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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213899/human-influence-and-biotic-homogenization-drive-the-distribution-of-escherichia-coli-virulence-genes-in-natural-habitats
#1
Adriana Cabal, Joaquin Vicente, Julio Alvarez, Jose Angel Barasona, Mariana Boadella, Lucas Dominguez, Christian Gortazar
Cattle are the main reservoirs for Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), the only known zoonotic intestinal E. coli pathotype. However, there are other intestinal pathotypes that can cause disease in humans, whose presence has been seldom investigated. Thus, our aim was to identify the effects of anthropic pressure and of wild and domestic ungulate abundance on the distribution and diversity of the main human E. coli pathotypes and nine of their representative virulence genes (VGs). We used a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) for the direct detection and quantification of the genus-specific gene uidA, nine E...
February 18, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211788/hemolytic-uremic-syndrome-complicated-by-clostridium-septicum-bacteremia-and-new-onset-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-report-of-a-case%C3%A2
#2
Anna C Iddings, Asha N Shenoi, Alba Morales Pozzo, Stefan G Kiessling
We report the unusual case of a 5-year-old male hospitalized for management of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and new-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) who developed acute renal injury secondary to hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). He was diagnosed with Shiga toxin-producing entero-hemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) 0157:H7-positive HUS 48 hours after being diagnosed with new-onset T1DM/DKA. His hospital course was complicated by Clostridium septicum sepsis with colonic perforation. This patient's diagnosis of new-onset T1DM just prior to HUS is novel...
February 17, 2017: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207308/prevalence-of-listeria-monocytogenes-in-retail-lightly-pickled-vegetables-and-its-successful-control-at-processing-plants
#3
Masumi Taguchi, Masashi Kanki, Yuko Yamaguchi, Hideichi Inamura, Yosuke Koganei, Tetsuya Sano, Hiromi Nakamura, Hiroshi Asakura
Incidences of food poisoning traced to nonanimal food products have been increasingly reported. One of these was a recent large outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 infection from the consumption of lightly pickled vegetables, indicating the necessity of imposing hygienic controls during manufacturing. However, little is known about the bacterial contamination levels in these minimally processed vegetables. Here we examined the prevalence of STEC, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes in 100 lightly pickled vegetable products manufactured at 55 processing factories...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207302/characteristics-of-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-o157-in-slaughtered-reindeer-from-northern-finland
#4
Claudio Zweifel, Lisa Fierz, Nicole Cernela, Sauli Laaksonen, Maria Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Roger Stephan
Fecal samples collected from 470 slaughtered reindeer 6 to 7 months of age were screened by real-time PCR (after enrichment) for Shiga toxin genes (stx) and then for Escherichia coli serogroup O157. Shiga toxin genes were found frequently (>30% of samples), and serogroup O157 was detected in 20% of the stx-positive samples. From these samples, a total of 25 E. coli O157:H(-) isolates (nonmotile but PCR positive for fliCH7) were obtained. Twenty-four of these E. coli O157:H(-) isolates did not ferment sorbitol and originated from one geographic area...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199149/a-genetic-method-to-evaluate-the-prevalence-of-unique-dna-profiles-between-sequential-ground-beef-batches
#5
G Peters, B Cleveland, J Higgins, F Butler, C Meghen
The delineation of ground beef batches has implications for the management of product disposition policies in the event of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli contamination. Analysis of individual contributor animal-specific DNA profiles can provide valuable empirical data for understanding the dynamics of ground meat production processes and can act as a surrogate for cross-contamination. A genetic method was developed for characterizing the source raw material flow and carryover between discrete batches of ground beef in a large-scale commercial beef grinding operation...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199148/presence-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-escherichia-coli-in-ready-to-eat-foods-in-shaanxi-china
#6
Allah Bux Baloch, Hua Yang, Yuqing Feng, Meili Xi, Qian Wu, Qinhao Yang, Jingsi Tang, Xiangxiang He, Yingping Xiao, Xiaodong Xia
The aim of this study was to determine the presence and characteristics of Escherichia coli in ready-to-eat (RTE) foods. A total of 300 RTE foods samples were collected in Shaanxi Province, People's Republic of China: 50 samples of cooked meat, 165 samples of vegetable salad, 50 samples of cold noodles, and 35 samples of salted boiled peanuts. All samples were collected during summer (in July to October) 2011 and 2012 and surveyed for the presence of E. coli . E. coli isolates recovered were classified by phylogenetic typing using a PCR assay...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199145/characterization-and-virulence-potential-of-serogroup-o113-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-strains-isolated-from-beef-and-cattle-in-the-united-states
#7
Peter Feng, Sabine Delannoy, David W Lacher, Joseph M Bosilevac, Patrick Fach
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) of serotype O113:H21 have caused severe diseases but are unusual in that they do not produce the intimin protein required for adherence to intestinal epithelial cells. Strains of serogroup O113 are one of the most common STEC found in ground beef and beef products in the United States, but their virulence potential is unknown. We used a microarray to characterize 65 O113 strains isolated in the United States from ground beef, beef trim, cattle feces, and fresh spinach...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199144/attachment-of-13-types-of-foodborne-bacteria-to-jalape%C3%A3-o-and-serrano-peppers-and-antibacterial-effect-of-roselle-calyx-extracts-sodium-hypochlorite-colloidal-silver-and-acetic-acid-against-these-foodborne-bacteria-on-peppers
#8
Esmeralda Rangel-Vargas, Carlos A Gómez-Aldapa, Reyna N Falfan-Cortes, María L Rodríguez-Marín, Angélica Godínez-Oviedo, Otilio A Acevedo-Sandoval, Javier Castro-Rosas
Chili peppers are a very important crop in Mexico. However, these peppers have been associated with Salmonella infection outbreaks in the United States, and Salmonella and diarrheagenic Escherichia coli pathotypes have been isolated from jalapeño and serrano peppers in Mexico. To decrease microbial contamination of fruits and vegetables, chemical agents are commonly used; however, chemical agents used to eliminate pathogenic bacteria on vegetables have a limited antimicrobial effect. Roselle ( Hibiscus sabdariffa ) calyces have been reported to have an antimicrobial effect on pathogenic bacteria...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198690/thrombotic-microangiopathies-similar-presentations-different-therapies
#9
REVIEW
Gerald B Appel
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, Shiga toxin hemolytic uremic syndrome, atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome, and antiphospholipid syndrome are thrombotic microangiopathies that present similarly but arise from different causes. Management depends on distinguishing them promptly and providing targeted therapy.
February 2017: Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197720/single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-in-the-whole-genome-sequence-data-of-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-h-strains-by-cultivation
#10
Eiji Yokoyama, Shinichiro Hirai, Taichiro Ishige, Satoshi Murakami
Nine Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7/H- (O157) strains were serially cultured three times on LB agar plates. After each sub-culture, five colonies were picked for DNA isolation and whole genome sequence (WGS) analysis. After exclusion of possible recombination-related SNPs, 11, 9, and 34 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected in genes in the backbone, O-island, and mobile elements gene categories. This suggested that those SNPs due to cultivation could influence the threshold value set for molecular epidemiological studies of O157...
February 14, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191041/comparative-genomic-analysis-of-shiga-toxin-producing-and-non-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-o157-isolated-from-outbreaks-in-korea
#11
Taesoo Kwon, Won Kim, Seung-Hak Cho
BACKGROUND: The Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 strain NCCP15739 and non-STEC O157 strain NCCP15738 were isolated from outbreaks in Korea. We characterized NCCP15739 and NCCP15738 by genome sequencing and a comparative genomic analysis using two additional strains, E. coli K-12 substr. MG1655 and O157:H7 EDL933. RESULTS: Using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform and the RAST server, the whole genomes of NCCP15739 and NCCP15738 were obtained and annotated...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180952/endothelial-dysfunction-during-long-term-follow-up-in-children-with-stec-hemolytic-uremic-syndrome
#12
Martin Kreuzer, Laura Sollmann, Stephan Ruben, Maren Leifheit-Nestler, Dagmar-Christiane Fischer, Lars Pape, Dieter Haffner
BACKGROUND: Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC)-associated hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) is a major cause of acute kidney injury (AKI), especially in children. Its long-term outcome with respect to endothelial damage remains largely elusive. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study in 26 children who had suffered from STEC-HUS in the past and achieved a complete recovery of renal function (eGFR >90 ml/min/1.73 m(2)). Skin microcirculation after local heating was assessed by laser Doppler fluximetry, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), carotid intima media thickness (cIMT), 24-h ambulatory blood pressure, and angiopoietin (Ang) 1 and 2 serum levels after a median follow-up period of 6...
February 8, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178427/pathogenesis-of-colitis-in-germ-free-mice-infected-with-ehec-o157-h7
#13
K A Eaton, C Fontaine, D I Friedman, N Conti, C J Alteri
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are strains of E. coli that express Shiga toxins (Stx) and cause hemorrhagic colitis. In some cases, disease can progress to hemolytic uremic syndrome, a potentially fatal form of kidney disease. Both enteric and renal disease are associated with the expression of stx genes, which are often carried on lysogenic phage. Toxin is expressed following induction and conversion of the phage to lytic growth. The authors previously used a germ-free mouse model to demonstrate that toxin gene expression is enhanced during growth in vivo and that renal disease is dependent on both prophage induction and expression of Stx2...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178155/complement-mediated-thrombotic-microangiopathy-secondary-to-sepsis-induced-disseminated-intravascular-coagulation-successfully-treated-with-eculizumab-a-case-report
#14
Tomohiro Abe, Akira Sasaki, Taichiro Ueda, Yoshitaka Miyakawa, Hidenobu Ochiai
Secondary thrombotic microangiopathies (TMAs) are induced by several underlying conditions; most are resolved by treating background disease. Eculizumab is a human monoclonal antibody that blocks the final stage of the complement system and effectively treats atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS). In this report, we present a patient with TMA secondary to sepsis- induced coagulopathy, who was successfully treated with eculizumab.A 44-year-old woman, who had no special medical history or familial history of TMAs, was admitted on suspicion of septic shock...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176471/subclinical-atypical-haemolytic-uremic-syndrome-relapse-following-discontinuation-of-eculizumab
#15
REVIEW
Shi Zhou Choo, Fiona Brown
A 25-year-old man presented with microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia and acute kidney injury. With a normal ADAMTS-13 level, negative faecal shiga-toxin test and strong family history of atypical haemolytic uremic syndrome, he was commenced on eculizumab to good clinical response. Subsequent genetic testing revealed a heterozygous complement factor H mutation. Eculizumab was discontinued after 44 months of treatment, and he relapsed within 6 months, with the first sign being downtrending haptoglobin levels, with no other markers of haemolysis or thrombocytopaenia, 5 weeks prior to development of acute kidney injury...
February 2017: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167125/pma-lamp-for-rapid-detection-of-escherichia-coli-and-shiga-toxins-from-viable-but-non-culturable-state
#16
Muxia Yan, Ling Xu, Hua Jiang, Zhenwen Zhou, Shishui Zhou, Li Zhang
In exposure to outer pressure, microorganisms are capable of entry into the Viable But Non-Culturable (VBNC) state, and thus survive under various elimination processing. The survival microorganisms may yield negative results on culturing, and cause false negative for this golden standard methodology. In this study, a novel PMA-LAMP assay on the detection of Enterohemorrhage E. coli and shiga toxins has been developed and evaluated, with further application on a number of food borne E. coli strains. LAMP primers were designed on the target of rfbe for Enterohemorrhage E...
February 3, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165371/protection-against-shiga-toxins
#17
REVIEW
Simona Kavaliauskiene, Anne Berit Dyve Lingelem, Tore Skotland, Kirsten Sandvig
Shiga toxins consist of an A-moiety and five B-moieties able to bind the neutral glycosphingolipid globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) on the cell surface. To intoxicate cells efficiently, the toxin A-moiety has to be cleaved by furin and transported retrogradely to the Golgi apparatus and to the endoplasmic reticulum. The enzymatically active part of the A-moiety is then translocated to the cytosol, where it inhibits protein synthesis and in some cell types induces apoptosis. Protection of cells can be provided either by inhibiting binding of the toxin to cells or by interfering with any of the subsequent steps required for its toxic effect...
February 3, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161846/genotypic-analysis-of-virulence-genes-and-antimicrobial-profile-of-diarrheagenic-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-diseased-lambs-in-iran
#18
Reza Ghanbarpour, Nasrin Askari, Masoud Ghorbanpour, Yahya Tahamtan, Khoobyar Mashayekhi, Narjes Afsharipour, Nasim Darijani
The aim of the present study was to determine the analysis of virulence genes and antimicrobial profile of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli isolated from diseased lambs. Two hundred ninety E. coli isolates were recovered from 300 rectal swabs of diarrheic lambs and were confirmed by biochemical tests. The pathotype determination was done according to the presence of genes including f5, f41, LTI, STI, bfp, ipaH, stx 1 , stx 2 , eae, ehlyA, cnf 1 , cnf 2 , cdIII, cdIV, and f17 by PCR method. Sixty-six isolates (23...
February 4, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161162/invited-review-anti-adhesive-properties-of-bovine-oligosaccharides-and-bovine-milk-fat-globule-membrane-associated-glycoconjugates-against-bacterial-food-enteropathogens
#19
T Douëllou, M C Montel, D Thevenot Sergentet
The prevalence of the main raw milk and raw milk-derived dairy product enteropathogens (Campylobacter, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, Listeria, and Salmonella) is higher than the number of epidemiological cases related to ingesting these foodstuffs. Bovine milk oligosaccharides and milk fat globule membrane (MFGM)-linked glycoconjugates interact with foodborne enteropathogens to inhibit their adhesion to intestinal cells and tissues. This review examines the main mechanisms and strategies used by enteropathogens to adhere to their target, details the anti-adhesive properties of MFGM against enteropathogens and enterotoxins, assesses the integrity of bacteria-MFGM complexes during dairy product manufacture and digestion, and discusses the potential for using these macromolecules and glycoconjugates in foods for public health...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158302/host-cell-interactions-of-outer-membrane-vesicle-associated-virulence-factors-of-enterohemorrhagic-escherichia-coli-o157-intracellular-delivery-trafficking-and-mechanisms-of-cell-injury
#20
Martina Bielaszewska, Christian Rüter, Andreas Bauwens, Lilo Greune, Kevin-André Jarosch, Daniel Steil, Wenlan Zhang, Xiaohua He, Roland Lloubes, Angelika Fruth, Kwang Sik Kim, M Alexander Schmidt, Ulrich Dobrindt, Alexander Mellmann, Helge Karch
Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are important tools in bacterial virulence but their role in the pathogenesis of infections caused by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157, the leading cause of life-threatening hemolytic uremic syndrome, is poorly understood. Using proteomics, electron and confocal laser scanning microscopy, immunoblotting, and bioassays, we investigated OMVs secreted by EHEC O157 clinical isolates for virulence factors cargoes, interactions with pathogenetically relevant human cells, and mechanisms of cell injury...
February 2017: PLoS Pathogens
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