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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055170/global-climate-change-increases-risk-of-crop-yield-losses-and-food-insecurity-in-the-tropical-andes
#1
Richard Tito, Heraldo L Vasconcelos, Kenneth J Feeley
One of the greatest current challenges to human society is ensuring adequate food production and security for a rapidly growing population under changing climatic conditions. Climate change, and specifically rising temperatures, will alter the suitability of areas for specific crops and cultivation systems. In order to maintain yields, farmers may be forced to change cultivation practices, the timing of cultivation, or even the type of crops grown. Alternatively, farmers can change the location where crops are cultivated (e...
October 21, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054651/measuring-soil-sustainability-via-soil-resilience
#2
Marie Ludwig, Paul Wilmes, Stefan Schrader
Soils are the nexus of water, energy and food, which illustrates the need for a holistic approach in sustainable soil management. The present study therefore aimed at identifying a bioindicator for the evaluation of soil management sustainability in a cross-disciplinary approach between soil science and multi-omics research. For this purpose we first discuss the remaining problems and challenges of evaluating sustainability and consequently suggest one measurable bioindicator for soil management sustainability...
October 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054627/influence-of-diet-in-urinary-levels-of-metals-in-a-biomonitoring-study-of-a-child-population-of-the-valencian-region-spain
#3
Rosa Pérez, Eva Doménech, Andrea Conchado, Alfredo Sanchez, Clara Coscollà, Vicent Yusà
Pollution by trace elements and its possible effect on organisms has become a worldwide concern due to the increasing presence of trace elements in the environment and especially in the food chain. Exposure to chemicals has traditionally been measured using environmental samples, however, human biomonitoring brings a different perspective, in which all sources and exposure pathways are integrated. The objective of this paper is to discern the possible relationship between children's diet and the metals found in children urine...
October 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054583/dietary-resveratrol-increases-mid-life-fecundity-of-female-nothobranchius-guentheri
#4
Youngjoo Lee, Andrew C Drake, Nicholas O Thomas, Lindsey G Ferguson, Patrick E Chappell, Kate Petersen Shay
The decline of female reproductive function is an early phenotype of aging in humans, occurring only midway through the lifespan. Yet the number of women delaying pregnancy continues to rise in industrialized societies due to personal or socioeconomic circumstances, often resulting in subfertility or difficulty conceiving. There are few defined mechanisms associated with this etiology, and equally few effective therapies. To combat this problem, we used a novel emerging model, Nothobranchius guentheri, that recapitulates the age-associated spectrum of changes that adversely affect human fertility...
October 17, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054139/mc-media-pad-acplus%C3%A2-for-enumeration-of-aerobic-counts-in-a-variety-of-foods
#5
Hajime Teramura, Gail Betts
The MC-Media Pad ACplus™ is a dry, rehydratable film medium for the enumeration of aerobic bacterial colonies.The performance of the method in a variety of foods was compared to that of U.S. reference methods: U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook (MLG) Chapter 3.02 "Quantitative Analysis of Bacteria in Foods as Sanitary Indicators" (USDA/FSIS MLG 3.02); Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy Products (SMEDP) Chapter 6 "Microbiological Count Methods, Standard Plate Count Method" (SMEDP 6); AOAC Official Method(SM)966...
October 20, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053889/optimization-of-mass-spectrometry-acquisition-parameters-for-determination-of-polycarbonate-additives-degradation-products-and-colorants-migrating-from-food-contact-materials-to-chocolate
#6
Chiara Bignardi, Antonella Cavazza, Carmen Laganà, Paola Salvadeo, Claudio Corradini
The interest towards the so-called "substances of emerging concerns", in particular referred to objects intended to come into contact with food is recently growing. Such substances can be found in traces in simulants and in food products put in contact with plastic materials. In this context, it is important to set up analytical systems characterized by high sensitivity, and to improve detection parameters to enhance signals. This work was aimed at optimizing a method based on UHPLC coupled to High Resolution Mass Spectrometry to quantify the most common plastic additives, and able to detect the presence of polymers degradation products and coloring agents migrating from plastic re-usable containers...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053616/valorization-challenges-to-almond-residues-phytochemical-composition-and-functional-application
#7
REVIEW
Iva Prgomet, Berta Gonçalves, Raúl Domínguez-Perles, Núria Pascual-Seva, Ana I R N A Barros
Almond is characterized by its high nutritional value; although information reported so far mainly concerns edible kernel. Even though the nutritional and commercial relevance of the almond is restricted to almond meat; to date; increasing attention has been paid to other parts of this fruit (skin; shell; and hull); considered by-products that are scarcely characterized and exploited regarding their properties as valuable sources of bioactive compounds (mainly represented by phenolic acids and flavonoids). This lack of proper valorization procedures entails the continuation of the application of traditional procedures to almond residues that nowadays are mainly addressed to livestock feed and energy production...
October 20, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053606/lung-toxicity-of-condensed-aerosol-from-e-cig-liquids-influence-of-the-flavor-and-the-in-vitro-model-used
#8
Rossella Bengalli, Emanuele Ferri, Massimo Labra, Paride Mantecca
The diffusion of e-cigarette (e-CIG) opens a great scientific and regulatory debate about its safety. The huge number of commercialized devices, e-liquids with almost infinite chemical formulations and the growing market demand for a rapid and efficient toxicity screen system that is able to test all of these references and related aerosols. A consensus on the best protocols for the e-CIG safety assessment is still far to be achieved, since the huge number of variables characterizing these products (e.g., flavoring type and concentration, nicotine concentration, type of the device, including the battery and the atomizer)...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053599/gut-fermentation-of-dietary-fibres-physico-chemistry-of-plant-cell-walls-and-implications-for-health
#9
REVIEW
Barbara A Williams, Lucas J Grant, Michael J Gidley, Deirdre Mikkelsen
The majority of dietary fibre (DF) originates from plant cell walls. Chemically, DF mostly comprise carbohydrate polymers, which resist hydrolysis by digestive enzymes in the mammalian small intestine, but can be fermented by large intestinal bacteria. One of the main benefits of DF relate to its fermentability, which affects microbial diversity and function within the gastro-intestinal tract (GIT), as well as the by-products of the fermentation process. Much work examining DF tends to focus on various purified ingredients, which have been extracted from plants...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053423/lasioderma-serricorne-coleoptera-anobiidae-first-report-on-black-sesame-sesamum-indicum
#10
Eridiane da Silva Moura, José Cola Zanuncio, Lêda Rita D'antonino Faroni, Fernanda Fernandes Heleno, Carlos Federico Wilcken, Angelica Plata-Rueda, José Eduardo Serrão
Insect pests may make food products and by-products unfit for human consumption. This study reports the occurrence of Lasioderma serricorne (Coleoptera: Anobiidae) in packaged seeds of black Sesamum indicum. An intact plastic pot of S. indicum seeds was purchased by a consumer in a supermarket in Divinópolis, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, in April 2014 and was kept at his home for 3 months. Two hundred adults of this insect (196 dead and 4 alive) were counted in the pot with the seeds, besides three live larvae...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053338/disaccharides-determination-a-review-of-analytical-methods
#11
Marta Pokrzywnicka, Robert Koncki
Disaccharides are determined mainly for dietetic purposes, hence the most analyses are carried out for food and drink samples. Its content can also be used to profile groceries in order to identify the origin and quality of the products. They also can be an indicator of the rate of metabolism as well as for the control of some technological and biotechnological processes. Unfortunately most of technological analysis are performed with nonselective polarimetry methods. Sugars due to specific physicochemical properties of compounds are difficult to determine with classical analytical techniques...
October 20, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053214/herbicide-discovery-in-light-of-rapidly-spreading-resistance-and-ever-increasing-regulatory-hurdles
#12
Bodo Peters, Harry J Strek
According to the UN the global population is expected to grow to almost 10 billion people in 2050. This means that the demand for food, feed and fiber will double while at the same time agriculture is being challenged by a scarcity of water, global warming, less land available for farming, protection of natural habitats, demand for biodiversity on farms and other factors. In addition crop protection products are under pressure from rapidly spreading resistance and increasing regulatory requirements. Many regulatory bodies are also moving away from a risk assessment approach to a more hazard-based approach to grant registrations...
October 20, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053003/detoxification-of-cancerogenic-compounds-by-lactic-acid-bacteria-strains
#13
Zhao Lili, Wei Junyan, Zhao Hongfei, Zhu Baoqing, Zhang Bolin
Carcinogens in food are an important issue that threat people's health right now. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains as well-known probiotics have shown numerous perspectives in being used as a good food additive to confront cancerogenic compounds in recent years. Some LAB strains can remove cancerogenic compounds from medium environment via direct physical binding and avoid re-pollution of poisonous secondary metabolites which are generated from degradation of cancerogenic compounds. This article presents a whole overview of the physical-binding of LAB strains to such common cancerogenic compounds existed in food and feed environments as mycotoxins, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heterocyclic amines (HAs) and pthalic acid esters (PAEs)...
October 20, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052849/clinical-applications-of-iddsi-framework-for-texture-recommendation-for-dysphagia-patients
#14
Mingsong Su, Gangying Zheng, Yanqiu Chen, Hua Xie, Weijia Han, Qing Yang, Jianqin Sun, Zhihong Lv, Jianshe Chen
Dysphagia is a highly prevalent eating and swallowing disorder among elderly people, impacting negatively on the health and well-being of those afflicted. With increasing populations of elderly people, food industries are under growing pressure to produce appropriately texture-modified food for safe consumption by these vulnerable populations. Recently published IDDSI framework provides a new global guideline on texture modification and standardization for dysphagia patients. This work was designed to test the feasibility of IDDSI framework for clinical applications by assessing the correlation between swallowing capability of dysphagia patients and the IDDSI texture levels...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Texture Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052845/the-advanced-glycation-end-product-n-%C3%AF%C2%B5-carboxymethyllysine-and-its-precursor-glyoxal-increase-serotonin-release-from-caco-2-cells
#15
Ann-Katrin Holik, Barbara Lieder, Nicole Kretschy, Mark M Somoza, Jakob P Ley, Joachim Hans, Veronika Somoza
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs), comprising a highly diverse class of Maillard reaction compounds formed in vivo and during heating processes of foods, have been described in the progression of several degenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease and diabetes mellitus. N(ϵ) -Carboxymethyllysine (CML) represents a well-characterized AGE, which is frequently encountered in a Western diet and is known to mediate its cellular effects through binding to the receptor for AGEs (RAGE). Since very little is known about the impact of exogenous CML and its precursor, glyoxal, on intestinal cells, a genome-wide screening using a customized microarray was conducted in fully differentiated Caco-2 cells...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052491/an-assessment-of-the-acute-dietary-exposure-to-glyphosate-using-deterministic-and-probabilistic-methods
#16
C L Stephenson, C A Harris, R Clarke
Use of glyphosate in crop production can lead to residues of the active substance and related metabolites in food. Glyphosate has never been considered acutely toxic; however in 2015 the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) proposed an acute reference dose (ARfD). This differs from the Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR) who in 2016, in line with their existing position, concluded that an ARfD was not necessary for glyphosate. This paper makes a comprehensive assessment of short-term dietary exposure to glyphosate from potentially-treated crops grown in the EU and imported third country food sources...
October 20, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052471/a-review-about-lycopene-induced-nuclear-hormone-receptor-signalling-in-inflammation-and-lipid-metabolism-via-still-unknown-endogenous-apo-10%C3%A2-lycopenoids
#17
Catherine Caris-Veyrat, Ada L Garcia, Eric Reynaud, Renata Lucas, Gamze Aydemir, Ralph Rühl
Lycopene is the red pigment in tomatoes and tomato products and is an important dietary carotenoid found in the human organism. Lycopene-isomers, oxidative lycopene metabolites and apo-lycopenoids are found in the food matrix. Lycopene intake derived from tomato consumption is associated with alteration of lipid metabolism and a lower incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Lycopene is mainly described as a potent antioxidant but novel studies are shifting towards its metabolites and their capacity to mediate nuclear receptor signalling...
October 20, 2017: International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. Journal International de Vitaminologie et de Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052468/evaluation-of-the-content-of-tio2-nanoparticles-in-the-coatings-of-chewing-gums
#18
William Dudefoi, Hélène Terrisse, Aurelian Florin Popa, Eric Gautron, Bernard Humbert, Marie-Hélène Ropers
Titanium dioxide is a metal oxide used as a white pigment in many food categories, including confectionery. Due to differences in the mass fraction of nanoparticles contained in TiO2, the estimated intakes of TiO2 nanoparticles differ by a factor of 10 in the literature. To resolve this problem, a better estimation of the mass of nanoparticles present in food products is needed. In this study, we focused our efforts on chewing gum, which is one of the food products contributing most to the intake of TiO2. The coatings of four kinds of chewing gum, where the presence of TiO2 was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy, were extracted in aqueous phases...
October 20, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052440/polarographic-study-on-the-presence-of-antibiotics-in-food
#19
Emilio Bottari, Massimiliano Colombi, Chiara De Bernardis, Maria Rosa Festa, Vittorio Rampino
EU and Italian laws dealing for the presence of antibiotics or, more in general, drags in food established limits for different kinds of food. Suitable rules exist about the medical treatment of cattle in relation to the production of milk and meat. The adoption of a procedure to check the respect of the law limits is necessary. In this paper, the presence of different classes of antibiotics in milk and in homogenised meat is investigated. Generally, HPLC methods are applied for this purpose. In this paper, the application of polarographic analysis is studied and the results are compared with the chromatographic ones...
October 20, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052382/-research-progresses-and-formulation-development-of-natural-anti-mildew-agents-based-on-chinese-herbal-medicines
#20
REVIEW
Hai-Wei Wang, Guang-Yao Ying, Zhi-Xin Yang, Mei-Hua Yang, Jia-Jia Liu, Zhuo-Wen Fan, Wei-Jun Kong
Owing to the intrinsic factors and some extrinsic environmental conditions, many foods, agricultural products and Chinese materia medicas (CMMs), if not handled properly in the processes of growth, harvesting, processing and storage, can be easily contaminated by all kinds of molds to produce mycotoxins of serious toxicity, which will not only affect the quality, safety and effectiveness of CMMs, but also result in potential threatens to human and animal's health and life. Therefore, in recent decades, it has become the focus on how to prevent and control the foods, agricultural products and CMMs from being moldy and producing toxicity for scientific preservation...
April 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
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