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Musa Sakuma Adamu, Iniobong Chukwuebuka Ikenna Ugochukwu, Sunday Idoko Idoko, Yakubu Adamu Kwabugge, Nafisatu Sa'ad Abubakar, James Ameh Ameh
Prevalence and distribution of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups from the faecal samples of cattle and camels slaughter in Maiduguri abattoir and their antibiotic resistance profile of the isolates were determined. The highest prevalence (24%) was recorded in the month of September and more STEC isolates came from cattle than the camels. There was significant (P < 0.05) seasonal trend in the prevalence of STEC among cattle and camel with more cases recorded during the wet season...
March 21, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Rohollah Taghadosi, Mohammad Reza Shakibaie, Hesam Alizade, Hossein Hosseini-Nave, Asma Askari, Reza Ghanbarpour
Aim: The present study was conducted to detect the occurrence, serogroups, virulence genes and phylogenetic relationship of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in human, clave and goat in Kerman (southeast of Iran). Background: STEC have emerged as the important foodborne zoonotic pathogens causing human gastrointestinal disease and confirming the risk to public health. Methods: A total of 671 fecal samples were collected from diarrheic patients (n=395) and healthy calves (n=156) and goats (n=120) and screened for the presence of stx gene...
2018: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
Seong Heon Kim, Hye Young Kim, Su Young Kim
Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is often encountered in children with acute kidney injury. Besides the well-known shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli -associated HUS, atypical HUS (aHUS) caused by genetic complement dysregulation has been studied recently. aHUS is a rare, chronic, and devastating disorder that progressively damages systemic organs, resulting in stroke, end-stage renal disease, and death. The traditional treatment for aHUS is mainly plasmapheresis or plasma infusion; however, many children with aHUS will progress to chronic kidney disease despite plasma therapy...
February 2018: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
Juan F Aranda, Stefan Rathjen, Ludger Johannes, Carlos Fernández-Hernando
Retrograde transport (RT) allows cells the retrieval of receptors and other cellular cargoes to the Golgi contributing to the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. This transport route is also commonly used by several bacterial toxins to exert their deleterious actions on eukaryotic cells. While the retrograde transport process has been well characterized, the contribution of microRNAs (miRNAs) in regulating this cellular transport mechanism remains unknown. Here, we identified that the intronic miRNA family, miR-199a/b , coordinate genes regulating RT and endosome trafficking...
March 19, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biology
Maziar Jajarmi, Mahdi Askari Badouei, Abbas Ali Imani Fooladi, Reza Ghanbarpour, Ali Ahmadi
BACKGROUND: All over the world, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are considered as important zoonotic pathogens. Eight serogroups have the greatest role in the outbreaks and diseases caused by STEC which include O26, O45, O103, O111, O113, O121, O145 and O157. Ruminants, especially cattle are the main reservoirs but the role of small ruminants in the epidemiology of human infections has not been thoroughly assessed in many countries. The objective of this research was to investigate the pathogenic potential of the STEC strains isolated from slaughtered goats...
March 16, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Pragathi B Shridhar, Isha R Patel, Jayanthi Gangiredla, Lance W Noll, Xiaorong Shi, Jianfa Bai, Christopher A Elkins, Nancy A Strockbine, T G Nagaraja
Escherichia coli O104:H4, a Shiga toxin-producing hybrid pathotype that was implicated in a major foodborne outbreak in Germany in 2011, has not been detected in cattle. However, serotypes of O104, other than O104:H4, have been isolated from cattle feces, with O104:H7 being the most predominant. In this study, we investigated, based on whole genome sequence analyses, the virulence potential of E. coli O104 strains isolated from cattle feces, since cattle are asymptomatic carriers of E. coli O104. The genomes of ten bovine E...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Quintin Borgersen, David T Bolick, Glynis L Kolling, Matthew Aijuka, Fernando Ruiz-Perez, Richard L Guerrant, James P Nataro, Araceli E Santiago
Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) is associated with food-borne outbreaks of diarrhea and growth faltering among children in developing countries. A Shiga toxin-producing EAEC strain of serotype O104:H4 strain caused one of the largest outbreaks of a food-borne infection in Europe in 2011. The outbreak was traced to contaminated fenugreek sprouts, yet the mechanisms whereby such persistent contamination of sprouts could have occurred are not clear. We found that under ambient conditions of temperature and in minimal media, pathogenic Shiga toxin-producing EAEC O104:H4 227-11 and non-Shiga toxin-producing 042 strains both produce high levels of exopolysaccharide structures (EPS) that are released to the external milieu...
March 15, 2018: Gut Microbes
Sylwia Bloch, Bożena Nejman-Faleńczyk, Karolina Pierzynowska, Ewa Piotrowska, Alicja Węgrzyn, Christelle Marminon, Zouhair Bouaziz, Pascal Nebois, Joachim Jose, Marc Le Borgne, Luciano Saso, Grzegorz Węgrzyn
Oxidative stress may be the major cause of induction of Shiga toxin-converting (Stx) prophages from chromosomes of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in human intestine. Thus, we aimed to test a series of novel antioxidant compounds for their activities against prophage induction, thus, preventing pathogenicity of STEC. Forty-six compounds (derivatives of carbazole, indazole, triazole, quinolone, ninhydrine, and indenoindole) were tested. Fifteen of them gave promising results and were further characterized...
December 2018: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
Seav-Ly Tran, Claire Jenkins, Valérie Livrelli, Stephanie Schüller
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are characterized by the release of potent Shiga toxins (Stx), which are associated with severe intestinal and renal disease. Although all STEC strains produce Stx, only a few serotypes cause infection in humans. To determine which virulence traits in vitro are linked to human disease in vivo, 13 Stx2a-producing STEC strains of seropathotype (SPT) A or B (associated with severe human intestinal disease and outbreaks) and 6 strains of SPT D or E (rarely or not linked to human disease) were evaluated in a microaerobic human colonic epithelial infection model...
March 13, 2018: Microbiology
Kinnosuke Yahiro, Sayaka Nagasawa, Kimitoshi Ichimura, Hiroki Takeuchi, Kohei Ogura, Hiroyasu Tsutsuki, Takeshi Shimizu, Sunao Iyoda, Makoto Ohnishi, Hirotaro Iwase, Joel Moss, Masatoshi Noda
Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) are responsible for a worldwide foodborne disease, which is characterized by severe bloody diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Subtilase cytotoxin (SubAB) is a novel AB5 toxin, which is produced by Locus for Enterocyte Effacement (LEE)-negative STEC. Cleavage of the BiP protein by SubAB induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, followed by induction of cytotoxicity in vitro or lethal severe hemorrhagic inflammation in mice. Here we found that steroids and diacylglycerol (DAG) analogues (e...
December 2018: Cell Death Discovery
Andrea Osimani, Vesna Milanović, Federica Cardinali, Cristiana Garofalo, Francesca Clementi, Marina Pasquini, Paola Riolo, Sara Ruschioni, Nunzio Isidoro, Nino Loreto, Elena Franciosi, Kieran Tuohy, Annalisa Petruzzelli, Martina Foglini, Claudia Gabucci, Franco Tonucci, Lucia Aquilanti
Tenebrio molitor represents one of the most popular species used for the large-scale conversion of plant biomass into protein and is characterized by high nutritional value. In the present laboratory study, the bacterial biota characterizing a pilot production chain of fresh T. molitor larvae was investigated. To this end, different batches of fresh mealworm larvae, their feeding substrate (wheatmeal) and frass were analyzed by viable microbial counts, PCR-DGGE and Illumina sequencing. Moreover, the occurrence of Coxiella burnetii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Shiga toxin-producing E...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Shanshan Fu, Xiangning Bai, Ruyue Fan, Hui Sun, Yanmei Xu, Yanwen Xiong
Non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is increasingly recognized as an important enteric foodborne pathogen. The hallmark of the disease is the production of Shiga toxins; however, there are other virulence factors that contribute to the pathogenesis of STEC. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and genetic diversity of the enterohaemolysin gene, ehxA, among non-O157 STEC strains from human, animal, and food sources. The ehxA gene was amplified from 138 (31.8%) of 434 non-O157 STEC strains, among which 36 unique ehxA sequences were identified...
March 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Bin Yang, Shaomeng Wang, Jianxiao Huang, Zhiqiu Yin, Lingyan Jiang, Wenqi Hou, Xiaomin Li, Lu Feng
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a major human enteric pathogen capable of causing large outbreaks of severe infections that induce bloody diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Its genome contains 177 unique O islands (OIs) including those carrying the main virulence elements, Shiga toxin-converting phages (OI-45 and OI-93) and locus for enterocyte effacement (OI-148). However, many of these islands harbor only genes of unknown function. Here, we demonstrate that OI-29 encodes a newly discovered transcriptional activator, Z0639 (named GmrA), that is required for motility and flagellar synthesis in O157:H7...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Chisa Fukasawa, Saori Ooishi, Takuma Kumagai, Megumi Koshiisi, Yuki Sueki, Kei Nakajima, Toru Mitsumori, Yoko Yoshida, Hideki Kato, Masaomi Nangaku, Toshiyuki Miyata, Keita Kirito
Herein, we present an elderly onset case of aHUS successfully treated with eculizumab. An 80-year-old woman with severe anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal dysfunction was admitted to our hospital. A laboratory test revealed steep elevation in the LDH level, and the peripheral blood smear showed erythrocyte fragmentations. Accordingly, we diagnosed thrombotic microangiopathy, and treatment with plasma exchange was immediately initiated. In addition, she required hemodialysis because of rapid impairment of the renal function...
2018: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
Nadine Schmidt, Stefanie A Barth, Jana Frahm, Ulrich Meyer, Sven Dänicke, Lutz Geue, Christian Menge
The principal virulence factor of Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), the eponymous Stx, modulates cellular immune responses in cattle, the primary STEC reservoir. We examined whether immunization with genetically inactivated recombinant Shiga toxoids (rStx1MUT /rStx2MUT ) influences STEC shedding in a calf cohort. A group of 24 calves was passively (colostrum from immunized cows) and actively (intra-muscularly at 5th and 8th week) vaccinated. Twenty-four calves served as unvaccinated controls (fed with low anti-Stx colostrum, placebo injected)...
March 7, 2018: Veterinary Research
Christian Patry, Christian Betzen, Farnoosh Fathalizadeh, Alexander Fichtner, Jens H Westhoff, Thomas Fleming, Volker Eckstein, Tom Bruckner, Martina Bielaszewska, Helge Karch, Georg F Hoffmann, Burkhard Tönshoff, Neysan Rafat
Endothelial injury with consecutive microangiopathy and endothelial dysfunction plays a central role in the pathogenesis of the post-enteropathic hemolytic uremic syndrome (D+HUS). To identify new treatment strategies, we examined the regenerative potential of endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) in an in vitro model of Shiga toxin (Stx) 2a-induced glomerular endothelial injury present in D+HUS and the mechanisms of EPC-triggered endothelial regeneration. We simulated the pro-inflammatory milieu present in D+HUS by priming human renal glomerular endothelial cells (HRGEC) with Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α prior to stimulation with Stx2a...
March 7, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Alessia Battigelli, Jae Hong Kim, Dilani C Dehigaspitiya, Caroline Proulx, Ellen J Robertson, Daniel J Murray, Behzad Rad, Kent Kirshenbaum, Ronald N Zuckermann
Glycoproteins adhered on the cellular membrane play a pivotal role in a wide range of cellular functions. Their importance is particularly relevant in the recognition process between infectious pathogens (such as viruses, bacteria, toxins) and their host cells. Multivalent interactions at the pathogen-cell interfaces govern binding events and can result in a strong and specific interaction. Here we report an approach to mimic the cell surface presentation of carbohydrate ligands by the multivalent display of sugars on the surface of peptoid nanosheets...
March 7, 2018: ACS Nano
Preeti Verma, Vijay Veer Saharan, Surendra Nimesh, Arvind Pratap Singh
AIMS: The present study was designed to assess the phenotypic traits and virulence determinants of vegetables/fruits-origin E. coli and Salmonella strains. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 520 fresh vegetables/fruits samples were analyzed for the presence of E. coli, including Shiga-toxin producing E. coli (STEC), and Salmonella. The vegetables/fruits-origin E. coli and Salmonella strains were further assessed for antimicrobial resistance, biofilm formation, extracellular matrix production, and in-vitro invasion/intracellular survivability assays...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Shuo Niu, John Paluszynski, Zhen Bian, Lei Shi, Koby Kidder, Yuan Liu
Shiga toxin (Stx)-induced hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a life-threatening complication associated with Stx-producing Escherichia coli infection. One critical barrier of understanding HUS is how Stx transports from infected intestine to kidney to cause HUS. Passive dissemination seems unlikely, while circulating blood cells have been debated to serve as the toxin carrier. Employing a murine model of Stx2-induced HUS with LPS priming (LPS-Stx2), we investigate how Stx causes HUS and identify possible toxin carrier...
March 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Satoshi Nakano, Miki Nagao, Tomomi Yamasaki, Hiroyuki Morimura, Natsuki Hama, Yoshio Iijima, Hiroto Shinomiya, Michio Tanaka, Masaki Yamamoto, Yasufumi Matsumura, Shiro Miyake, Satoshi Ichiyama
The early detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is important for early diagnosis and preventing the spread of STEC. Although the confirmatory test for STEC should be based on the detection of Shiga toxin using molecular analysis, isolation permits additional characterization of STEC using a variety of methods, including O:H serotyping. The conventional slide agglutination O-antigen serogrouping used in many clinical laboratories is laborious and time-consuming. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based immunosensors are commonly used to investigate a large variety of bio-interactions such as antibody/antigen, peptide/antibody, DNA/DNA, and antibody/bacteria interactions...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
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