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D A Stolper, M L Bender, G B Dreyfus, Y Yan, J A Higgins
The history of atmospheric O2 partial pressures (Po2) is inextricably linked to the coevolution of life and Earth's biogeochemical cycles. Reconstructions of past Po2 rely on models and proxies but often markedly disagree. We present a record of Po2 reconstructed using O2/N2 ratios from ancient air trapped in ice. This record indicates that Po2 declined by 7 per mil (0.7%) over the past 800,000 years, requiring that O2 sinks were ~2% larger than sources. This decline is consistent with changes in burial and weathering fluxes of organic carbon and pyrite driven by either Neogene cooling or increasing Pleistocene erosion rates...
September 23, 2016: Science
W Daniel Kissling, Anne Blach-Overgaard, Roelof E Zwaan, Philipp Wagner
To what extent deep-time dispersal limitation shapes present-day biodiversity at broad spatial scales remains elusive. Here, we compiled a continental dataset on the distributions of African lizard species in the reptile subfamily Agaminae (a relatively young, Neogene radiation of agamid lizards which ancestors colonized Africa from the Arabian peninsula) and tested to what extent historical colonization and dispersal limitation (i.e. accessibility from areas of geographic origin) can explain present-day species richness relative to current climate, topography, and climate change since the late Miocene (~10 mya), the Pliocene (~3 mya), and the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 0...
September 27, 2016: Scientific Reports
Xuzhen Wang, Xiaoni Gan, Junbing Li, Yiyu Chen, Shunping He
Origin and diversification of the Tibetan polyploid cyprinids (schizothoracins) may help us to explore relationships between diversification of the cyprinids and the Tibetan Plateau uplift. Cyprininae phylogeny was analyzed using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences to trace origins of polyploidy and diversifications of schizothoracins. Ancestral states reconstruction for ploidy levels indicated that the Cyprininae was diploid origin and the schizothoracin clades tetraploid origins. There were two diversification rate shifts along with diversification of the cyprinine fishes in response to the Tibetan uplift...
September 20, 2016: Science China. Life Sciences
Susanne A Fritz, Jussi T Eronen, Jan Schnitzler, Christian Hof, Christine M Janis, Andreas Mulch, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, Catherine H Graham
At global and regional scales, primary productivity strongly correlates with richness patterns of extant animals across space, suggesting that resource availability and climatic conditions drive patterns of diversity. However, the existence and consistency of such diversity-productivity relationships through geological history is unclear. Here we provide a comprehensive quantitative test of the diversity-productivity relationship for terrestrial large mammals through time across broad temporal and spatial scales...
September 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Donghyun Kim, Yong Il Lee, Kiseong Hyeong, Chan Min Yoo
The appearance and expansion of C4 plants in the Late Cenozoic was a dramatic example of terrestrial ecological change. The fire hypothesis, which suggests fire as a major cause of C4 grassland is gaining support, yet a more detailed relationship between fire and vegetation-type change remains unresolved. We report the content and stable carbon isotope record of black carbon (BC) in a sediment core retrieved from the northeastern equatorial Pacific that covers the past 14.3 million years. The content record of BC suggests the development process of a flammable ecosystem...
2016: Scientific Reports
Aurélie Pinton, Soizic Le Fur, Olga Otero
In the fossil record, the quantification of continuous morphological variation has become a central issue when dealing with species identification and speciation. In this context, fossil taxa with living representatives hold great promise, because of the potential to characterise patterns of intraspecific morphological variation in extant species prior to any interpretation in the fossil record. The vast majority of catfish families fulfil this prerequisite, as most of them are represented by extant genera...
November 2016: Journal of Morphology
Sefat E Khuda, Girdhari M Sharma, Dennis Gaines, Andrew B Do, Marion Pereira, Michael Chang, Martine Ferguson, Kristina M Williams
A comprehensive study was designed to determine the frequency and levels of soy allergen in packaged bakery and snack food products. A representative sample of products with no soy allergen disclosed on the label was analysed using two widely used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods. Samples were chosen that either had no soy identified on the product label or which had a soy precautionary statement. Among 558 bakery and snack products, soy protein was detected in 17% of the products using the Neogen (NE) kit and 11% of the products using the Elisa Systems (ES) kit...
August 2016: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Simone N Brandão, Annalena Stuhlmann, Helenice Vital, Angelika Brandt
Ostracods have an extensive fossil record and are widely applied in palaeoenvironmental reconstructions. Here, we investigate the biogeography of two common and widespread genera, Abyssocythere and Dutoitella. Both appeared in the Cretaceous and are widely distributed in modern deep seas, but all species are restricted in distribution. The earliest record of Dutoitella is from shallow water, while the earliest Abyssocythere is from the deep sea. The Southern Ocean/Southern Atlantic seem to have been the area where both genera originated, and from which they eventually colonised other oceans...
2016: Zootaxa
Biljana Balabanova, Trajče Stafilov, Robert Šajn, Claudiu Tănăselia
The main subject of this investigation was the assessment of the lithogenic and anthropogenic distribution of 69 elements in the sediments and fluvisol in the Bregalnica river basin. Alluvial soil and fluvisol samples were collected from the total of eighteen locations along the course of the Bregalnica river and additional thirteen samples were collected from its tributaries. The matrix elements accumulation patterns followed the order: Fe > Na > Al > Ca > Mg > K > Ti > P. The potentially toxic elements, such as As, Cd, Pb, and Zn, have enriched content in the sediments in the medium course of the river, where the main anthropogenic introduction activities occurred...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Xiaoxiao Wang, Xusheng Wang, Jianjun Liu, Ting Cai, Ling Guo, Shujuan Wang, Jinmei Wang, Yanpei Cao, Jianfeng Ge, Yuyang Jiang, Edward E Tredget, Mengjun Cao, Yaojiong Wu
: : Stem cell-based organ regeneration is purported to enable the replacement of impaired organs in the foreseeable future. Here, we demonstrated that a combination of cultured epidermal stem cells (Epi-SCs) derived from the epidermis and skin-derived precursors (SKPs) was capable of reconstituting functional hair follicles and sebaceous glands (SG). When Epi-SCs and SKPs were mixed in a hydrogel and implanted into an excisional wound in nude mice, the Epi-SCs formed de novo epidermis along with hair follicles, and SKPs contributed to dermal papilla in the neogenic hair follicles...
July 25, 2016: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Nicholas A Famoso, Edward Byrd Davis
Enamel patterns on the occlusal surfaces of equid teeth are asserted to have tribal-level differences. The most notable example compares the Equini and Hipparionini, where Equini have higher crowned teeth with less enamel-band complexity and less total occlusal enamel than Hipparionini. Whereas previous work has successfully quantified differences in enamel band shape by dividing the length of enamel band by the square root of the occlusal surface area (Occlusal Enamel Index, OEI), it was clear that OEI only partially removes the effect of body size...
2016: PeerJ
Brett R Riddle
Deciphering the geographic context of diversification and distributional dynamics in continental biotas has long been an interest of biogeographers, ecologists, and evolutionary biologists. Thirty years ago, the approach now known as comparative phylogeography was introduced in a landmark study of a continental biota. Here, I use a set of 455 studies to explore the current scope of continental comparative phylogeography, including geographic, conceptual, temporal, ecological, and genomic attributes. Geographically, studies are more frequent in the northern hemisphere, but the south is catching up...
July 19, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Kunyang Zhao, Nengxiong Xu, Gang Mei, Hong Tian
INTRODUCTION: The use of Top Coal Caving for exploiting the thick coal seam with shallow buried depth most likely has a strong negative impact on the stability. CASE DESCRIPTION: Anjialing No. 1 Underground Mine is located in Shuozhou City, Shanxi Province of China. The 4# Coal Seam of this coal mine is the thick coal seam with shallow buried depth, which has the thickness of 12 m and the depth of 180 m in average. This paper focuses on predicting the distribution of ground fissures and water-conducted fissures induced by the exploiting of the 4# Coal Seam...
2016: SpringerPlus
Maria Nieddu, Lucia Burrai, Elena Baralla, Valeria Pasciu, Maria Vittoria Varoni, Irene Briguglio, Maria Piera Demontis, Gianpiero Boatto
Amphetamine designer drugs are central nervous system stimulants that are widely disseminated in the illegal market. Generally, in forensic laboratories, immunoassay methods are the first line of screening for these types of drugs in a biological specimen (typically blood, urine or oral fluid). In this article, we describe the cross-reactivity profiles of 30 new amphetamine designer drugs, using the Neogen(®) [Amphetamine Specific and Methamphetamine/3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) assays] drug tests...
September 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
L F Jiménez-Segura, G Galvis-Vergara, P Cala-Cala, C A García-Alzate, S López-Casas, M I Ríos-Pulgarín, G A Arango, N J Mancera-Rodríguez, F Gutiérrez-Bonilla, R Álvarez-León
The remarkable fish diversity in the Caribbean rivers of north-western South America evolved under the influences of the dramatic environmental changes of neogene northern South America, including the Quechua Orogeny and Pleistocene climate oscillations. Although this region is not the richest in South America, endemism is very high. Fish assemblage structure is unique to each of the four aquatic systems identified (rivers, streams, floodplain lakes and reservoirs) and community dynamics are highly synchronized with the mono-modal or bi-modal flooding pulse of the rainy seasons...
July 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
Haixia Fu, Maozhu An, Hong Zhang, Yan Song, Yuhai Zhang
We present a case of a 55-year-old male patient who suffered from a neogenic embolism formation and a sudden embolus detachment during hemodialysis treatment. For this case, the sudden onset of thrombosis formation and embolism detachment were caused by severe dehydration due to diarrhea, which resulted in low blood pressure, pachemia, hyperhemoglobinemia and hypercoagulability. An immediate vessel occlusion was performed as a rescue therapy followed by a thrombectomy at the position of vessel occlusion. The vessel occlusion can lead to better control of embolism detachment and reduce the rate of fatal pulmonary embolism formation...
2016: Journal of Vascular Access
Kevin T Uno, Pratigya J Polissar, Kevin E Jackson, Peter B deMenocal
The evolution of C4 grassland ecosystems in eastern Africa has been intensely studied because of the potential influence of vegetation on mammalian evolution, including that of our own lineage, hominins. Although a handful of sparse vegetation records exists from middle and early Miocene terrestrial fossil sites, there is no comprehensive record of vegetation through the Neogene. Here we present a vegetation record spanning the Neogene and Quaternary Periods that documents the appearance and subsequent expansion of C4 grasslands in eastern Africa...
June 7, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Xijun Ni, Qiang Li, Lüzhou Li, K Christopher Beard
Profound environmental and faunal changes are associated with climatic deterioration during the Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT) roughly 34 million years ago. Reconstructing how Asian primates responded to the EOT has been hindered by a sparse record of Oligocene primates on that continent. Here, we report the discovery of a diverse primate fauna from the early Oligocene of southern China. In marked contrast to Afro-Arabian Oligocene primate faunas, this Asian fauna is dominated by strepsirhines. There appears to be a strong break between Paleogene and Neogene Asian anthropoid assemblages...
May 6, 2016: Science
A I Muntyanu, M Raika, E G Zota
OBJECTIVE: to analyze the histotopographic distribution of neogenic vessels, the degree of mast cell degranulation, the expression of markers of macrophages in different types of plaques in different stages and in different arterial vessels in patients with atherosclerosis and in those with metabolic syndrome associated with atherosclerosis and to establish the role of mast cells and macrophages in the development of stages of atherosclerosis along with their diagnostic and prognostic value...
March 2016: Arkhiv Patologii
Sarah Johnson, Keith Harrison, Andrew D Turner
Five commercial rapid screening methods for Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning were assessed for the analysis of naturally contaminated bivalve mollusc samples from GB. A range of shellfish species including mussels, scallops, clams, oysters and cockles, both positive and negative for domoic acid were assessed, with kit performance measured through comparison with the reference HPLC-UV method. Two lateral flow immunoassays manufactured by Neogen and Scotia Rapid Testing Ltd, were both found to provide a simple and accurate qualitative detection of ASP in shellfish...
July 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
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