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Shiga-toxin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106081/shigatoxin-encoding-bacteriophage-%C3%AF-24b-modulates-bacterial-metabolism-to-raise-antimicrobial-tolerance
#1
G S Holt, J K Lodge, A J McCarthy, A K Graham, G Young, S H Bridge, A K Brown, M Veses-Garcia, C V Lanyon, A Sails, H E Allison, D L Smith
How temperate bacteriophages play a role in microbial infection and disease progression is not fully understood. They do this in part by carrying genes that promote positive evolutionary selection for the lysogen. Using Biolog phenotype microarrays and comparative metabolite profiling we demonstrate the impact of the well-characterised Shiga toxin-prophage ϕ24B on its Escherichia coli host MC1061. As a lysogen, the prophage alters the bacterial physiology by increasing the rates of respiration and cell proliferation...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103104/characterization-and-molecular-subtyping-of-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-strains-in-butcher-shops
#2
Victoria Brusa, Magdalena Costa, Alejandra Londero, Gerardo A Leotta, Lucía Galli
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are important emerging foodborne human pathogens. Ruminants are the main animal reservoir of STEC currently known, and meat can become contaminated at different stages of the production chain. The aim of this work was to subtype and establish the epidemiological relatedness of non-O157 STEC strains isolated from ground beef and the environment in butcher shops before (evaluation stage, 2010-2011 period) and after (verification stage, 2013) implementing improvement actions...
January 19, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062285/a-review-on-strategies-for-decreasing-e-%C3%A2-coli-o157-h7-risk-in-animals
#3
REVIEW
Pardis Saeedi, Maryam Yazdanparast, Elham Behzadi, Ali Hatef Salmanian, Seyed Latif Mousavi, Shahram Nazarian, Jafar Amani
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) serotype O157:H7 is a food-borne pathogen that younger children are most prone to this microorganism. Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS) caused by EHEC, leads to the destruction of red blood cells and kidney failure. The virulence of E.coli O157:H7 is attributed to fimbriae, that facilitate colonization of bacteria within the colon and verotoxins (VT) or Shiga toxins (Stx) that are released into the blood. Although, in most cases, the infection is self-limitedin young children and aged population, it may cause HUS...
January 3, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057514/systemic-effects-of-subtilase-cytotoxin-produced-by-escherichia-coli-o113-h21
#4
E Abril Seyahian, Gisela Oltra, Federico Ochoa, Santiago Melendi, Ricardo Hermes, James C Paton, Adrienne W Paton, Nestor Lago, Mauricio Castro Parodi, Alicia Damiano, Cristina Ibarra, Elsa Zotta
: Subtilase cytotoxin (SubAB) is a member of the AB5 cytotoxin family and is produced by certain strains of Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli. The toxin is known to be lethal to mice, but the pathological mechanisms that contribute to Uremic Hemolytic Syndrome (HUS) are poorly understood. In this study we show that intraperitoneal injection of a sublethal dose of SubAB in rats triggers a systemic response, with ascitic fluid accumulation, heart hypertrophy and damage to the liver, colon and kidney...
January 3, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056274/-serotype-identification-and-antibiotic-susceptibility-of-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-in-the-weishan-area-in-shandong-province-china
#5
C C Shao, B Hu, Z W Bi, Z Q Kou, M Fang, B L Chen, Z Q Bi
Objective: To determine the serotypes and drug resistance profiles of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in animal stools from the Weishan area in Shandong Province, China. To provide the basis for further study. Methods: Five hundred animal stool samples (from pigs, cattle, sheep, dogs and birds) were collected from the Weishan area and STEC strains were isolated from these samples. Strains were serotyped by a serum agglutination test, and their drug resistance profiles were determined through antimicrobial sensitivity experiments...
January 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049493/presence-of-foodborne-pathogens-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-and-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-slaughtered-reindeer-in-northern-finland-and-norway
#6
Sauli Laaksonen, Antti Oksanen, Jérôme Julmi, Claudio Zweifel, Maria Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Roger Stephan
BACKGROUND: Various food-producing animals were recognized in recent years as healthy carriers of bacterial pathogens causing human illness. In northern Fennoscandia, the husbandry of semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) is a traditional livelihood and meat is the main product. This study determined the presence of selected foodborne pathogens, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae in healthy semi-domesticated reindeer at slaughter in northern Finland and Norway...
January 3, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046078/immune-response-in-calves-vaccinated-with-type-three-secretion-system-antigens-and-shiga-toxin-2b-subunit-of-escherichia-coli-o157-h7
#7
Luisina Martorelli, Sergio Garbaccio, Daniel A Vilte, Adriana A Albanese, María P Mejías, Marina S Palermo, Elsa C Mercado, Cristina E Ibarra, Angel A Cataldi
Ruminants are the primary reservoir of Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 and the main source of infection for humans. The aim of this study was to assess the immunogenic properties of a candidate vaccine consisting on the recombinant proteins of E. coli O157:H7 IntiminC280, the carboxy-terminal fraction of Intimin γ, EspB and the fusion protein between the B subunit of Stx2 and Brucella Lumazine Synthase (BLS)(BLS-Stx2B), in Holstein Fresian calves.To accomplish this goal we vaccinated calves with two doses of different vaccine formulations: 2 antigens (IntiminC280, EspB), 3 antigens (IntiminC280, EspB, BLS-Stx2B), BLS-Stx2B alone and a control non-vaccinated group...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045227/severe-outbreak-of-sorbitol-fermenting-escherichia-coli-o157-via-unpasteurized-milk-and-farm-visits-finland-2012
#8
A Jaakkonen, S Salmenlinna, R Rimhanen-Finne, H Lundström, S Heinikainen, M Hakkinen, S Hallanvuo
Shiga toxin-producing, sorbitol-fermenting Escherichia coli O157 (SF O157) has emerged as a cause of severe human illness. Despite frequent human findings, its transmission routes and reservoirs remain largely unknown. Foodborne transmission and reservoir in cattle have been suspected, but with limited supporting evidence. This study describes the outbreak of SF O157 that occurred in Finland in 2012. The outbreak originated from a recreational farm selling unpasteurized milk, as revealed by epidemiologic and microbiological investigations, and involved six hospitalized children and two asymptomatic adults with culture-confirmed infection...
January 3, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042026/dexamethasone-prevents-motor-deficits-and-neurovascular-damage-produced-by-shiga-toxin-2-and-lipopolysaccharide-in-the-mouse-striatum
#9
Alipio Pinto, Adriana Cangelosi, Patricia A Geoghegan, Jorge Goldstein
Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2) from enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) causes bloody diarrhea and Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS) that may derive to fatal neurological outcomes. Neurological abnormalities in the striatum are frequently observed in affected patients and in studies with animal models while motor disorders are usually associated with pyramidal and extra pyramidal systems. A translational murine model of encephalopathy was employed to demonstrate that systemic administration of a sublethal dose of Stx2 damaged the striatal microvasculature and astrocytes, increase the blood brain barrier permeability and caused neuronal degeneration...
December 30, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040174/evaluating-the-efficacy-of-beef-slaughter-line-interventions-by-quantifying-the-six-major-non-o157-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-serogroups-using-real-time-multiplex-pcr
#10
Kaushi S T Kanankege, Kelly S Anklam, Catherine M Fick, Megan J Kulow, Charles W Kaspar, Barbara H Ingham, Andrew Milkowski, Dörte Döpfer
Six major Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups: O26, O103, O145, O111, O121, and O45 have been declared as adulterants in federally inspected raw beef in the USA effective June 4th, 2012 in addition to the routinely tested STEC O157: H7. This study tests a real-time multiplex PCR assay and pooling of the samples to optimize the detection and quantification (prevalence and contamination) of six major non-O157 STEC, regardless of possessing Shiga toxins. To demonstrate the practicality, one large-scale slaughter plant (Plant LS) and one small-scale slaughter plant (Plant SS) located in the Mid-Western USA were sampled, in 2011, before the establishment of 2013 USDA laboratory protocols...
May 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040162/occurrence-and-characterization-of-food-borne-pathogens-isolated-from-fruit-vegetables-and-sprouts-retailed-in-the-czech-republic
#11
Hana Vojkovská, Petra Myšková, Tereza Gelbíčová, Alena Skočková, Ivana Koláčková, Renáta Karpíšková
Food of non-animal origin is a major component of the human diet and has been considered to pose a low risk from the point of view of bacteriological safety. However, an increase in the number of outbreaks of illness caused by such pathogens and linked to the consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables have been reported from around the world recently. Salmonella spp., STEC (Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli) and Listeria monocytogenes are among the most frequently identified agents. Additionally, the transmission of antibiotic resistant strains including also the methicillin resistant S...
May 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028547/recent-outbreaks-of-shigellosis-in-california-caused-by-two-distinct-populations-of-shigella-sonnei-with-either-increased-virulence-or-fluoroquinolone-resistance
#12
Varvara K Kozyreva, Guillaume Jospin, Alexander L Greninger, James P Watt, Jonathan A Eisen, Vishnu Chaturvedi
Shigella sonnei has caused unusually large outbreaks of shigellosis in California in 2014 and 2015. Preliminary data indicated the involvement of two distinct bacterial populations, one from San Diego and San Joaquin (SDi/SJo) and one from the San Francisco (SFr) Bay area. Whole-genome analysis and antibiotic susceptibility testing of 68 outbreak and archival isolates of S. sonnei were performed to investigate the microbiological factors related to these outbreaks. Both SDi/SJo and SFr populations, as well as almost all of the archival S...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024103/multiple-reaction-monitoring-for-multiplex-detection-of-three-bacterial-toxins-using-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#13
Syed Imteyaz Alam, Annu Uppal, Pallavi Gupta, Dev Vrat Kamboj
Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin (ETX), staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), and shiga toxin (STX) are implicated in a number of diseases and food-borne intoxications and are considered as potential agents for bioterrorism and warfare. Artificially generated aerosol is the likely mode of delivery of these toxins for nefarious uses; potentially capable of causing mass destruction to human and animal health by inhalation of toxic bioaerosol. Multiplex and unambiguous detection of these agents is of paramount importance for emergency response in a biothreat scenario and for food safety...
December 26, 2016: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011696/genotypic-characterization-and-biofilm-formation-of-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli
#14
C Picozzi, D Antoniani, I Vigentini, R Foschino
Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are recognized as one of the most dangerous food-borne pathogens. The production of Shiga toxins together with intimin protein are among the main virulence factors. However, the ability to form biofilm can protect bacteria against environmental factors (i.e. desiccation, exposure to UV rays, predation, etc) and sanitization procedures (cleaning, rinsing, chlorination), increasing their survival on food products and in manufacturing plants. Forty-five isolates collected from food and fecal samples were genotyped by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis with XbaI restriction enzyme and investigated by searching for toxins (stx1, stx2) and intimin (eae) genes and serogroup (O157, O26, O145, O111, O103 and O104)...
December 22, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003591/comparison-of-enterohemorrhagic-escherichia-coli-ehec-o157-and-ehec-non-o157-isolates-from-diarrheal-patients-in-the-republic-of-korea
#15
Kyung-Hwan Oh, Su-Mi Jung, Eunkyung Shin, Gyung Tae Chung, Won-Keun Seong, Seung-Hak Cho
We compared 47 enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157 isolates with 184 EHEC non-O157 isolates from Korean patients with diarrhea. In the O157 group, the strains harboring both shiga toxin genes (stx1 and stx2) were detected with highest frequency, whereas the strains harboring only stx1 gene were most frequently detected in the non-O157 group. Eight virulence genes (eaeA, hlyA, ehx, iha, efa1, tir, toxB, and espA ) were found to show a higher frequency of occurrence in the O157 group than in the non-O157 group...
December 22, 2016: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003017/potential-immunosuppressive-effects-of-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-experimental-infection-on-the-bovine-host
#16
E Kieckens, J Rybarczyk, R W Li, D Vanrompay, E Cox
BACKGROUND: Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), like E. coli O157:H7 are frequently detected in bovine faecal samples at slaughter. Cattle do not show clinical symptoms upon infection, but for humans the consequences after consuming contaminated beef can be severe. The immune response against EHEC in cattle cannot always clear the infection as persistent colonization and shedding in infected animals over a period of months often occurs. In previous infection trials, we observed a primary immune response after infection which was unable to protect cattle from re-infection...
December 21, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992253/farm-fairs-and-petting-zoos-a-review-of-animal-contact-as-a-source-of-zoonotic-enteric-disease
#17
Cheyenne C Conrad, Kim Stanford, Claudia Narvaez-Bravo, Todd Callaway, Tim McAllister
Many public venues such as farms, fairs, and petting zoos encourage animal contact for both educational and entertainment purposes. However, healthy farm animals, including cattle, small ruminants, and poultry, can be reservoirs for enteric zoonotic pathogens, with human infections resulting in nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and, in some cases, severe complications that can lead to death. As animals shed these organisms in their feces, contamination of themselves and their surroundings is unavoidable. The majority of North Americans reside in urban and suburban settings, and the general public often possess limited knowledge of agricultural practices and minimal contact with farm animals...
December 19, 2016: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991739/paediatric-hus-cases-related-to-the-consumption-of-raw-milk-sold-by-vending-machines-in-italy-quantitative-risk-assessment-based-on-escherichia-coli-o157-official-controls-over-7%C3%A2-years
#18
F Giacometti, P Bonilauri, S Piva, G Scavia, S Amatiste, D M Bianchi, M N Losio, S Bilei, G Cascone, D Comin, P Daminelli, L Decastelli, G Merialdi, R Mioni, A Peli, A Petruzzelli, F Tonucci, G Liuzzo, A Serraino
A quantitative risk assessment (RA) was developed to estimate haemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) cases in paediatric population associated with the consumption of raw milk sold in vending machines in Italy. The historical national evolution of raw milk consumption phenomenon since 2008, when consumer interest started to grow, and after 7 years of marketing adjustment, is outlined. Exposure assessment was based on the official Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 (STEC) microbiological records of raw milk samples from vending machines monitored by the regional Veterinary Authorities from 2008 to 2014, microbial growth during storage, consumption frequency of raw milk, serving size, consumption preference and age of consumers...
December 19, 2016: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987365/evaluation-of-the-performance-of-the-iq-check-kits-and-the-usda-microbiology-laboratory-guidebook-methods-for-detection-of-shiga-toxin-producing-e-coli-stec-and-stec-and-salmonella-simultaneously-in-ground-beef
#19
Gian Marco Baranzoni, Pina M Fratamico, Federica Boccia, Lori K Bagi, Gwang-Hee Kim, Aniello Anastasio, Tiziana Pepe
AIMS: To evaluate the performance of the IQ-Check kits and the USDA Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook (MLG) methods for detection of the top 7 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) (O157:H7, O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) in ground beef and both STEC and Salmonella in co-inoculated samples. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ground beef samples inoculated with ~10 CFU of STEC or both STEC and S. Typhimurium were stored at 4°C for 72 h, followed by screening with the IQ-Check and BAX System kit (MLG) methods that employ different enrichment media...
December 17, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986670/emerging-public-health-challenges-of-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-related-to-changes-in-the-pathogen-the-population-and-the-environment
#20
Mohamed A Karmali
Emerging public health challenges of Shiga toxin (stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) include the occurrence of more frequent or severe disease and risk factors shifts associated with changes, often interconnected, in the pathogen, the population, and the environment. In 3 outbreaks with heightened severity attributed to enhanced pathogen virulence, including the acquisition of an stx2 phage in 1 outbreak, population and environmental factors likely contributed significantly to disease outcomes. Evolving population risk factors that are associated with more severe disease include consumption of fresh produce, contact with STEC-contaminated environments, demographics, socioeconomic status, and immunity...
February 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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