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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329518/the-use-of-eculizumab-in-gemcitabine-induced-thrombotic-microangiopathy
#1
Vinod Krishnappa, Mohit Gupta, Haikoo Shah, Abhijit Das, Natthavat Tanphaichitr, Robert Novak, Rupesh Raina
BACKGROUND: Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) secondary to gemcitabine therapy (GiTMA) is a very rare pathology that carries a poor prognosis, with nearly half of the cases progressing to end stage renal disease. GiTMA is most commonly associated with adenocarcinomas, most notably pancreatic cancers. The mainstay of management is withdrawal of the offending drug and supportive care. Plasmapheresis has a limited role and hemodialysis may help in the management of fluid overload secondary to renal failure...
January 12, 2018: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320233/antibacterial-activities-of-hibiscus-sabdariffa-extracts-and-chemical-sanitizers-directly-on-green-leaves-contaminated-with-foodborne-pathogens
#2
Carlos A Gómez-Aldapa, Esmeralda Rangel-Vargas, Ma Refugio Torres-Vitela, Angélica Villarruel-López, Otilio A Acevedo-Sandoval, Alberto J Gordillo-Martínez, Angélica Godínez-Oviedo, Javier Castro-Rosas
Leafy greens have been associated with foodborne disease outbreaks in different countries. To decrease microbial contamination of leafy greens, chemical agents are commonly used; however, a number of studies have shown these agents to have limited antimicrobial effect against pathogenic bacteria on vegetables. The objective of this study was to compare the antibacterial effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx extracts (water, methanol, acetone, and ethyl acetate), sodium hypochlorite, acetic acid, and colloidal silver against foodborne bacteria on leafy greens...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300761/investigation-of-prevalence-of-free-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-stec-specific-bacteriophages-and-its-correlation-with-stec-bacterial-hosts-in-a-produce-growing-area-in-salinas-california
#3
Yen-Te Liao, Irwin A Quintela, Kimberly Nguyen, Alexandra Salvador, Michael B Cooley, Vivian C H Wu
Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) causes approximately 265,000 illnesses and 3,600 hospitalizations annually and is highly associated with animal contamination due to the natural reservoir of ruminant gastrointestinal tracts. Free STEC-specific bacteriophages against STEC strains are also commonly isolated from fecal-contaminated environment. Previous studies have evaluated the correlation between the prevalence of STEC-specific bacteriophages and STEC strains to improve animal-associated environment. However, the similar information regarding free STEC-specific bacteriophages prevalence in produce growing area is lacking...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286298/simple-purification-of-nicotiana-benthamiana-produced-recombinant-colicins-high-yield-recovery-of-purified-proteins-with-minimum-alkaloid-content-supports-the-suitability-of-the-host-for-manufacturing-food-additives
#4
Anett Stephan, Simone Hahn-Löbmann, Fred Rosche, Mirko Buchholz, Anatoli Giritch, Yuri Gleba
Colicins are natural non-antibiotic bacterial proteins with a narrow spectrum but an extremely high antibacterial activity. These proteins are promising food additives for the control of major pathogenic Shiga toxin-producing E. coli serovars in meats and produce. In the USA, colicins produced in edible plants such as spinach and leafy beets have already been accepted by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) as food-processing antibacterials through the GRAS (generally recognized as safe) regulatory review process...
December 29, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284205/pathogenic-and-phylogenetic-characteristics-of-non-o157-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-isolates-from-retail-meats-in-south-korea
#5
June Bong Lee, Dalmuri Han, Hyung Tae Lee, Seon Mi Wi, Jeong Hoon Park, Jeong Woo Jo, Young-Jae Cho, Tae-Wook Hahn, Sunjin Lee, Byunghak Kang, Hyo Sun Kwak, Jonghyun Kim, Jang Won Yoon
Herein, we report the pathogenic and phylogenetic characteristics of seven Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) isolates from 434 retail meats in Korea during 2006-2012. The experimental analyses revealed that all the isolates (i) were identified as non-O157 STEC, including O91:H14 (3 isolates), O121:H10 (2), O91:H21 (1), and O18:H20 (1), (ii) carried diverse Stx subtype genes (stx1, stx2c, stx2e, or stx1+stx2b) whose expression levels were varied strain by strain, and (iii) lacked the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) pathogenicity island, a major virulence factor of STEC, but possessed one or more alternative virulence genes encoding cytotoxins (Cdt and SubAB) and/or adhesins (Saa, Iha, and EcpA)...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279448/comparison-of-three-molecular-subtyping-methods-among-o157-and-non-o157-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-isolates-from-japanese-cattle
#6
Hiromi Nakamura, Atsushi Iguchi, Tomofumi Maehara, Kyohei Fujiwara, Atsushi Fujiwara, Jun Ogasawara
To determine the infection source, route, and extent of outbreak, it is important to subtype Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) isolates belonging to the same serotype for clustering into clonally related groups. In this study, we compared three molecular subtyping methods, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA), using O157 and non-O157 STEC isolated from Japanese beef cattle. A total of 73 STEC isolates belonging to 9 O-serogroups were used...
December 26, 2017: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274486/tellurite-resistance-profiles-and-performance-of-different-chromogenic-agars-for-detection-of-non-o157-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli
#7
Ruyue Fan, Xiangning Bai, Shanshan Fu, Yanmei Xu, Hui Sun, Hong Wang, Yanwen Xiong
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are globally important food-borne pathogens. The isolation of non-O157 STEC is a significant public health challenge due to the dramatic diversity of their phenotypes and genotypes. In the present study, 476 non-O157 STEC strains representing 95 different O-serogroups were used to evaluate tellurite resistance and the performance of 12 different chromogenic agars. Of 476 strains, only 108 (22.7%) strains showed the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for potassium tellurite being higher than 4μg/ml, and 96 (20...
December 17, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273508/prevalence-quantification-and-isolation-of-pathogenic-shiga-toxin-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-along-the-production-and-supply-chain-of-pork-around-hubei-province-of-china
#8
Sher Bahadar Khan, Geng Zou, Ran Xiao, Yuting Cheng, Zia Ur Rehman, Sher Ali, Atta Muhammad Memon, Shah Fahad, Irshad Ahmad, Rui Zhou
Shiga toxin Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 is an important zoonotic food borne pathogen causing gastroenteritis that may lead to life threatening hemorragic colitis (HC) and hemorrhagic uremic syndrome (HUS). 325 meat and tissue samples were tested for enumeration of O157:H7 strains using most probable number (MPN)-PCR targeting their specific genes flicH7 and rfbO157 followed by isolation, sereotyping and pathogenicity testing. The overall prevalence of O157:H7 was 41.3% (134/325) along the production and supply chain of pork (PSCP), being higher in supply chain (59%, 118/200) as compared to pig farms (12...
December 19, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261025/free-ranging-synanthropic-birds-ardea-alba-and-columba-livia-domestica-as-carriers-of-salmonella-spp-and-diarrheagenic-escherichia-coli-in-the-vicinity-of-an-urban-zoo
#9
Mirela C V de Oliveira, Beatriz Q Camargo, Marcos P V Cunha, Andre Becker Saidenberg, Rodrigo H F Teixeira, Carlos E C Matajira, Luisa Z Moreno, Vasco T M Gomes, Ana P G Christ, Mikaela R F Barbosa, Maria I Z Sato, Andrea M Moreno, Terezinha Knöbl
The presence of free-ranging urban birds is a risk factor for transmitting pathogens to captive animals and humans alike, including Salmonella spp. and diarrheagenic Escherichia coli. Cloacal swabs from 156 synanthropic Great egrets (Ardea alba) and feral pigeons (Columba livia domestica) that inhabit the surroundings of an urban zoo were processed for the identification of Salmonella spp. and diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes. Bacterial species identification and genotypic characterization employed the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry and PCR techniques, respectively, comparing their phylogenetic profiles through amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis...
December 20, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260747/-identification-of-shiga-toxin-in-patients-with-acute-intestinal-infections-in-the-presence-of-mono-and-mixed-o-antigens-of-pathogens
#10
O F Belaia, Yu V Yudina, E V Volchkova, O A Payevskaya, Yu A Belaya, N M Gyulazyan, S N Zuyevskaya
AIM: To investigate the time course of changes in the detection rates and levels of Shiga toxin antigen (STA) in their stool and middle-molecule circulating immune complexes (CICs) containing IgG (IgG CIC) in patients with acute intestinal infections (AIIs) in the presence of the body's circulation of mono- and mixed-LPS/O-antigens of intestinal pathogens. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 147 patients aged 15 to 55 years who had been hospitalized with AIIs were examined...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259822/efficacy-of-a-bovine-colostrum-and-egg-based-intervention-in-acute-childhood-diarrhoea-in-guatemala-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#11
James T Gaensbauer, Mario A Melgar, Diva M Calvimontes, Molly M Lamb, Edwin J Asturias, Ingrid L Contreras-Roldan, Samuel R Dominguez, Christine C Robinson, Stephen Berman
Background: Treatments for paediatric diarrhoeal disease are limited. We assessed the impact of a bovine colostrum and egg-based treatment designed to reduce diarrhoea duration through non-specific and pathogen-directed mechanisms in children. Methods: Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of PTM202, derived from bovine colostrum and hyperimmune hen's egg on the duration of acute diarrhoeal disease in Guatemalan children. PTM202 contains specific immunoglobulins that target rotavirus, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Shiga toxin-producing E...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259142/correction-for-jandhyala-et-al-activation-of-the-classical-mitogen-activated-protein-kinases-is-part-of-the-shiga-toxin-induced-ribotoxic-stress-response-and-may-contribute-to-shiga-toxin-induced-inflammation
#12
Dakshina M Jandhyala, Amrita Ahluwalia, Jennifer J Schimmel, Arlin B Rogers, John M Leong, Cheleste M Thorpe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248444/excitotoxicity-in-encephalopathy-associated-with-stec-o-157-infection
#13
Shigenobu Ishida, Kumi Yasukawa, Mai Koizumi, Katsuhiro Abe, Nozomi Hirai, Takafumi Honda, Hiroshi Sakuma, Hiroko Tada, Jun-Ichi Takanashi
Cytokines play an important role in the pathogenesis of the severe complications of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infection, such as hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and acute encephalopathy. A 3-year-old boy with acute encephalopathy associated with STEC O-157 HUS showed increased levels of IL-6 and IL-10, which normalized after methylprednisolone pulse therapy, and additionally exhibited a transient increase of glutamine on MR spectroscopy. This finding suggests that excitotoxicity, in addition to hypercytokinemia, may play an important role in the pathogenesis of HUS encephalopathy...
December 13, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248018/an-outbreak-of-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-associated-with-contaminated-salad-leaves-epidemiological-genomic-and-food-trace-back-investigations
#14
A F W Mikhail, C Jenkins, T J Dallman, T Inns, A I C Martín, A Fox, P Cleary, R Elson, J Hawker
In August 2015, Public Health England detected an outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serotype O157:H7 caused by contaminated salad leaves in a mixed leaf prepacked salad product from a national retailer. The implicated leaves were cultivated at five different farms and the zoonotic source of the outbreak strain was not determined. In March 2016, additional isolates from new cases were identified that shared a recent common ancestor with the outbreak strain. A case-case study involving the cases identified in 2016 revealed that ovine exposures were associated with illness (n = 16; AOR 8·24; 95% CI 1·55-39·74)...
December 17, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236304/enterovirus-detection-in-patients-with-acute-gastroenteritis-in-switzerland
#15
Rainer Gosert, Ulrich Heininger, Hans H Hirsch
Acute gastroenteritis (GE) has a major impact on morbidity and mortality worldwide, yet comprehensive data regarding infectious agents including enteroviruses are scarce. We hypothesized that enteroviruses constitute a significant cause of acute GE. We analyzed 677 stool samples from 504 patients, which had been submitted for suspected infectious GE. 0.2 ml of stool suspension was extracted using the Abbott m2000 sp robot and analysed by multiplex nucleic acid testing (NAT) using the Luminex xTAG gastrointestinal pathogen panel (GPP) as well as by specific NATs detecting enteroviruses and polioviruses...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230401/shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-o157-shedding-dynamics-in-an-australian-beef-herd
#16
Christina Ahlstrom, Petra Muellner, Geraldine Lammers, Meghan Jones, Sophie Octavia, Ruiting Lan, Jane Heller
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 is an important foodborne pathogen that can be transmitted to humans both directly and indirectly from the feces of beef cattle, its primary reservoir. Numerous studies have investigated the shedding dynamics of E. coli O157 by beef cattle; however, the spatiotemporal trends of shedding are still not well understood. Molecular tools can increase the resolution through the use of strain typing to explore transmission dynamics within and between herds and identify strain-specific characteristics that may influence pathogenicity and spread...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225287/lysogenisation-of-shiga-toxin-encoding-bacteriophage-represses-cell-motility
#17
Shoichi Mitsunaka, Naoki Sudo, Yasuhiko Sekine
Bacteriophages are genetic elements that play key roles in the evolution and diversification of bacterial genomes. The Shiga toxin (Stx)-encoding phage plays an important role in the horizontal transfer of the stx gene. However, the influence of the Stx phage integration on the physiological properties and gene expression pattern of the host have not been clearly resolved. In this study, we constructed the Sp5 lysogen through lysogenisation of E. coli K-12 by Sp5, an Stx2 phage in enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) O157:H7 Sakai, and examined the effect of the resulting lysogen on cell motility under various growth conditions...
December 8, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217302/c-source-metabolic-profilings-of-foodborne-shiga-toxin-producing-e-coli-match-serogroup-differentiations-and-highlight-functional-adaptations
#18
Stéphane Kerangart, Benoit Cournoyer, Estelle Loukiadis
The tropism of pathogenic STEC for foodstuffs and cattle reservoir is related to functional specializations. An investigation of C-source utilization patterns among and between STEC serogroups was performed using omnilog phenotypic microarrays (OM). OM functional groupings were compared with STEC phylogroups, seropathotypes, EFSA's molecular risk assessment groups and serogroups. OM INT reduction activities of 37 STEC strains growing on 190 C-substrates were compared. Each strain had its own specific C-utilization profile but 23% of the substrates was used by all strains, 47% by none, and 30% was variably metabolized...
December 4, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216383/genetic-susceptibility-to-hemolytic-uremic-syndrome-after-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-stec-infection-a-centers-for-disease-control-and-prevention-cdc-foodnet-study
#19
Asha R Kallianpur, Yuki Bradford, Rajal K Mody, Katie N Garman, Nicole Comstock, Sarah L Lathrop, Carol Lyons, Amy Saupe, Katie Wymore, Jeffrey A Canter, Lana M Olson, Amanda Palmer, Timothy F Jones
Background: Post-diarrheal hemolytic-uremic syndrome (D+HUS) following Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infection is a serious condition lacking specific treatment. Host immune dysregulation and genetic susceptibility to complement hyperactivation are implicated in non-STEC-related HUS. However, genetic susceptibility to D+HUS remains largely uncharacterized. Methods: Patients with culture-confirmed STEC diarrhea, identified through the CDC FoodNet surveillance system (2007-2012), were serotyped and classified by laboratory and/or clinical criteria as suspected, probable, or confirmed D+HUS, or as controls and genotyped at 200 loci linked to non-diarrheal HUS or similar pathologies...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215775/an-assessment-of-the-microbiological-quality-and-safety-of-raw-drinking-milk-on-retail-sale-in-england
#20
Caroline Willis, Frieda Jørgensen, Heather Aird, Nicola Elviss, Andrew Fox, Claire Jenkins, Deborah Fenelon, Lorraine Sadler-Reeves, Jim McLauchlin
AIMS: This study aimed to review the microbiological results for raw drinking milk (RDM) samples submitted to Public Health England laboratories between 2014 and 2016 in order to produce up-to-date data on the microbiological safety of RDM and inform future risk assessments on its sale. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 902 samples of RDM were collected from retail sale in England for microbiological examination. Overall, 454/770 samples (59.0%) taken for routine monitoring were of a satisfactory quality, whilst eight (1...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
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