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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811882/seasonal-changes-in-leaf-chemistry-and-leaf-selection-of-the-japanese-giant-flying-squirrel-upon-two-tree-species
#1
Mutsumi Ito, Noriko Tamura, Fumio Hayashi
Tree leaves are important food sources for arboreal herbivores, such as primates, rodents, and marsupials. These animals do not eat leaves randomly in habitats with many tree species but rather choose based on the chemical components of leaves, such as sugars, fibers, proteins, and toxins. However, the effects of the microscale distribution of these chemicals within each leaf have not been examined for these animals. The giant flying squirrels Petaurista leucogenys are entirely arboreal, nocturnal herbivores, usually feeding on leaves and dropping leaf debris on the ground after partially consuming them...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809975/discovery-of-synthetic-small-molecules-that-enhance-the-number-of-stomata-c-h-functionalization-chemistry-for-plant-biology
#2
Asraa Ziadi, Naoyuki Uchida, Hiroe Kato, Rina Hisamatsu, Ayato Sato, Shinya Hagihara, Kenichiro Itami, Keiko U Torii
The increasing climate changes and global warming are leading to colossal agricultural problems such as abatement of food production and quality. As stomatal development is considered to play a key role in crop plant productivity and water-use efficiency, studying stomatal development is useful for understanding the productivity of plant systems for both natural and agricultural systems. Herein, we report the first-in-class synthetic small molecules enhancing the number of stomata in Arabidopsis thaliana that have been discovered by screening of the chemical library and further optimized by the Pd-catalyzed C-H arylation reaction...
August 15, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796812/toxicological-and-bio-distribution-profile-of-a-gm-csf-expressing-double-targeted-chimeric-oncolytic-adenovirus-oncos-102-support-for-clinical-studies-on-advanced-cancer-treatment
#3
Lukasz Kuryk, Lotta Vassilev, Tuuli Ranki, Akseli Hemminki, Aila Karioja-Kallio, Onerva Levälampi, Antti Vuolanto, Vincenzo Cerullo, Sari Pesonen
The purpose of this work was to carry out preclinical toxicity and bio-distribution studies required for regulatory approval of a clinical trial application for Phase I clinical studies of ONCOS-102 (Ad5/3-D24-GM-CSF) for therapy of advanced cancers (NCT01598129). The study design, route of administration and dosage differs from the clinical protocol and in more detail, investigate bio-distribution and toxicological profile of ONCOS-102 treatment in animal model. The study was carried out in 300 hamsters divided into nine test groups-three bio-distribution groups and six groups for analysis of toxicity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781207/testing-of-an-oral-dosing-technique-for-double-crested-cormorants-phalacocorax-auritus-laughing-gulls-leucophaeus-atricilla-homing-pigeons-columba-livia-and-western-sandpipers-calidris-mauri-with-artificially-weather-mc252-oil
#4
K M Dean, D Cacela, M W Carney, F L Cunningham, C Ellis, A R Gerson, C G Guglielmo, K C Hanson-Dorr, K E Harr, K A Healy, K E Horak, J P Isanhart, L V Kennedy, J E Link, I Lipton, A K McFadden, J K Moye, C R Perez, C A Pritsos, K L Pritsos, T Muthumalage, S A Shriner, S J Bursian
Scoping studies were designed to determine if double-crested cormorants (Phalacocorax auritus), laughing gulls (Leucophaues atricilla), homing pigeons (Columba livia) and western sandpipers (Calidris mauri) that were gavaged with a mixture of artificially weathered MC252 oil and food for either a single day or 4-5 consecutive days showed signs of oil toxicity. Where volume allowed, samples were collected for hematology, plasma protein electrophoresis, clinical chemistry and electrolytes, oxidative stress and organ weigh changes...
August 3, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774751/bacterial-lipases-a-review-on-purification-and-characterization
#5
REVIEW
Saira Javed, Farrukh Azeem, Sabir Hussain, Ijaz Rasul, Muhammad Hussnain Siddique, Muhammad Riaz, Muhammad Afzal, Ambreen Kouser, Habibullah Nadeem
Lipase (E.C.3.1.1.3) belongs to the hydrolases and is also known as fat splitting, glycerol ester hydrolase or triacylglycerol acylhydrolase. Lipase catalyzes the hydrolysis of triglycerides converting them to glycerol and fatty acids in an oil-water interface. These are widely used in food, dairy, flavor, pharmaceuticals, biofuels, leather, cosmetics, detergent, and chemical industries. Lipases are of plant, animal, and microbial origin, but microbial lipases are produced at industrial level and represent the most widely used class of enzymes in biotechnological applications and organic chemistry...
July 31, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763976/corrigendum-to-development-and-validation-of-a-lc-ms-ms-method-for-the-determination-of-isoeugenol-in-finfish-food-chemistry-228-2017-70-76
#6
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763972/next-generation-nutraceutical-from-shrimp-waste-the-convergence-of-applications-with-extraction-methods
#7
REVIEW
Kandra Prameela, Kuncham Venkatesh, Sarat Babu Immandi, Ashok Phani Kiran Kasturi, Ch Rama Krishna, Ch Murali Mohan
In recent years considerable progress in health therapy makes a significant improvement in natural nutraceuticals. Shrimp is a valuable natural sea food and is processed by removing head, tail and carapace as waste. The large amounts of waste produced by sea food industries capitulate, recoverable nutraceutical compound astaxanthin. This review emphasizes the chemistry and role of astaxanthin in pigmentation. The study highlights progress in applications and describes the current extraction methods starting with chemical to the best eco-friendly microbial processes...
December 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763951/sulfites-and-the-wine-metabolome
#8
Chloé Roullier-Gall, Daniel Hemmler, Michael Gonsior, Yan Li, Maria Nikolantonaki, Alissa Aron, Christian Coelho, Régis D Gougeon, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin
In a context of societal concern about food preservation, the reduction of sulfite input plays a major role in the wine industry. To improve the understanding of the chemistry involved in the SO2 protection, a series of bottle aged Chardonnay wines made from the same must, but with different concentrations of SO2 added at pressing were analyzed by ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) and excitation emission matrix fluorescence (EEMF). Metabolic fingerprints from FT-ICR-MS data could discriminate wines according to the added concentration to the must but they also revealed chemistry-related differences according to the type of stopper, providing a wine metabolomics picture of the impact of distinct stopping strategies...
December 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763123/laying-waste-to-mercury-inexpensive-sorbents-made-from-sulfur-and-recycled-cooking-oils
#9
Max Worthington, Renata Kucera, Ines Albuquerque, Christopher Gibson, Alexander Sibley, Ashley Slattery, Jonathan Campbell, Salah Alboaiji, Katherine Muller, Jason Young, Nick Adamson, Jason Gascooke, Deshetti Jampaiah, Ylias Sabri, Suresh Bhargava, Samuel Ippolito, David Lewis, Jamie Quinton, Amanda Ellis, Alexander Johs, Gonçalo Bernardes, Justin M Chalker
Mercury pollution threatens the environment and human health across the globe. This neurotoxic substance is encountered in artisanal gold mining, coal combustion, oil and gas refining, waste incineration, chloralkalai plant operation, metallurgy, and areas of agriculture in which mercury-rich fungicides are used. Thousands of tonnes of mercury are emitted annually through these activities. With the Minamata Convention on Mercury entering force this year, increasing regulation of mercury pollution is imminent...
August 1, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757461/safety-assessment-of-urolithin-a-a-metabolite-produced-by-the-human-gut-microbiota-upon-dietary-intake-of-plant-derived-ellagitannins-and-ellagic-acid
#10
Jacqueline Heilman, Pénélope Andreux, Nga Tran, Chris Rinsch, William Blanco-Bose
Urolithins are metabolites produced in the gut following consumption of ellagitannin and ellagic acid rich foods such as pomegranate, nuts and certain berries. Urolithin A (UA) is one of the predominant isoforms of urolithins in humans and has demonstrated interesting biological activities, suggesting potential benefits of direct consumption of UA. However, an evaluation of the safety of direct administration of UA has not yet been published. The aim of this study was to investigate for the first time the genotoxicity, toxicokinetics, and repeated dose safety of orally administered synthetic UA in rats...
July 27, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749665/summary-of-the-acs-symposium-public-health-perspectives-of-mycotoxins-in-food
#11
Lauren S Jackson, Dojin Ryu
A symposium entitled "Public Health Perspectives of Mycotoxins in Food" was held at the 251st American Chemical Society Meeting in March 2016 in San Diego, CA and was sponsored by the ACS Division of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. The purpose of the symposium was to convene the leading mycotoxin researchers throughout the world to discuss the current state of knowledge as well as research needs with respect to evaluating the toxicological properties of mycotoxins, and ways to detect, control and reduce human and animal exposure to these natural toxins...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747981/comparison-of-the-response-using-icr-mice-derived-from-three-different-sources-to-multiple-low-dose-streptozotocin-induced-diabetes-mellitus
#12
Do Yeon Lee, Myeong Hwan Kim, Hye Rin Suh, Young Suk Jung, Dae Youn Hwang, Kil Soo Kim
This study was conducted to compare the multiple low-dose streptozotocin (MLDS)-induced diabetic patterns of Korl:ICR, A:ICR, and B:ICR mice obtained from three different sources. Six-week-old male ICR mice were obtained from three difference sources. Korl:ICR mice were kindly provided by the National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation (NIFDS). The other two groups of ICR mice were purchased from different vendors located in the United States (A:ICR) and Japan (B:ICR). All ICR mice that received MLDS exhibited overt diabetic symptoms throughout the study, and the incidence and development of diabetes mellitus were similar among the three ICR groups...
June 2017: Laboratory Animal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742334/health-effects-of-dietary-oxidized-tyrosine-and-dityrosine-administration-in-mice-with-nutrimetabolomic-strategies
#13
Yuhui Yang, Hui Zhang, Biao Yan, Tianyu Zhang, Ying Gao, Yonghui Shi, Guowei Le
This study aims to investigate the health effects of long-term dietary oxidized tyrosine (O-Tyr) and its main product (dityrosine) administration on mice metabolism. Mice received daily intragastric administration of either O-Tyr (320 μg/kg body weight), dityrosine (Dityr, 320 μg/kg body weight), or saline for consecutive 6 weeks. Urine and plasma samples were analyzed by NMR-based metabolomics strategies. Body weight, clinical chemistry, oxidative damage indexes, and histopathological data were obtained as complementary information...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735391/toward-a-resilient-functional-microbiome-drought-tolerance-alleviating-microbes-for-sustainable-agriculture
#14
Venkatachalam Lakshmanan, Prasun Ray, Kelly D Craven
In recent years, the utilization of novel sequencing techniques opened a new field of research into plant microbiota and was used to explore a wide diversity of microorganisms both inside and outside of plant host tissues, i.e., the endosphere and rhizosphere, respectively. An early realization from such research was that species richness and diversity of the plant microbiome are both greater than believed even a few years ago, and soil is likely home to the most abundant and diverse microbial habitats known...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734370/class-modelling-in-food-analytical-chemistry-development-sampling-optimisation-and-validation-issues-a-tutorial
#15
REVIEW
Paolo Oliveri
Qualitative data modelling is a fundamental branch of pattern recognition, with many applications in analytical chemistry, and embraces two main families: discriminant and class-modelling methods. The first strategy is appropriate when at least two classes are meaningfully defined in the problem under study, while the second strategy is the right choice when the focus is on a single class. For this reason, class-modelling methods are also referred to as one-class classifiers. Although, in the food analytical field, most of the issues would be properly addressed by class-modelling strategies, the use of such techniques is rather limited and, in many cases, discriminant methods are forcedly used for one-class problems, introducing a bias in the outcomes...
August 22, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731294/the-bioinorganic-chemistry-of-lead-in-the-context-of-its-toxicity
#16
Wolfgang Maret
Owing to its abundance on earth and its multiple uses by humans, lead (Pb) is a major toxicant that has threatened human health for millennia and continues to do so. There is no safe level of exposure, necessitating a nuanced approach to its control in the food we consume, the water we drink, and the air we breathe. Turnover in soft tissues is within days. In contrast, lead accumulates in bone and turns over with a half-life of about 30 years, though it can be mobilized from bone under physiological and pathophysiological conditions of bone resorption...
April 10, 2017: Metal Ions in Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730944/integrating-bioassays-and-analytical-chemistry-as-an-improved-approach-to-support-safety-assessment-of-food-contact-materials
#17
Julien Veyrand, Maricel Marin-Kuan, Claudine Bezencon, Nancy Frank, Violaine Guérin, Sander Koster, Hélia Latado, Julie Mollergues, Amaury Patin, Dominique Piguet, Patrick Serrant, Jesus Varela, Benoît Schilter
Food contact materials (FCM) contain chemicals which can migrate into food and result in human exposure. Although it is mandatory to ensure that migration does not endanger human health, there is still no consensus on how to pragmatically assess the safety of FCM since traditional approaches would require extensive toxicological and analytical testing which are expensive and time consuming. Recently, the combination of bioassays, analytical chemistry and risk assessment has been promoted as a new paradigm to identify toxicologically relevant molecules and address safety issues...
July 21, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727433/the-53rd-north-american-chemical-residue-workshop
#18
Brian David Eitzer, Sherry T Garris, Joan M Stevens
The 53rd North American Chemical Residue Workshop was held in July 2016. This is a brief review of the workshop including the awarding of the 2nd NACRW Excellence award to Dr. Andre de Kok. It is also an introduction to a special issue of the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry that presents manuscripts of papers presented at that workshop.
July 20, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721824/potential-anti-inflammatory-effects-of-hesperidin-from-the-genus-citrus
#19
Silvia Tejada, Samuel Pinya, Miquel Martorell, Xavier Capó, Josep A Tur, Antoni Pons, Antoni Sureda
The benefits of the Mediterranean diet for protecting against many diseases are usually attributed to high consumption of certain foods, characterized by the presence of bioactive substances such as polyphenols. Citrus fruits, which are cultivated and consumed worldwide, are typical products of the Mediterranean diet. Inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of numerous diseases such as arthritis, allergies and neurodegenerative disorders, among others. Dietary polyphenols constitute a large family of bioactive substances with potential beneficial effects against a broad group of diseases...
July 18, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719022/engineering-the-surface-of-smart-nanocarriers-using-a-ph-thermal-gsh-responsive-polymer-zipper-for-precise-tumor-targeting-therapy-in-vivo
#20
Penghui Zhang, Yan Wang, Jing Lian, Qi Shen, Chen Wang, Bohan Ma, Yuchao Zhang, Tingting Xu, Jianxin Li, Yongping Shao, Feng Xu, Jun-Jie Zhu
Nanocarrier surface chemistry plays a vital role in mediating cell internalization and enhancing delivery efficiency during in vivo chemotherapy. Inspired by the ability of proteins to alter their conformation to mediate functions, a pH-/thermal-/glutathione-responsive polymer zipper consisting of cell-penetrating poly(disulfide)s and thermosensitive polymers bearing guanidinium/phosphate (Gu(+) /pY(-) ) motifs to spatiotemporally tune the surface composition of nanocarriers for precise tumor targeting and efficient drug delivery is developed...
July 18, 2017: Advanced Materials
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