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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916375/bacterial-community-in-ancient-permafrost-alluvium-at-the-mammoth-mountain-eastern-siberia
#1
Anatoli Brouchkov, Marsel Kabilov, Svetlana Filippova, Olga Baturina, Victor Rogov, Valery Galchenko, Andrey Mulyukin, Oksana Fursova, Gennady Pogorelko
Permanently frozen (approx. 3.5Ma) alluvial Neogene sediments exposed in the Aldan river valley at the Mammoth Mountain (Eastern Siberia) are unique, ancient, and poorly studied permafrost environments. So far, the structure of the indigenous bacterial community has remained unknown. Use of 16S metagenomic analysis with total DNA isolation using DNA Spin Kit for Soil (MO-Bio) and QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit (Qiagen) has revealed the major and minor bacterial lineages in the permafrost alluvium sediments. In sum, 61 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) with 31,239 reads (Qiagen kit) and 15,404 reads (Mo-Bio kit) could be assigned to the known taxa...
September 12, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851479/detection-of-paralytic-shellfish-toxins-in-mussels-and-oysters-using-the-qualitative-neogen-lateral-flow-immunoassay-an-interlaboratory-study
#2
Juan José Dorantes-Aranda, Jessica Y C Tan, Gustaaf M Hallegraeff, Katrina Campbell, Sarah C Ugalde, D Tim Harwood, Jill K Bartlett, Mònica Campàs, Steven Crooks, Arjen Gerssen, Keith Harrison, Anne-Catherine Huet, Timothy B Jordan, Martina Koeberl, Tim Monaghan, Sam Murray, Rama Nimmagadda, Corinne Ooms, Rae K Quinlan, Feng Shi, Andrew D Turner, Betsy Jean Yakes, Alison R Turnbull
Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) in bivalve molluscs represent a public health risk and are controlled via compliance with a regulatory limit of 0.8 mg saxitoxin (STX)⋅2HCl equivalents per kilogram of shellfish meat (eq/kg). Shellfish industries would benefit from the use of rapid immunological screening tests for PSTs to be used for regulation, but to date none have been fully validated. An interlaboratory study involving 16 laboratories was performed to determine the suitability of the Neogen test to detect PSTs in mussels and oysters...
August 30, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832664/neogene-sharks-and-rays-from-the-brazilian-blue-amazon
#3
Orangel Aguilera, Zoneibe Luz, Jorge D Carrillo-Briceño, László Kocsis, Torsten W Vennemann, Peter Mann de Toledo, Afonso Nogueira, Kamilla Borges Amorim, Heloísa Moraes-Santos, Marcia Reis Polck, Maria de Lourdes Ruivo, Ana Paula Linhares, Cassiano Monteiro-Neto
The lower Miocene Pirabas Formation in the North of Brazil was deposited under influence of the proto-Amazon River and is characterized by large changes in the ecological niches from the early Miocene onwards. To evaluate these ecological changes, the elasmobranch fauna of the fully marine, carbonate-rich beds was investigated. A diverse fauna with 24 taxa of sharks and rays was identified with the dominant groups being carcharhiniforms and myliobatiforms. This faunal composition is similar to other early Miocene assemblages from the proto-Carribbean bioprovince...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804036/evolutionary-analysis-of-chironius-snakes-unveils-cryptic-diversity-and-provides-clues-to-diversification-in-the-neotropics
#4
Breno Hamdan, Anieli G Pereira, Letícia Loss-Oliveira, Dennis Rödder, Carlos G Schrago
Recent hypotheses to explain tropical diversity involves the Neogene and Quaternary geoclimatic dynamics, but the absence of unambiguous data permitting the choice between alternative hypotheses makes a general theory for the origin of tropical biodiversity far to be achieved. The occurrence of Chironius snakes in well-defined biogeographical regions led us to adopt Chironius as a model to unveil patterns of vertebrate diversification in the Neotropics. Here, we used molecular markers and records on geographic distribution to investigate Chironius evolution and, subsequently, providing hints on diversification in the Neotropics...
August 10, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797318/single-laboratory-validation-of-the-neogen-qualitative-lateral-flow-immunoassay-for-the-detection-of-paralytic-shellfish-toxins-in-mussels-and-oysters
#5
Alison R Turnbull, Jessica Y C Tan, Sarah C Ugalde, Gustaaf M Hallegraeff, Katrina Campbell, D Tim Harwood, Juan José Dorantes-Aranda
Detection of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) in bivalve shellfish by analytical methods is complicated and costly, requiring specific expertise and equipment. Following extensive blooms of Alexandrium tamarense Group 1 in Tasmania, Australia, an investigation was made into commercially available screening test kits suitable for use with the toxin profiles found in affected bivalves. The qualitative Neogen rapid test kit, with a modified protocol to convert gonyautoxins GTX1&4 and GTX2&3 into neosaxitoxin and saxitoxin (STX), respectively, with higher cross-reactivities, was the best fit-for-purpose...
August 10, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746370/neogene-proto-caribbean-porcupinefishes-diodontidae
#6
Orangel Aguilera, Guilherme Oliveira Andrade Silva, Ricardo Tadeu Lopes, Alessandra Silveira Machado, Thaís Maria Dos Santos, Gabriela Marques, Thayse Bertucci, Thayanne Aguiar, Jorge Carrillo-Briceño, Felix Rodriguez, Carlos Jaramillo
Fossil Diodontidae in Tropical America consist mostly of isolated and fused beak-like jawbones, and tooth plate batteries. These durophagous fishes are powerful shell-crushing predators on shallow water invertebrate faunas from Neogene tropical carbonate bottom, rocky reefs and surrounding flats. We use an ontogenetic series of high-resolution micro CT of fossil and extant species to recognize external and internal morphologic characters of jaws and tooth plate batteries. We compare similar sizes of jaws and/or tooth-plates from both extant and extinct species...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729869/genetic-patterns-of-myrceugenia-correifolia-a-rare-species-of-fog-dependent-forests-of-mediterranean-chile-is-it-a-climatic-relict
#7
Fernanda Pérez, Luis F Hinojosa, Gioconda Peralta, Paz Montenegro, Carla Irarrázabal, Michel Cossio
Rare species frequently occur in areas with microclimatic conditions that are atypical for their regions, but that were more common in the past, and that probably have operated as climatic refugia for a long time. Myrceugenia correifolia is a rare arboreal species that grows in deep canyons and hilltops of the Coast Range of north-central Chile between 30° and 35°S. In the northern edge of its distribution M. correifolia grows in small patches of fog-dependent forest surrounding by xeric vegetation. These forest formations are thought to be remnants of an ancient and continuous rainforest that according to some authors became fragmented during aridization of the Neogene (Neogene relict) and to others during warm-dry cycles of the Pleistocene (glacial relicts)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726195/effects-of-secondary-metabolites-of-permafrost-bacillus-sp-on-cytokine-synthesis-by-human-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells
#8
L F Kalenova, S S Kolyvanova, A S Bazhin, I M Besedin, V P Mel'nikov
We studied the effects of secondary metabolites of Bacillus sp. isolated from late Neogene permafrost on secretion of proinflammatory (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-8, IL-2, and IFNγ) and antiinflammatory (IL-4 and IL-10) cytokines by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. It was found that metabolites of Bacillus sp. produced more potent effect on cytokine secretion than mitogen phytohemagglutinin and metabolites of Bacillus cereus, medicinal strain IP5832. Activity of metabolites depended on the temperature of bacteria incubation...
June 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712471/early-pliocene-anuran-fossils-from-kanapoi-kenya-and-the-first-fossil%C3%A2-record-for-the-african-burrowing-frog-hemisus-neobatrachia-hemisotidae
#9
Massimo Delfino
Isolated amphibian bones from the early Pliocene of Kanapoi (West Turkana, Kenya) help to improve the scarce fossil record of the late Neogene and Quaternary amphibians from East Africa. All currently available 579 bones are referable exclusively to the Anura (frogs and toads). More than half of the remains (366) are identified as Hemisus cf. Hemisus marmoratus, an extant species that still inhabits Kenya, but apparently not the northwest of the country and the Turkana area in particular. The rest of the remains are identified simply as Anura indet...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688459/new-cranium-of-the-large-cercopithecid-primate-theropithecus-oswaldi-leakeyi-hopwood-1934-from-the-paleoanthropological-site-of-makuyuni-tanzania
#10
Stephen R Frost, Charles Saanane, Britt M Starkovich, Hilde Schwartz, Friedemann Schrenk, Katerina Harvati
The Pleistocene hominin site of Makuyuni, near Lake Manyara, Tanzania, is known for fossils attributable to Homo and Acheulean artifacts (Ring et al., 2005; Kaiser et al., 2010; Frost et al., 2012). Here we describe the fossil primate material from the Manyara Beds, which includes the first nearly complete female cranium of Theropithecus oswaldi leakeyi and a proximal tibia from the same taxon. The cranium is dated to between 633 and 780 Ka and the tibia to the Pleistocene. The T. oswaldi lineage is one of the most important among Neogene mammals of Africa: it is both widespread and abundant...
August 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674424/cytotaxonomy-and-molecular-phylogeny-of-the-genus-cerapanorpa-gao-ma-hua-2016-mecoptera-panorpidae
#11
Ying Miao, Na Ma, Bao-Zhen Hua
The species of the genus Cerapanorpa Gao, Ma & Hua, 2016 (Mecoptera: Panorpidae) are characterized mainly by the presence of a finger-like anal horn on tergum VI of males and are distributed in the Oriental and eastern Palearctic regions. Herein, we investigated the pachytene banding patterns and reconstructed the Bayesian time-calibrated tree of some species of Cerapanorpa. All species examined display achiasmate meiosis and the same meiformula 2n = 42 + X0, reconfirming the monophyly of Cerapanorpa...
July 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663936/revision-of-balaena-belgica-reveals-a-new-right-whale-species-the-possible-ancestry-of-the-northern-right-whale-eubalaena-glacialis-and-the-ages-of-divergence-for-the-living-right-whale-species
#12
Michelangelo Bisconti, Olivier Lambert, Mark Bosselaers
In 1941, Abel established Balaena belgica based on a series of fused cervical vertebrae and citing other cranial fragments from the late Neogene of the Antwerp harbor (northern Belgium). Later, Plisnier-Ladame & Quinet (1969) added a neurocranium and other skeletal remains from the same area to this species. Recently, the neurocranium was re-assigned to the genus Eubalaena thanks to newer phylogenetic analyses. Here, a new description is provided of materials previously assigned to "Balaena" belgica together with taxonomic revisions...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635970/expansion-of-the-tibetan-plateau-during-the-neogene
#13
Weitao Wang, Wenjun Zheng, Peizhen Zhang, Qiang Li, Eric Kirby, Daoyang Yuan, Dewen Zheng, Caicai Liu, Zhicai Wang, Huiping Zhang, Jianzhang Pang
The appearance of detritus shed from mountain ranges along the northern margin of the Tibetan Plateau heralds the Cenozoic development of high topography. Current estimates of the age of the basal conglomerate in the Qaidam basin place this event in Paleocene-Eocene. Here we present new magnetostratigraphy and mammalian biostratigraphy that refine the onset of basin fill to ∼25.5 Myr and reveal that sediment accumulated continuously until ∼4.8 Myr. Sediment provenance implies a sustained source in the East Kunlun Shan throughout this time period...
June 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610295/first-record-of-hawker-dragonflies-from-eocene-baltic-amber-odonata-anisoptera-gomphaeschnidae
#14
Stefan Pinkert, Günter Bechly, André Nel
Based on three specimens, the first record of hawker dragonflies from Baltic amber is described in a new genus with two new species: Elektrogomphaeschna peterthieli gen. et sp. nov. and E. annekeae sp. nov.. They belong to the family Gomphaeschnidae and are tentatively attributed to the extinct subfamily Gomphaeschnaoidinae. The latter was previously only known from Cretaceous fossils and is here shown to have survived the K-Pg mass extinction event. This discovery also confirms the still higher diversity of Gomphaeschnidae during the Paleogene compared to the Neogene that was dominated by the more derived Aeshnidae sensu stricto...
May 29, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542291/the-first-darter-aves-anhingidae-fossils-from-india-late-pliocene
#15
Thomas Stidham, Rajeev Patnaik, Kewal Krishan, Bahadur Singh, Abhik Ghosh, Ankita Singla, Simran S Kotla
New fossils from the latest Pliocene portion of the Tatrot Formation exposed in the Siwalik Hills of northern India represent the first fossil record of a darter (Anhingidae) from India. The darter fossils possibly represent a new species, but the limited information on the fossil record of this group restricts their taxonomic allocation. The Pliocene darter has a deep pit on the distal face of metatarsal trochlea IV not reported in other anhingids, it has an open groove for the m. flexor perforatus et perforans digiti II tendon on the hypotarsus unlike New World anhingid taxa, and these darter specimens are the youngest of the handful of Neogene records of the group from Asia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533965/reappraisal-of-the-extinct-seal-phoca-vitulinoides-from-the-neogene-of-the-north-sea-basin-with-bearing-on-its-geological-age-phylogenetic-affinities-and-locomotion
#16
Leonard Dewaele, Eli Amson, Olivier Lambert, Stephen Louwye
BACKGROUND: Discovered on the southern margin of the North Sea Basin, "Phoca" vitulinoides represents one of the best-known extinct species of Phocidae. However, little attention has been given to the species ever since its original 19th century description. Newly discovered material, including the most complete specimen of fossil Phocidae from the North Sea Basin, prompted the redescription of the species. Also, the type material of "Phoca" vitulinoides is lost. METHODS: "Phoca" vitulinoides is redescribed...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489895/flowering-after-disaster-early-danian-buckthorn-rhamnaceae-flowers-and-leaves-from-patagonia
#17
Nathan A Jud, Maria A Gandolfo, Ari Iglesias, Peter Wilf
Southern-Hemisphere terrestrial communities from the early Paleocene are poorly known, but recent work on Danian plant fossils from the Salamanca Formation in Chubut Province, Argentina are providing critical data on earliest Paleocene floras. The fossils described here come from a site in the Salamanca Formation dating to ca. 1 million years or less after the end-Cretaceous extinction event; they are the first fossil flowers reported from the Danian of South America, and possible the entire Southern Hemisphere...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462055/first-report-of-bats-mammalia-chiroptera-from-the-gray-fossil-site-late-miocene-or-early-pliocene-tennessee-usa
#18
Nicholas J Czaplewski
Thousands of vertebrate fossils have been recovered from the Gray Fossil Site, Tennessee, dating to the Miocene-Pliocene boundary. Among these are but eight specimens of bats representing two different taxa referable to the family Vespertilionidae. Comparison of the fossils with Neogene and Quaternary bats reveals that seven of the eight specimens pertain to a species of Eptesicus that cannot be distinguished from recent North American Eptesicus fuscus. The remaining specimen, a horizontal ramus with m3, is from a smaller vespertilionid bat that cannot confidently be assigned to a genus...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421981/validation-of-max-aqueous-extraction-on-veratox-%C3%A2-for-total-aflatoxin-elisa-test-kit
#19
Brooke E Roman, Dana Driksna, Mohamed M Abouzied, Frank Klein, Jennifer Rice
Neogen Corp. (Lansing, MI) has developed a common aqueous extraction method for the detection of mycotoxins in the ELISA or lateral flow format. The Veratox(®) for Total Aflatoxin ELISA extraction method uses a MAX 2 extraction packet and water in replacement of traditionally used organic solvents. Veratox for Total Aflatoxin has a detection range of 5–50 ppb neat or up to 300 ppb with dilution. The kit development focused on superior cross-reactivity, ability to accurately detect naturally contaminated samples, and utilization of an aqueous extraction method...
April 18, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380380/virgin-beta-cells-persist-throughout-life-at-a-neogenic-niche-within-pancreatic-islets
#20
Talitha van der Meulen, Alex M Mawla, Michael R DiGruccio, Michael W Adams, Vera Nies, Sophie Dólleman, Siming Liu, Amanda M Ackermann, Elena Cáceres, Anna E Hunter, Klaus H Kaestner, Cynthia J Donaldson, Mark O Huising
Postnatal maintenance or regeneration of pancreatic beta cells is considered to occur exclusively via the replication of existing beta cells, but clinically meaningful restoration of human beta cell mass by proliferation has never been achieved. We discovered a population of immature beta cells that is present throughout life and forms from non-beta precursors at a specialized micro-environment or "neogenic niche" at the islet periphery. These cells express insulin, but lack other key beta cell markers, and are transcriptionally immature, incapable of sensing glucose, and unable to support calcium influx...
April 4, 2017: Cell Metabolism
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