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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522334/safety-evaluation-of-chlorella-sorokiniana-strain-ck-22-based-on-an-in-vitro-cytotoxicity-assay-and-a-13-week-subchronic-toxicity-trial-in-rats
#1
Sayaka Himuro, Sugi Ueno, Naoto Noguchi, Takuya Uchikawa, Toshihiro Kanno, Akira Yasutake
The genus Chlorella contains unicellular green algae that have been used as food supplements. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the safety of the Chlorella sorokiniana strain CK-22 using powdered preparation (CK-22P) both by in vitro and in vivo assays. These included an experiment for cytotoxicity using Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts (V79 cells) and a 13-week repeated-dose oral toxicity trial using Wistar rats. The cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT assay of a hot water extract (Hw-Ex) and 80% ethanol extract (Et-Ex) of CK-22P, and no effect on cell viability was observed...
May 15, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518086/ptr-tof-ms-coupled-with-an-automated-sampling-system-and-tailored-data-analysis-for-food-studies-bioprocess-monitoring-screening-and-nose-space-analysis
#2
Vittorio Capozzi, Sine Yener, Iuliia Khomenko, Brian Farneti, Luca Cappellin, Flavia Gasperi, Matteo Scampicchio, Franco Biasioli
Proton Transfer Reaction (PTR), combined with a Time-of-Flight (ToF) Mass Spectrometer (MS) is an analytical approach based on chemical ionization that belongs to the Direct-Injection Mass Spectrometric (DIMS) technologies. These techniques allow the rapid determination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), assuring high sensitivity and accuracy. In general, PTR-MS requires neither sample preparation nor sample destruction, allowing real time and non-invasive analysis of samples. PTR-MS are exploited in many fields, from environmental and atmospheric chemistry to medical and biological sciences...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512003/towards-a-sustainable-biobased-industry-highlighting-the-impact-of-extremophiles
#3
REVIEW
Anna Krüger, Christian Schäfers, Carola Schröder, Garabed Antranikian
The transition of the oil-based economy towards a sustainable economy completely relying on biomass as renewable feedstock requires the concerted action of academia, industry, politics and civil society. An interdisciplinary approach of various fields such as microbiology, molecular biology, chemistry, genetics, chemical engineering and agriculture in addition to cross-sectional technologies such as economy, logistics and digitalization is necessary to meet the future global challenges. The genomic era has contributed significantly to the exploitation of naturés biodiversity also from extreme habitats...
May 13, 2017: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511864/metabolism-and-disposition-of-14-c-methycyclosiloxanes-in-rats
#4
Jeanne Y Domoradzki, Christopher M Sushynski, Jacob M Sushynski, Debra A McNett, Cynthia Van Landingham, Kathleen P Plotzke
Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4) and decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) are low molecular weight cyclic volatile methyl siloxanes (cVMSs) primarily used as intermediates or monomers in the production of high molecular weight silicone polymers. The use of D4 as a direct ingredient in personal care products has declined significantly over the past 10 years, although it may be present as a residual impurity in a variety of consumer products. D5 is still used as an intentional ingredient in cosmetics, consumer products and in dry cleaning...
May 13, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507406/evaluation-of-different-agroindustrial-waste-on-the-effect-of-different-carcass-characteristics-and-physiological-and-biochemical-parameters-in-broilers-chicken
#5
Y Sánchez-Roque, Y D C Pérez-Luna, E Pérez-Luna, R Berrones Hernández, S Saldaña-Trinidad
AIM: This study was conducted to evaluate the physiological and biochemical effect in chickens of the Ross breed of a food enriched with agroindustrial waste. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The food is one of the main components of the total cost for the production of chickens. Rations should be formulated to provide the correct balance of energy, protein, amino acids, minerals, vitamins and essential fatty acids, to allow optimal growth and performance. This study was intended to evaluate a natural feed for chicken, made from corn, yucca meal, eggshells, orange peel, soybean meal, salt and garlic, enriched with agroindustrial waste (molasses, milk whey and ferment of coffee)...
April 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503266/inhalation-toxicity-of-bisphenol-a-and-its-effect-on-estrous-cycle-spatial-learning-and-memory-in-rats-upon-whole-body-exposure
#6
Yong Hyun Chung, Jeong Hee Han, Sung-Bae Lee, Yong-Hoon Lee
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a monomer used in a polymerization reaction in the production of polycarbonate plastics. It has been used in many consumer products, including plastics, polyvinyl chloride, food packaging, dental sealants, and thermal receipts. However, there is little information available on the inhalation toxicity of BPA. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine its inhalation toxicity and effects on the estrous cycle, spatial learning, and memory. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 0, 10, 30, and 90 mg/m(3) BPA, 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 8 weeks via whole-body inhalation...
April 2017: Toxicological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502496/minimal-food-effect-for-eicosapentaenoic-acid-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-bioavailability-from-omega-3-acid-ethyl-esters-with-an-advanced-lipid-technologies-tm-alt-%C3%A2-based-formulation
#7
Miguel A Lopez-Toledano, Thorsteinn Thorsteinsson, Ahmed A Daak, Kevin C Maki, Colleen Johns, Adrian L Rabinowicz, Frederick D Sancilio
BACKGROUND: The absorption of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) omega-3-acid ethyl esters (EEs) is influenced by food. There is a need for a formulation of EE that is less impacted by food effect. SC401 is a novel Advanced Lipid Technologies-based formulation of EPA-EE and DHA-EE. In the presence of an aqueous medium, Advanced Lipid Technologies forms stable micelles in situ independent of bile salt secretion. This effect is hypothesized to improve EPA-EE and DHA-EE bioavailability while it helps mitigate the food effect associated with their consumption...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499770/development-of-active-nanoparticle-antimicrobial-technologies-for-muscle-based-packaging-applications
#8
REVIEW
Michael A Morris, Sibu C Padmanabhan, Malco C Cruz-Romero, Enda Cummins, Joseph P Kerry
Fresh and processed muscle-based foods are highly perishable food products and packaging plays a crucial role in providing containment so that the full effect of preservation can be achieved through the provision of shelf-life extension. Conventional packaging materials and systems have served the industry well, however, greater demands are being placed upon industrial packaging formats owing to the movement of muscle-based products to increasingly distant markets, as well as increased customer demands for longer product shelf-life and storage capability...
April 28, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490124/explaining-the-antioxidant-activity-of-some-common-non-phenolic-components-of-essential-oils
#9
Andrea Baschieri, Majlinda Daci Ajvazi, Judith Laure Folifack Tonfack, Luca Valgimigli, Riccardo Amorati
Limonene, linalool and citral are common non-phenolic terpenoid components of essential oils, with attributed controversial antioxidant properties. The kinetics of their antioxidant activity was investigated using the inhibited autoxidation of a standard model substrate. Results indicate that antioxidant behavior of limonene, linalool and citral occurs by co-oxidation with the substrate, due to very fast self-termination and cross-termination of the oxidative chain. Rate constants kp and 2kt, (M(-1)s(-1)) at 30°C were 4...
October 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487066/genotoxicity-acute-and-subchronic-toxicity-evaluation-of-savory-food-ingredients
#10
Shahrzad Tafazoli, Trung D Vo, Anne Petersen, Anne Constable, Myriam Coulet, Phoukham Phothirath, Johanna Lang, Nigel Baldwin
The potential toxicity of two savory food ingredients produced by fermentation of enzymatically hydrolyzed corn starch (Savory Base 100 and Savory Base 200) was evaluated individually in a bacterial reverse mutation assay, an in vitro mammalian cell gene mutation assay, an acute oral study and as a mixture in a 90-day dietary study. In the bacterial reverse mutation and in vitro mammalian cell gene mutation assays, neither ingredient was mutagenic at concentrations up to 5000 μg/plate and 5000 μg/mL, respectively in the presence and absence of metabolic activation...
May 6, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483713/safety-assessment-of-astaxanthin-derived-from-engineered-escherichia-coli-k-12-using-a-13-week-repeated-dose-oral-toxicity-study-and-a-prenatal-developmental-toxicity-study-in-rats
#11
Yin-Ju Lin, Jian-Yu Lin, Di-Sheng Wang, Chien-Hao Chen, Ming-Hsi Chiou
Astaxanthin is a natural carotenoid with strong antioxidant activity that has been used for decades as a nutrient/color additive and it has recently been marketed as a health supplement. Astaxanthin can be synthesized in a wide range of microalgae, yeast, and bacteria. As genes directing astaxanthin biosynthesis in various organisms have been cloned, this study assessed the safety of astaxanthin crystal produced by Escherichia coli K-12 harboring plasmids carrying astaxanthin biosynthetic genes. The astaxanthin crystal contains a total carotenoid content of 950 mg/g and an astaxanthin content of 795 mg/g...
May 5, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476634/use-of-bioassays-to-assess-hazard-of-food-contact-material-extracts-state-of-the-art
#12
REVIEW
Isabelle Severin, Emilie Souton, Laurence Dahbi, Marie Christine Chagnon
This review focuses on the use of in vitro bioassays for the hazard assessment of food contact materials (FCM) as a relevant strategy, in complement to analytical methods. FCM may transfer constituents to foods, not always detected by analytical chemistry, resulting in low but measurable human exposures. Testing FCM extracts with bioassays represents the biological response of a combination of substances, able to be released from the finished materials. Furthermore, this approach is particularly useful regarding the current risk assessment challenges with unpredicted/unidentified non-intentionally added substances (NIAS) that can be leached from the FCM in the food...
May 3, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460896/folates-chemistry-analysis-occurrence-biofortification-and-bioavailability
#13
REVIEW
Ramesh Kumar Saini, Shivraj Hariram Nile, Young-Soo Keum
Folates (Vitamin B9) include both naturally occurring folates and synthetic folic acid used in fortified foods and dietary supplements. Folate deficiency causes severe abnormalities in one-carbon metabolism can result chronic diseases and developmental disorders, including neural tube defects. Mammalian cells cannot synthesize folates de novo; therefore, diet and dietary supplements are the only way to attain daily folate requirements. In the last decade, significant advancements have been made to enhance the folate content of rice, tomato, common bean and lettuce by using genetic engineering approaches...
November 2016: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460038/antismash-4-0-improvements-in-chemistry-prediction-and-gene-cluster-boundary-identification
#14
Kai Blin, Thomas Wolf, Marc G Chevrette, Xiaowen Lu, Christopher J Schwalen, Satria A Kautsar, Hernando G Suarez Duran, Emmanuel L C de Los Santos, Hyun Uk Kim, Mariana Nave, Jeroen S Dickschat, Douglas A Mitchell, Ekaterina Shelest, Rainer Breitling, Eriko Takano, Sang Yup Lee, Tilmann Weber, Marnix H Medema
Many antibiotics, chemotherapeutics, crop protection agents and food preservatives originate from molecules produced by bacteria, fungi or plants. In recent years, genome mining methodologies have been widely adopted to identify and characterize the biosynthetic gene clusters encoding the production of such compounds. Since 2011, the 'antibiotics and secondary metabolite analysis shell-antiSMASH' has assisted researchers in efficiently performing this, both as a web server and a standalone tool. Here, we present the thoroughly updated antiSMASH version 4, which adds several novel features, including prediction of gene cluster boundaries using the ClusterFinder method or the newly integrated CASSIS algorithm, improved substrate specificity prediction for non-ribosomal peptide synthetase adenylation domains based on the new SANDPUMA algorithm, improved predictions for terpene and ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides cluster products, reporting of sequence similarity to proteins encoded in experimentally characterized gene clusters on a per-protein basis and a domain-level alignment tool for comparative analysis of trans-AT polyketide synthase assembly line architectures...
April 28, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457467/isolation-and-characterisation-of-nanoparticles-from-tef-and-maize-starch-modified-with-stearic-acid
#15
Wokadala O Cuthbert, Suprakas S Ray, Naushad M Emmambux
Nanoparticles were isolated from tef and maize starch modified with added stearic acid after pasting at 90°C for 130min. This was followed by thermo-stable alpha-amylase hydrolysis of the paste. The resultant residues were then characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic laser scattering particle size distribution (DLPSD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). XRD and DSC showed that the isolated residues consisted of amylose-lipid complexes...
July 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456284/resolution-of-isomeric-new-designer-stimulants-using-gas-chromatography-vacuum-ultraviolet-spectroscopy-and-theoretical-computations
#16
Ludovit Skultety, Petr Frycak, Changling Qiu, Jonathan Smuts, Lindsey Shear-Laude, Karel Lemr, James X Mao, Peter Kroll, Kevin A Schug, Angelica Szewczak, Cory Vaught, Ira Lurie, Vladimir Havlicek
Distinguishing isomeric representatives of "bath salts", "plant food", "spice", or "legal high" remains a challenge for analytical chemistry. In this work, we used vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy combined with gas chromatography to address this issue on a set of forty-three designer drugs. All compounds, including many isomers, returned differentiable vacuum ultraviolet/ultraviolet spectra. The pair of 3- and 4-fluoromethcathinones (m/z 181.0903), as well as the methoxetamine/meperidine/ethylphenidate (m/z 247...
June 8, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454766/mixture-effects-of-azole-fungicides-on-the-adrenal-gland-in-a-broad-dose-range
#17
S Rieke, T Heise, F Schmidt, W Haider, H Bednarz, K Niehaus, A Mentz, J Kalinowski, K I Hirsch-Ernst, P Steinberg, L Niemann, P Marx-Stoelting
Consumers are exposed to low concentrations of a variety of pesticide residues in or on food. Some of them might interfere with the endocrine system. While each individual active substance has been extensively tested for toxicity and safety, potential combination effects possibly resulting from combined exposure to different pesticides have seldomly been tested so far, especially in vivo. Since the adrenal gland is a key endocrine organ, we investigated if and how substances of a group of fungicides presumed to interfere with the biosynthesis of steroid hormones affect this organ when applied individually and in combination in a broad dose range...
April 25, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442410/subchronic-feeding-study-of-high-free-lysine-transgenic-rice-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#18
Qing-Qing Yang, Xiao-Yun He, Hong-Yu Wu, Chang-Quan Zhang, Shi-Ying Zou, Tian-Qi Lang, Samuel Sai-Ming Sun, Qiao-Quan Liu
Lysine is considered to be the first essential amino acid in rice. An elite High-Free-Lysine transgenic line HFL1 was previously produced by metabolic engineering to regulate lysine metabolism. In this study, a 90-day toxicology experiment was undertaken to investigate the potential health effect of feeding different doses of HFL1 rice to Sprague-Dawley rats. During the trial, body weight gain, food consumption and food efficiency were recorded, and no adverse effect was observed in rats fed transgenic (T) rice diets compared with non-transgenic (N) or control diets...
April 22, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441729/the-influence-of-hydroxyapatite-nanoparticle-morphology-on-embryonic-development-in-a-zebrafish-exposure-model
#19
Shiuli Pujari-Palmer, Xi Lu, Marjam Karlsson Ott
Nanomaterials are used in many different industries such as cosmetics, food, clothing, and electronics. There is increasing concern that exposure to nanoparticles (NPs) during pregnancy can adversely affect fetal development. It is well known that the size, charge, and chemistry of a nanoparticle can modulate embryological development. The role that particle morphology plays on early development, however, is still widely unknown. The present study aims to investigate the effect of hydroxyapatite nanoparticle (HANP) morphology on embryological development in a zebrafish exposure model...
April 22, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438110/temporal-progression-of-lesions-in-guinea-pigs-infected-with-lassa-virus
#20
T M Bell, C I Shaia, J J Bearss, M E Mattix, K A Koistinen, S P Honnold, X Zeng, C D Blancett, G C Donnelly, J D Shamblin, E R Wilkinson, K A Cashman
Lassa virus (LASV) infection causes an acute, multisystemic viral hemorrhagic fever that annually infects an estimated 100 000 to 300 000 persons in West Africa. This pathogenesis study evaluated the temporal progression of disease in guinea pigs following aerosol and subcutaneous inoculation of the Josiah strain of LASV as well as the usefulness of Strain 13 guinea pigs as an animal model for Lassa fever. After experimental infection, guinea pigs ( Cavia porcellus; n = 67) were serially sampled to evaluate the temporal progression of infection, gross and histologic lesions, and serum chemistry and hematologic changes...
May 2017: Veterinary Pathology
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