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Food production

Lei Hongdou, Li Shiping, Li Hao
Sustainable agriculture ensures food security and prevents starvation. However, the need to meet the increasing food demands of the growing population has led to poor and unsustainable agricultural practices, which promote environmental degradation. Given the contributions of agricultural ecosystems to environmental pollution, we investigated the impact of the agricultural ecosystem on environmental pollution in China using time series data from 1960 to 2014. We employed several methods for econometric analysis including the unit root test, Johansen test of cointegration, Granger causality test, and vector error correction model...
June 17, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Ksenia Derina, Elena Korotkova, Yekaterina Taishibekova, Lyazat Salkeeva, Bohumil Kratochvil, Jiri Barek
The treatment of some inborn metabolism errors requires cholesterol substitution therapy. Cholesterol plays a vital role in the human body. Therefore, the majority of cholesterol determination techniques are targeted to blood and blood serum. Nevertheless, cholesterol determination in food is important as well. In this paper, cholesterol determination using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) in dairy products (e.g., milk, clotted cream, yogurt, butter, etc.) is reported with a novel nonenzymatic sensor based on diphosphonic acid of 1,4-diacetylglycoluril (DPADGU) as an electrode surface modifier...
June 16, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
David Renault, Hesham Yousef, Amr A Mohamed
Antibiotics have been increasingly used over the past decades for human medicine, food-animal agriculture, aquaculture, and plant production. A significant part of the active molecules of antibiotics can be released into the environment, in turn affecting ecosystem functioning and biogeochemical processes. At lower organizational scales, these substances affect bacterial symbionts of insects, with negative consequences on growth and development of juveniles, and population dynamics. Yet, the multiple alterations of cellular physiology and metabolic processes have remained insufficiently explored in insects...
June 7, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Shaghayegh Keshani Dokht, Zahra Emam Djomeh, Mohammad Saeid Yarmand, Morteza Fathi
This paper aims to investigate chemical composition, rheological behavior, antioxidant activity and functional properties of Cordia myxa mucilage (CMM). Response surface methodology (RSM) demonstrated that optimum conditions for CMM extraction were as follow: ultrasound power of 99.37 W, extraction temperature of 88.05 °C and solid to water ratio of 16.25 w/w. CMM had, on average, 77.51% carbohydrate, 5.86% total ash, 8.90% protein, 6.90% moisture, and 1.00% fat. Due to a high level of nutrients, CMM can be suggested as a value added by-product in food and pharmaceutical systems...
June 14, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
W Marty Blom, Anouska D Michelsen-Huisman, Harmieke van Os-Medendorp, Gert van Duijn, Mary-Lène de Zeeuw-Brouwer, Astrid Versluis, Jacqueline J M Castenmiller, Hubert P J M Noteborn, Astrid G Kruizinga, André C Knulst, Geert F Houben
BACKGROUND: Accidental allergic reactions to food are frequent, can be severe and even fatal. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the culprit food products and levels of unexpected allergens in accidental reactions. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted in adults (n=157) with a physician-confirmed diagnosed food allergy. During a 1-year follow up, 73 patients reported accidental allergic reactions and the culprit food products. Food samples received (51) were analyzed for a wide range of suspected non-ingredient allergens and the risk was quantified...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Benjamin Roenneke, Natalie Rosenfeldt, Sami M Derya, Jens F Novak, Kay Marin, Reinhard Krämer, Gerd M Seibold
BACKGROUND: α-D-Glucosylglycerol (αGG) has beneficial functions as a moisturizing agent in cosmetics and potential as a health food material, and therapeutic agent. αGG serves as compatible solute in various halotolerant cyanobacteria such as Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, which synthesizes αGG in a two-step reaction: The enzymatic condensation of ADP-glucose and glycerol 3-phosphate by GG-phosphate synthase (GGPS) is followed by the dephosphorylation of the intermediate by the GG-phosphate phosphatase (GGPP)...
June 16, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
Ioana Adriana Muntean, Ioana Corina Bocsan, Diana Deleanu
Wheat is the most commonly grown cereal. Immunological reaction to wheat may be IgE or T-cell- mediated. Asthma could be induced by inhaled flour or by exposure to allergens present in bakery products. In patients with IgE-mediated allergy to wheat proteins there is no specific therapy, except oral immunotherapy (OIT). There are few data regarding OIT with wheat protein in allergic patients. We present a case of a 32-yearold female patient, who worked for 5 years in wheat and bakery products industry, who developed an occupational asthma and chronic urticaria after flour inhalation or ingestion of foods that containit...
June 2018: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
Ruyu Yao, Michael Heinrich, Zigui Wang, Caroline S Weckerle
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Goji (fruits of Lycium barbarum L. and L. chinense Mill., Solanaceae) have been used as a traditional food and medicine for hundreds of years in Asian countries and are now consumed globally. Quality of herbal medicines is critical for safe use and has been shown to be affected by value chains. AIM OF THE STUDY: Using a value chain (VC) framework, we aim at understanding the influence of different VC types on goji quality and revenue of stakeholders...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Soosan Abdollahi, Mohammad Hossein Ghahremani, Neda Setayesh, Nasrin Samadi
The Lactococcus lactis is known as a probiotic bacterium and also as a producer of nisin. Nisin has been approved by related legal agencies to be used as an antimicrobial peptide in food preservation. In fact, the L. lactis is present in different food products along with other micro-organisms especially pathogenic bacteria. So, it is important to predict the behavior of nisin-producer strain in contact with other pathogens. In this regard, nisin gene expression and the level of secreted biologically active form of nisin by L...
June 13, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Fateme Akrami Mohajeri, Ali Misaghi, Hamidreza Gheisari, Afshin Akhondzadeh Basti, Assieh Amiri, Sayyed Razi Ghalebi, Zahra Derakhshan, Roohollah Dehghani Tafti
The effect of Zataria multiflora Boiss Essential oil (EO) on the growth, spore production, and citrinin production of Penicellium citrinum PTCC 5304 in the culture media as well as Iranian ultra-filtered white cheese in brine was investigated. Radial growth and spore production on the potato dextrose agar (PDA) were effectively inhibited by EO in a dose-dependent manner. At 200 ppm, the radial growth and sporulation declined by 92% and 100%, respectively. The growth was completely prevented at 400 ppm of EO on PDA and the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of the oil was estimated at 400 ppm...
June 13, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Dasel Wambua Mulwa Kaindi, Wambui Kogi-Makau, Godfrey Nsereko Lule, Bernd Kreikemeyer, Pierre Renault, Bassirou Bonfoh, Nize Otaru, Thomas Schmid, Leo Meile, Jan Hattendorf, Christoph Jans
Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius (Sii), a member of the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC), predominates as dairy-adapted and non-adapted variants in fermented dairy products (FDP) in East and West Africa. Epidemiologic data suggest an association with colorectal cancer for most SBSEC members, including Sii from Kenyan patients. Phylogenetic relationships of East African human (EAH) isolates to those of dairy and pathogenic origin were analysed to better estimate potential health implications via FDP consumption...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tatsuhiko Nagao, Yoshihito Arai, Mika Yamaoka, Fumika Komatsu, Hisashi Yagi, Hirokazu Suzuki, Takashi Ohshiro
Fucoidan is a hetero-sulfated polysaccharide found in brown algae and has received much attention as an ingredient in functional and health foods. The marine bacterial strain Luteolibacter algae H18 degrades fucoidan from Cladosiphon okamuranus. We purified the fucoidanase from a cell-free extract of L. algae H18, used it to decrease the molecular weight of deacetylated-fucoidan, determined the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the enzyme, and identified the gene involved in the degradation of fucoidan, fct114, in a draft genome sequence of strain H18...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Patrick M Shih
Humans have domesticated many plant species as indispensable sources of food, materials, and medicines. The dawning era of synthetic biology represents a means to further refine, redesign, and engineer crops to meet various societal and industrial needs. Current and future endeavors will utilize plants as the foundation of a bio-based economy through the photosynthetic production of carbohydrate feedstocks for the microbial fermentation of biofuels and bioproducts, with the end goal of decreasing our dependence on petrochemicals...
August 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Michael L Nuccio, Matthew Paul, Nicholas J Bate, Jonathan Cohn, Sean R Cutler
Since the dawn of modern biotechnology public and private enterprise have pursued the development of a new breed of drought tolerant crop products. After more than 20 years of research and investment only a few such products have reached the market. This is due to several technical and market constraints. The technical challenges include the difficulty in defining tractable single-gene trait development strategies, the logistics of moving traits from initial to commercial genetic backgrounds, and the disconnect between conditions in farmer's fields and controlled environments...
August 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Dongyang Liu, Hong Cheng, Rainer W Bussmann, Zhiyong Guo, Bo Liu, Chunlin Long
BACKGROUND: Chuxiong, known as "the City of Fungi," is rich in fungal resources and traditional knowledge related to fungal biodiversity. The local environment is an excellent habitat for a wide variety of edible fungi. In addition, the region is home to many ethnic minorities and especially the Yi ethnic group who has a long history for traditionally using fungi as food or medicine. The aims of this review are to provide up-to-date information on the knowledge about, and traditional management of, fungi in this area and give advice on future utilization and conservation...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
Weicong Qi, Xi Chen, Peihong Fang, Shaochuan Shi, Jingjing Li, Xintong Liu, Xiaoqian Cao, Na Zhao, Huiyuan Hao, Yajie Li, Yujie Han, Zhao Zhang
BACKGROUND: Rosa hybrida is a valuable ornamental, food and medicinal crop worldwide, but with relatively limited molecular marker resources, especially for flower-specific markers. In this study, we performed genomic and floral transcriptomic sequencing of modern rose. We obtained comprehensive nucleotide information, from which numerous potential simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were identified but were found to have high rates of amplification failure and PCR product redundancy...
June 15, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Abdullah A Al-Ghamdi, Hosam O Elansary
Salinity is one of the major agricultural problems that may threat food security and limit the agricultural lands expansion worldwide. Exploring novel tools controlling saline conditions and increase valuable secondary metabolites in the horticultural crops might have outstanding results that serve humanity in the current century. The current study explores the effects of weekly seaweed extracts (7 mL  L-1 ) and/or 5-aminolevulinic acid (3, 5 and 10 ppm) sprays on Asparagus aethiopicus plants subjected to saline stress conditions (2000 and 4000 ppm) for 6 weeks in two consecutive seasons of 2016 and 2017...
June 9, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Veysel Turan, Shahbaz Ali Khan, Mahmood-Ur-Rahman, Muhammad Iqbal, Pia Muhammad Adnan Ramzani, Maryam Fatima
Depleting aquifers, lack of planning and low socioeconomic status of Pakistani farmers have led them to use wastewater (WW) for irrigating their crops causing food contamination with heavy metals and ultimately negative effects on human health. This study evaluates the effects of chitosan (CH) and biochar (BC) on growth and nutritional quality of brinjal plant together with in situ immobilization of heavy metals in a soil polluted with heavy metals due to irrigation with wastewater (SPHIW) and further irrigated with the same WW...
June 12, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Seunghyung Lee, Young Mee Lee, Kyung-Hee Kim, Hyun Chul Kim, Choul-Ji Park, Jong-Won Park, Gyeong Eon Noh, Woo-Jin Kim, Hyung-Kyu Hwang
Unfavorable environmental conditions and inappropriate culture practices have increased the vulnerability of cultured fish to disease infection. Up to date many studies have aimed to determine a feeding regimen to maximize productivity; however, very little information on immune responses of cultured fish in response to underfeeding or overfeeding is available. Therefore, a preliminary study was conducted to evaluate effects of graded feeding levels (i.e., food availability) on growth performance and immune-related gene expression of juvenile olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)...
June 12, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Jonathan Huang, Brenda Eskenazi, Riana Bornman, Stephen Rauch, Jonathan Chevrier
BACKGROUND: Indoor residual spraying (IRS) of insecticides, conducted in low- and middle-income countries to control malaria, may result in high exposure to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), its breakdown product dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), or pyrethroids. Animal studies suggest in utero exposure to these chemicals may increase childhood infection frequency. OBJECTIVES: We investigated associations between maternal DDT/E and pyrethroid metabolite concentration and child infection associations in an IRS setting in which susceptibility factors are common and infections are leading causes of child morbidity and mortality...
June 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
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