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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163672/contribution-of-riboflavin-supply-pathways-to-vibrio-cholerae-in-different-environments
#1
Andrés Fuentes Flores, Ignacio Sepúlveda Cisternas, José Ignacio Vásquez Solis de Ovando, Alexia Torres, Víctor Antonio García-Angulo
Background: The waterborne diarrheagenic bacterium Vibrio cholerae, cause of the pandemic cholera disease, thrives in a variety of environments ranging from estuarine waters to the human intestinal tract. This species has two ways to obtain the essential micronutrient riboflavin, de novo biosynthesis and environmental uptake through the RibN importer. The way these functions interrelate to fulfill riboflavin needs in different conditions in this species is unknown. Results: This study analyzed the contributions of riboflavin biosynthesis and transport to the culturability of Vibrio cholerae in river and seawater in vitro and in the Caenorhabditis elegans nematode host model...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163452/the-opportunistic-pathogen-vibrio-vulnificus-produces-outer-membrane-vesicles-in-a-spatially-distinct-manner-related-to-capsular-polysaccharide
#2
Cheri M Hampton, Ricardo C Guerrero-Ferreira, Rachel E Storms, Jeannette V Taylor, Hong Yi, Paul A Gulig, Elizabeth R Wright
Vibrio vulnificus, a bacterial species that inhabits brackish waters, is an opportunistic pathogen of humans. V. vulnificus infections can cause acute gastroenteritis, invasive septicemia, tissue necrosis, and potentially death. Virulence factors associated with V. vulnificus include the capsular polysaccharide (CPS), lipopolysaccharide, flagellum, pili, and outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). The aims of this study were to characterize the morphology of V. vulnificus cells and the formation and arrangement of OMVs using cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162969/clinical-immunology-of-cholera-current-trends-and-directions-for-future-advancement
#3
Francesco Chiappelli, Allen Khakshooy, Nicole Balenton
Cholera remains a feared, aggressive, infectious and lethal disease today, despite several decades of intense research, concerted public health modalities designed to prevent, and to control outbreaks, availability of efficacious vaccines aimed at containing its contagious spread, and effective patient-centered medical interventions for reducing morbidity and mortality. Despite these advances, cholera still strikes communities around the world, especially in countries and regions of the globe where medical and nursing care cannot be as effectively proffered to the population at risk as in First World economies...
2017: Bioinformation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159689/antibacterial-and-antioxidant-metabolites-of-diaporthe-spp-isolated-from-flowers-of-melodorum-fruticosum
#4
Chutima Tanapichatsakul, Sakon Monggoot, Eleni Gentekaki, Patcharee Pripdeevech
Fifty-two strains of endophytic fungi were isolated from flowers of the medicinal plant Melodorum fruticosum. Seven genera were identified including Alternaria, Aspergillus, Colletotrichum, Diaporthe, Fusarium, Greeneria and Nigrospora. All strains were cultured for 30 days and further macerated in ethyl acetate solvent for 3 days. The obtained fungal extracts were examined for antibacterial activity using agar disc diffusion against nine pathogenic bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Vibrio cholerae and V...
November 20, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155937/nanoparticle-based-lateral-flow-biosensor-combined-with-multiple-cross-displacement-amplification-for-rapid-visual-and-sensitive-detection-of-vibrio-cholerae
#5
Yi Wang, Hui Li, Yan Wang, Lu Zhang, Jingyun Zhang, Jianguo Xu, Changyun Ye
Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae) is an important human pathogen that is responsible for cholera, a severe acute watery diarrhea. In the current study, a multiple cross displacement amplification (MCDA) coupled with amplicon detection by chromatographic lateral flow biosensor (LFB) method (MCDA-LFB) was successfully established and evaluated for identification of V. cholerae. A set of ten primers was designed specifically to recognize ten different regions of the V. cholerae-specific gene ompW. The optimized time and temperature conditions for the MCDA were 30 min at 63˚C...
November 16, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155327/expression-profiles-of-the-p38-mapk-signaling-pathway-from-chinese-shrimp-fenneropenaeus-chinensis-in-response-to-viral-and-bacterial-infections
#6
Yuying He, Wanlong Yao, Ping Liu, Jian Li, Qingyin Wang
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway plays an important role in cellular response to inflammatory cytokines, environmental stress and pathogenic infection, However, compared with mammals and insects, the potential function of p38 MAPK from Chinese shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis) in response to viruses and bacterial infection is limited. In the study, the immune responses of four genes MKK3, MKK4, p38 and ATF-2 from F. chinensis were investigated in defending against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), Vibrio anguillarum (V...
November 16, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154943/molecular-characterization-and-expression-analysis-of-a-novel-r-spondin-member-rspo2l-in-chinese-tongue-sole-cynoglossus-semilaevis
#7
Min Wei, Wen-Teng Xu, Hai-Long Li, Lei Wang, Yun-Ji Xiu, Ying-Ming Yang, Yang-Zhen Li, Fa-Zhen Zhao, Song-Lin Chen
Numerous studies suggest R-spondins (Rspos) plays a role in mammalian sex development and differentiation by activating WNT signaling pathways. However, Rspos are frequently less reported in teleosts. In this study, a molecular characterization and expression analysis was conducted with a new rspondin member in the Chinese tongue sole, rspondin2-like (rspo2l). The length of rspo2l cDNA is 1251 bp with 732 bp of coding sequence. A qRT-PCR analysis revealed that the transcription of rspo2l was distributed in various tissues, with high transcription levels in the liver, skin, and gills which might indicate a possible role in immunity...
November 14, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154715/virulence-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-vibrio-parahaemolyticus-isolates-from-seafood-from-three-developing-countries-and-of-worldwide-environmental-seafood-and-clinical-isolates-from-2000-to-2017
#8
Mohammad M Obaidat, Alaa E Bani Salman, Amira A Roess
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a leading cause of seafood-associated illness. This study investigated the prevalence, virulence, and antibiotic resistance of V. parahaemolyticus in three low- and middle-income countries. Freshly caught fish samples (n = 330) imported to Jordan from Yemen, India, and Egypt were tested. The overall prevalence of V. parahaemolyticus was 15% (95% confidence interval: 11 to 19%). Three isolates (6%) were positive for the thermostable direct hemolysin-related (trh) gene, and all isolates was negative for the thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh) gene...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152799/molecular-basis-for-the-differential-expression-of-the-global-regulator-viea-in-vibrio-cholerae-biotypes-directed-by-h-ns-leuo-and-quorum-sensing
#9
Julio C Ayala, Hongxia Wang, Jorge A Benitez, Anisia J Silva
VieA is a cyclic diguanylate phosphodiesterase that modulates biofilm development and motility in Vibrio cholerae O1 of the classical biotype. vieA is part of an operon encoding the VieSAB signal transduction pathway that is nearly silent in V. cholerae of the El Tor biotype. A DNA pull-down assay for proteins interacting with the vieSAB promoter identified the LysR-type regulator LeuO. We show that in classical biotype V. cholerae, LeuO cooperates with the nucleoid-associated protein H-NS to repress vieSAB transcription...
November 20, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151644/preparation-characterization-and-antimicrobial-properties-of-chitosan-silver-nanocomposites-films-against-fish-pathogenic-bacteria-and-fungi
#10
S H S Dananjaya, D C M Kulatunga, G I Godahewa, Chamilani Nikapitiya, Chulhong Oh, Madurani Edussuriya, Jehee Lee, Mahanama De Zoysa
Abstract: Development of nanostructured films using natural polymers and metals has become a considerable interest in various biomedical applications. Objective of the present study was to develop silver nano particles (AgNPs) embedded chitosan films with antimicrobial properties. Based on the Ag content, two types of chitosan silver nano films, named as CAgNfs-12 (12 mM) and CAgNfs-52 (52 mM) were prepared and characterized. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) images of two CAgNfs showed the circular AgNPs, which were uniformly embedded and distributed in the matrix of chitosan films...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150956/sewage-sludge-biochars-management-ecotoxicity-mobility-of-heavy-metals-and-soil-microbial-biomass
#11
Monika Mierzwa-Hersztek, Krzysztof Gondek, Agnieszka Klimkowicz-Pawlas, Agnieszka Baran, Tomasz Bajda
Production of biochar from sewage sludge may be a promising solution for sewage sludge management and improvement of soil properties, including carbon dioxide sequestration. The aim of the study was to compare the effects of biochars derived from different sewage sludges on soil physicochemical and biological properties, ecotoxicity and plant yield. Three biochars (produced at a temperature of 300 °C) were applied into sandy acid soil in doses of 0.5%, 1% and 2% (w/w). Depending on the kind and dose, the application of sewage sludge biochars into the soil caused diverse effects on the parameters of soil biological activity (microbial biomass, soil respiration, and value of metabolic quotient)...
November 18, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150510/characterization-of-vibrio-parahaemolyticus-and-vibrio-vulnificus-recovered-from-oysters-during-an-oyster-relay-study
#12
Sara Elmahdi, Salina Parveen, Sylvia Ossai, Ligia V DaSilva, Michael Jahncke, John Bowers, John Jacobs
Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vp) and Vibrio vulnificus (Vv) are naturally occurring estuarine bacteria and are the leading causes of seafood-associated infections and mortality in the USA. Though multiple-antibiotic resistant Vp and Vv have been reported resistance patterns in vibrios are not as well documented as other food-borne bacterial pathogens. Salinity relaying (SR) is a Post-Harvest Processing (PHP) treatment to reduce the abundance of these pathogens in shellfish harvested during the warmer months. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility (AMS), pathogenicity and genetic profiles of Vp and Vv recovered from oysters during an oyster relay study...
November 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149170/vibrio-parahaemolyticus-vtra-is-a-membrane-bound-regulator-and-is-activated-via-oligomerization
#13
Ryu Okada, Shigeaki Matsuda, Tetsuya Iida
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a Gram-negative pathogen that causes food-borne gastroenteritis. A major virulence determinant of the organism is a type III secretion system (T3SS2) encoded on a pathogenicity island, Vp-PAI. Vp-PAI gene expression is regulated by two transcriptional regulators, VtrA and VtrB, whose N-terminal regions share homology with an OmpR-family DNA-binding domain. VtrA activates the gene expression of VtrB, which in turn activates Vp-PAI gene expression; however, the mechanism of this transcriptional activation by VtrA is not well understood...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149072/different-inhibitory-potencies-of-oseltamivir-carboxylate-zanamivir-and-several-tannins-on-bacterial-and-viral-neuraminidases-as-assessed-in-a-cell-free-fluorescence-based-enzyme-inhibition-assay
#14
Stefanie Quosdorf, Anja Schuetz, Herbert Kolodziej
Neuraminidaseis a key enzyme in the life cycle of influenza viruses and is present in some bacterial pathogens. We here assess the inhibitory potency of plant tannins versus clinically used inhibitors on both a viral and a bacterial model neuraminidase by applying the 2'-(4-methylumbelliferyl)-α-d-N-acetylneuraminic acid (MUNANA)-based activity assay. A range of flavan-3-ols, ellagitannins and chemically defined proanthocyanidin fractions was evaluated in comparison to oseltamivir carboxylate and zanamivir for their inhibitory activities against viral influenza A (H1N1) and bacterial Vibrio cholerae neuraminidase (VCNA)...
November 17, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148593/first-isolation-of-vibrio-tapetis-and-an-atypical-strain-of-aeromonas-salmonicida-from-skin-ulcerations-in-common-dab-limanda-limanda-in-the-north-sea
#15
M Vercauteren, E De Swaef, A Declercq, L Bosseler, S Gulla, S Balboa, J L Romalde, L Devriese, H Polet, F Boyen, K Chiers, A Decostere
Skin ulcerations rank amongst the most prevalent lesions affecting wild common dab (Limanda limanda) with an increase in prevalence of up to 3.5% in the Belgian part of the North Sea. A complex aetiology of these ulcerations is suspected, and many questions remain on the exact factors contributing to these lesions. To construct the aetiological spectrum of skin ulcerations in flatfish, a one-day monitoring campaign was undertaken in the North Sea. Fifteen fish presented with one or more ulcerations on the pigmented and/or non-pigmented side...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147114/antibiotic-resistant-bacterial-isolates-from-captive-green-turtles-and-in-vitro-sensitivity-to-bacteriophages
#16
Alessandro Delli Paoli Carini, Ellen Ariel, Jacqueline Picard, Lisa Elliott
This study aimed to test multidrug resistant isolates from hospitalised green turtles (Chelonia mydas) and their environment in North Queensland, Australia, for in vitro susceptibility to bacteriophages. Seventy-one Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from green turtle eye swabs and water samples. Broth microdilution tests were used to determine antibiotic susceptibility. All isolates were resistant to at least two antibiotics, with 24% being resistant to seven of the eight antibiotics. Highest resistance rates were detected to enrofloxacin (77%) and ampicillin (69...
2017: International Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146843/complete-genome-sequences-of-vibrio-cholerae-specific-bacteriophages-24-and-x29
#17
Sudhakar G Bhandare, Andrew Warry, Richard D Emes, Steven P T Hooton, Paul A Barrow, Robert J Atterbury
The complete genomes of two Vibrio cholerae bacteriophages of potential interest for cholera bacteriophage (phage) therapy were sequenced and annotated. The genome size of phage 24 is 44,395 bp encoding 71 putative proteins, and that of phage X29 is 41,569 bp encoding 68 putative proteins.
November 16, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146498/synthesis-and-characterization-of-silver-nanoparticles-using-gelidium-amansii-and-its-antimicrobial-property-against-various-pathogenic-bacteria
#18
Arivalagan Pugazhendhi, Desika Prabakar, Jaya Mary Jacob, Indira Karuppusamy, Rijuta Ganesh Saratale
Microfouling is evolving at a fast rate causing augmented mortality rates and damage worldwide. Until now, several remedial measures have been exploited to overcome microfouling, amongst them nanoparticles play a superior role. Currently, green synthesized nanoparticles have been centered owing to its eco-friendly, cost effectively and non-toxic nature which has also increased its industrial applications (biomedicine, food and textile). In the present research Silver Nanoparticles (Ag NPs) synthesized using marine red algae Gelidium amansii...
November 13, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146450/identification-and-expression-of-complement-component-c8%C3%AE-c8%C3%AE-and-c8%C3%AE-gene-in-half-smooth-tongue-sole-cynoglossus-semilaevis-and-c8%C3%AE-recombinant-protein-antibacterial-activity-analysis
#19
Guang Yang, Yunji Xiu, Yadong Chen, Li Bai, Zhenxia Sha
Complement component C8, which mediates membrane attack complex formation and bacterial lysis, plays important roles in the complement system. The cDNA sequences of the C8α, C8β and C8γ genes were cloned from half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis). Full-length cDNA of CsC8α (C8α of C. semilaevis), CsC8β and CsC8γ was 1990, 2219 and 886 bp, respectively, which contained open reading frames of 1797, 1749 and 666 bp, encoding 598, 582 and 221 amino acids, respectively. The deduced proteins of CsC8α, CsC8β and CsC8γ showed the closest amino acid similarity to C8α (73%) of Siniperca chuatsi, C8β (76%) of Oryzias latipes and C8γ (72%) of Takifugu rubripes, respectively...
November 13, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146444/snps-in-the-toll1-receptor-of-litopenaeus-vannamei-are-associated-with-immune-response
#20
Defu Yao, Huimin Su, Jinghua Zhu, Xianliang Zhao, Jude Juventus Aweya, Fan Wang, Mingqi Zhong, Yueling Zhang
Tolls and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important regulators in the innate immune system and their genetic variations usually affect the host's susceptibility/resistance to pathogen infections. In this study, we report on the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of Toll1 in Litopenaeus vannamei (LvToll1) and how this is associated with immune response. PCR-DGGE analysis revealed genetic polymorphisms in LvToll1 at both the genomic DNA (gDNA) and cDNA levels. Using high-throughput sequencing, 223 SNPs were identified at the gDNA level, of which 145 were non-synonymous SNP (nsSNP), with 3 nsSNPs having frequency over 1%...
November 13, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
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