC suggests the development process of a flammable ecosystem...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27553265/evaluation-of-the-fossil-fish-specific-diversity-in-a-chadian-continental-assemblage-exploration-of-morphological-continuous-variation-in-synodontis-ostariophysi-siluriformes
#12
Aurélie Pinton, Soizic Le Fur, Olga Otero
In the fossil record, the quantification of continuous morphological variation has become a central issue when dealing with species identification and speciation. In this context, fossil taxa with living representatives hold great promise, because of the potential to characterise patterns of intraspecific morphological variation in extant species prior to any interpretation in the fossil record. The vast majority of catfish families fulfil this prerequisite, as most of them are represented by extant genera...
November 2016: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27470934/survey-of-undeclared-soy-allergen-levels-in-the-most-frequently-recalled-food-categories-with-or-without-precautionary-labelling
#13
Sefat E Khuda, Girdhari M Sharma, Dennis Gaines, Andrew B Do, Marion Pereira, Michael Chang, Martine Ferguson, Kristina M Williams
A comprehensive study was designed to determine the frequency and levels of soy allergen in packaged bakery and snack food products. A representative sample of products with no soy allergen disclosed on the label was analysed using two widely used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods. Samples were chosen that either had no soy identified on the product label or which had a soy precautionary statement. Among 558 bakery and snack products, soy protein was detected in 17% of the products using the Neogen (NE) kit and 11% of the products using the Elisa Systems (ES) kit...
August 2016: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27470810/biogeography-of-abyssocythere-and-dutoitella-ostracoda-with-descriptions-of-three-new-species
#14
Simone N Brandão, Annalena Stuhlmann, Helenice Vital, Angelika Brandt
Ostracods have an extensive fossil record and are widely applied in palaeoenvironmental reconstructions. Here, we investigate the biogeography of two common and widespread genera, Abyssocythere and Dutoitella. Both appeared in the Cretaceous and are widely distributed in modern deep seas, but all species are restricted in distribution. The earliest record of Dutoitella is from shallow water, while the earliest Abyssocythere is from the deep sea. The Southern Ocean/Southern Atlantic seem to have been the area where both genera originated, and from which they eventually colonised other oceans...
2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27459600/geochemical-hunting-of-lithogenic-and-anthropogenic-impacts-on-polymetallic-distribution-bregalnica-river-basin-republic-of-macedonia
#15
Biljana Balabanova, Trajče Stafilov, Robert Šajn, Claudiu Tănăselia
The main subject of this investigation was the assessment of the lithogenic and anthropogenic distribution of 69 elements in the sediments and fluvisol in the Bregalnica river basin. Alluvial soil and fluvisol samples were collected from the total of eighteen locations along the course of the Bregalnica river and additional thirteen samples were collected from its tributaries. The matrix elements accumulation patterns followed the order: Fe > Na > Al > Ca > Mg > K > Ti > P. The potentially toxic elements, such as As, Cd, Pb, and Zn, have enriched content in the sediments in the medium course of the river, where the main anthropogenic introduction activities occurred...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27458264/hair-follicle-and-sebaceous-gland-de-novo-regeneration-with-cultured-epidermal-stem-cells-and-skin-derived-precursors
#16
Xiaoxiao Wang, Xusheng Wang, Jianjun Liu, Ting Cai, Ling Guo, Shujuan Wang, Jinmei Wang, Yanpei Cao, Jianfeng Ge, Yuyang Jiang, Edward E Tredget, Mengjun Cao, Yaojiong Wu
: : Stem cell-based organ regeneration is purported to enable the replacement of impaired organs in the foreseeable future. Here, we demonstrated that a combination of cultured epidermal stem cells (Epi-SCs) derived from the epidermis and skin-derived precursors (SKPs) was capable of reconstituting functional hair follicles and sebaceous glands (SG). When Epi-SCs and SKPs were mixed in a hydrogel and implanted into an excisional wound in nude mice, the Epi-SCs formed de novo epidermis along with hair follicles, and SKPs contributed to dermal papilla in the neogenic hair follicles...
July 25, 2016: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27441119/on-the-relationship-between-enamel-band-complexity-and-occlusal-surface-area-in-equids-mammalia-perissodactyla
#17
Nicholas A Famoso, Edward Byrd Davis
Enamel patterns on the occlusal surfaces of equid teeth are asserted to have tribal-level differences. The most notable example compares the Equini and Hipparionini, where Equini have higher crowned teeth with less enamel-band complexity and less total occlusal enamel than Hipparionini. Whereas previous work has successfully quantified differences in enamel band shape by dividing the length of enamel band by the square root of the occlusal surface area (Occlusal Enamel Index, OEI), it was clear that OEI only partially removes the effect of body size...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27432953/comparative-phylogeography-clarifies-the-complexity-and-problems-of-continental-distribution-that-drove-a-r-wallace-to-favor-islands
#18
Brett R Riddle
Deciphering the geographic context of diversification and distributional dynamics in continental biotas has long been an interest of biogeographers, ecologists, and evolutionary biologists. Thirty years ago, the approach now known as comparative phylogeography was introduced in a landmark study of a continental biota. Here, I use a set of 455 studies to explore the current scope of continental comparative phylogeography, including geographic, conceptual, temporal, ecological, and genomic attributes. Geographically, studies are more frequent in the northern hemisphere, but the south is catching up...
July 19, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27429887/predicting-the-distribution-of-ground-fissures-and-water-conducted-fissures-induced-by-coal-mining-a-case-study
#19
Kunyang Zhao, Nengxiong Xu, Gang Mei, Hong Tian
INTRODUCTION: The use of Top Coal Caving for exploiting the thick coal seam with shallow buried depth most likely has a strong negative impact on the stability. CASE DESCRIPTION: Anjialing No. 1 Underground Mine is located in Shuozhou City, Shanxi Province of China. The 4# Coal Seam of this coal mine is the thick coal seam with shallow buried depth, which has the thickness of 12 m and the depth of 180 m in average. This paper focuses on predicting the distribution of ground fissures and water-conducted fissures induced by the exploiting of the 4# Coal Seam...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27405364/elisa-detection-of-30-new-amphetamine-designer-drugs-in-whole-blood-urine-and-oral-fluid-using-neogen%C3%A2-amphetamine-and-methamphetamine-mdma-kits
#20
Maria Nieddu, Lucia Burrai, Elena Baralla, Valeria Pasciu, Maria Vittoria Varoni, Irene Briguglio, Maria Piera Demontis, Gianpiero Boatto
Amphetamine designer drugs are central nervous system stimulants that are widely disseminated in the illegal market. Generally, in forensic laboratories, immunoassay methods are the first line of screening for these types of drugs in a biological specimen (typically blood, urine or oral fluid). In this article, we describe the cross-reactivity profiles of 30 new amphetamine designer drugs, using the Neogen(®) [Amphetamine Specific and Methamphetamine/3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) assays] drug tests...
September 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
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