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food chemistry

Ireen Vieweg, Eider Bilbao, James P Meador, Ibon Cancio, Morgan Lizabeth Bender, Miren P Cajaraville, Jasmine Nahrgang
Polar cod is an abundant Arctic key species, inhabiting an ecosystem that is subjected to rapid climate change and increased petroleum related activities. Few studies have investigated biological effects of crude oil on lipid metabolism in this species, despite lipids being a crucial compound for Arctic species to adapt to the high seasonality in food abundance in their habitat. This study examines the effects of dietary crude oil exposure on transcription levels of genes related to lipid metabolism (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors [ppar-α, ppar-γ], retinoic X receptor [rxr-β], palmitoyl-CoA oxidase [aox1], cytochrome P4507A1 [cyp7α1]), reproduction (vitellogenin [vtg-β], gonad aromatase [cyp19a1]) and biotransformation (cytochrome P4501A1 [cyp1a1], aryl hydrocarbon receptor [ahr2])...
March 16, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Shixiang Yao, Dominic Agyei, Chibuike C Udenigwe
Bioactive peptides have many structural features that enable them to become functional in controlling several biological processes in the body, especially those related to metabolic health. This chapter provides an overview of the multiple targets of food-derived peptides against metabolic health problems (e.g., hypertension, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, oxidative stress) and discusses the importance of structural chemistry in determining the bioactivities of peptides and protein hydrolysates.
2018: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
Zaher A Radi, W Mark Vogel, Timothy LaBranche, Joseph A Dybowski, Marjorie A Peraza, Susan S Portugal, Daniel J Lettiere
Glomerulopathy and body weight gain were noted after chronic oral administration of a novel nonsteroidal dissociated agonist of the glucocorticoid receptor compound, fosdagrocorat, to beagle dogs fed an ad libitum diet. To further investigate the role of diet and treatment with either fosdagrocorat or the glucocorticoid comparator, prednisone, on renal safety, a 13-week investigative study was conducted in beagle dogs. Renal histopathology, clinical chemistry, urinalysis, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), body weight, heart rate, blood pressure (BP), and hematology were investigated in restricted- and ad libitum-fed dogs administered prednisone (2...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Toxicology
Gary D Novack
Because of the epidemic of myopia with both its short-term and long-term effects, we desperately need ways to slow myopic progression. In this study which was part of a myopia prevention symposium, the author answers the following question: Assuming that researchers did come up with a pharmacological treatment to slow myopic progression-what would it take to obtain regulatory approval from the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA)? Previous publicly available information (a 2003 FDA advisory committee on this topic, International Conference on Harmonisation guidances on drug development, and published articles) as well as the author's experience is used...
March 16, 2018: Eye & Contact Lens
Michael S McLachlan, Emma Undeman, Fangyuan Zhao, Matthew MacLeod
Predicting human exposure to an environmental contaminant based on its emissions is one of the great challenges of environmental chemistry. It has been done successfully on a local or regional scale for some persistent organic pollutants. Here we assess whether it can be done at a global scale, using PCB 153 as a test chemical. The global multimedia fate model BETR Global and the human exposure model ACC-HUMAN were employed to predict the concentration of PCB 153 in human milk for 56 countries around the world from a global historical emissions scenario...
March 19, 2018: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Autumn Oczkowski, Bryan Taplin, Richard Pruell, Adam Pimenta, Roxanne Johnson, Jason Grear
Coastal ecosystems are inherently complex and potentially adaptive as they respond to changes in nutrient loads and climate. We documented the role that carbon stable isotope (δ13 C) measurements could play in understanding that adaptation with a series of three Ecostat (i.e., continuous culture) experiments. We quantified linkages among δ13 C, nutrients, carbonate chemistry, primary, and secondary production in temperate estuarine waters. Experimental culture vessels (9.1 L) containing 33% whole and 67% filtered (0...
February 14, 2018: Frontiers in Marine Science
Melissa Conte, Josselin Lupette, Khawla Seddiki, Coline Meï, Lina J Dolch, Valerie Gros, Caroline Barette, Fabrice Rébeillé, Juliette Jouhet, Eric Marechal
Microalgae are a promising feedstock for the production of triacylglycerol (TAG) for a variety of potential applications, ranging from food and human health to biofuels and green chemistry. However, obtaining high TAG yields is challenging. A phenotypic assay for accumulation of oil droplets was developed to screen a library of 1,200 drugs, annotated with pharmacology information, to select compounds that trigger TAG accumulation in the diatom Phaeodactylum. Using this screen, we identified 34 molecules acting in a dose-dependent manner...
March 13, 2018: Plant Physiology
Patricia M Tilney, Magda Nel, Abraham E van Wyk
Ekebergia capensis is a medium-sized to large evergreen to deciduous tree ranging from southern Africa to Ethiopia. Two morphologically-distinct variants of E. capensis , southern and northern, may be recognized in southern Africa. Despite its wide distribution range there appear to be no published reports on the secretory structures occurring on the leaves. In very young leaves, colleters on the petiolules, adjacent portions of the rachis and the midrib of the adaxial leaflet surfaces, secrete fluid which at least partly covers these developing areas...
February 2018: Heliyon
Shi-Jun Liu, Zhi-Shu Tang, Zhi-Xin Liao, Chun-Li Cui, Hong-Bo Liu, Yan-Ni Liang, Yu Zhang, Hong-Bo Xu, Dong-Bo Zhang, Ya-Ting Zheng, Huan-Xian Shi, Shi-Ying Li
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ligularia przewalskii (Maxim.) Diels (LP) (called zhangyetuowu in Chinese), is generally found in moist forest areas in the western regions of China. The root, leaves and flower of LP are utilized as a common traditional medicine in China. It has been utilized conventionally in herbal remedies for the remedy of haemoptysis, asthma, pulmonary phthisis, jaundice hepatitis, food poisoning, bronchitis, cough, fever, wound healing, measles, carbuncle, swelling and phlegm diseases...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Deepak Bhandari, Brett A Bowman, Anish B Patel, David M Chambers, Víctor R De Jesús, Benjamin C Blount
This work describes a quantitative high-throughput analytical method for the simultaneous measurement of small aliphatic nitrogenous biomarkers, i.e., 1,6-hexamethylenediamine (HDA), isophoronediamine (IPDA), β-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA), and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), in human urine. Urinary aliphatic diamines, HDA and IPDA, are potential biomarkers of environmental exposure to their corresponding diisocyanates. Urinary BMAA forms as a result of human exposure to blue-green algae contaminated food. And, TMAO is excreted in urine due to the consumption of carnitine- and choline-rich diets...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Vanessa Andreu, Annabel Levert, Anaïs Amiot, Anaïs Cousin, Nicolas Aveline, Cédric Bertrand
Five plant extracts traditionally used in organic and biodynamic farming for pest control and antifungal (downy mildew) disease management were selected after a farmer survey and analyzed for their chemical composition in LC-PDA-MS-MS and using adapted analytical method from food chemistry for determination of class of component (e.g., protein, sugar, lipids…). Their antifungal activity against Penicillium expansum, Botrytis cinerea, Botrytis allii, brown rot causing agents (Monilinia laxa and Monilinia fructigena), and grape downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) was examined in vitro...
March 7, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Ibrahim Alhroub, Evguenii Kozliak, Alena Kubatova, Mark Sulkes
There has been a limited understanding of high MW polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) product chemistry in the pyrolysis of triglycerides (TGs), though the subject has important implications for both fuel production from TGs and food science. Previous TG pyrolysis studies have been able to identify only relatively low MW GC-elutable aromatics occurring in the bulk liquid phase; products occurring in the solid phase have remained inaccessible to chemical analysis. In contrast, cold gas expansion molecular beam methods, where pyrolysis products are analyzed in real time as they are entrained in gas expansions, remove product collection difficulties, thereby allowing for analysis of coke/tar PAH precursors...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Wenjing Chu, Haiyan Gao, Shifeng Cao, Xiangjun Fang, Hangjun Chen, Shangyue Xiao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Michael Pérez-Rodríguez, Roberto Gerardo Pellerano, Leonardo Pezza, Helena Redigolo Pezza
Tetracyclines are widely used for both the treatment and prevention of diseases in animals as well as for the promotion of rapid animal growth and weight gain. This practice may result in trace amounts of these drugs in products of animal origin, such as milk and eggs, posing serious risks to human health. The presence of tetracycline residues in foods can lead to the transmission of antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria through the food chain. In order to ensure food safety and avoid exposure to these substances, national and international regulatory agencies have established tolerance levels for authorized veterinary drugs, including tetracycline antimicrobials...
May 15, 2018: Talanta
Anne-Mari Mustonen, Maija Määttänen, Vesa Kärjä, Katri Puukka, Jari Aho, Seppo Saarela, Petteri Nieminen
Rhabdomyolysis (destruction of striated muscle) is a novel form of mushroom poisoning in Europe and Asia indicated by increased circulating creatine kinase levels. Particular wild fungi have also been reported to induce elevated creatine kinase activities in mice. Flammulina velutipes (enokitake or winter mushroom) is one of the most actively cultivated mushroom species globally. As it is marketed as a medicinal mushroom and functional food, it is important to examine whether it could induce potentially harmful health effects similar to some previously studied edible fungi...
January 1, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Anyin Li, Martin R L Paine, Stephen Zambrzycki, Rachel Stryffeler, Jason Wu, Marcos Bouza, Jake Huckaby, Chu-Yin Chang, Manoj Kumar, Piyoosh Mukhija, Facundo M Fernandez
Many technologies currently exist that are capable of analyzing the surface of solid samples under ambient or vacuum conditions, but they are typically limited to smooth, planar surfaces. Those few that can be applied to non-planar surfaces, however, require manual sampling and a high degree of human intervention. Herein, we describe a new platform, Robotic Surface Analysis Mass Spectrometry (RoSA-MS), for direct surface sampling of three-dimensional (3D) objects. In RoSA-MS, a sampling probe is attached to a robotic arm that has 360° rotation through 6 individual joints...
March 1, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Kohei Kawakami, Kazuo Yamada, Takaya Yamada, Toru Nabika, Masato Nomura
'Haiibuki' is a giant embryo rice cultivar that contains abundant γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) compared with conventional rice cultivars. Here, we performed a functional evaluation of 'GABA-enriched brown rice' (GEBR) prepared by modifying the 'Haiibuki' cultivar to contain more GABA. Study 1: Spontaneously hypertensive rats were divided into three groups [control (cornstarch), normal brown rice, and GEBR] and fed an orally administered diet for 4 wk. A significant blood pressure elevation-inhibitory effect was observed in the GEBR group as compared with the other groups...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Dalong Ni, Dawei Jiang, Emily B Ehlerding, Peng Huang, Weibo Cai
As one of the most biocompatible and well-tolerated inorganic nanomaterials, silica-based nanoparticles (SiNPs) have received extensive attention over the last several decades. Recently, positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of radiolabeled SiNPs has provided a highly sensitive, noninvasive, and quantitative readout of the organ/tissue distribution, pharmacokinetics, and tumor targeting efficiency in vivo, which can greatly expedite the clinical translation of these promising NPs. Encouraged by the successful PET imaging of patients with metastatic melanoma using124 I-labeled ultrasmall SiNPs (known as Cornell dots or C dots) and their approval as an Investigational New Drug (IND) by the United States Food and Drug Administration, different radioisotopes (64 Cu,89 Zr,18 F,68 Ga,124 I, etc...
February 28, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Pierina Ielpo, Maria Rosaria Taurino, Riccardo Buccolieri, Claudia Marcella Placentino, Francesco Gallone, Valeria Ancona, Silvana Di Sabatino
Indoor air pollution assessment in work environments remains challenging due to a combination of logistic reasons and availability of costly instrumentation for data acquisition and post-processing. Existing literature focuses on energy production environments, hospitals, and less so on food production spaces. Studies on indoor air quality in bakeries are scarce or even absent. Motivated by this, the present study investigates indoor air quality in a bakery located in Bari province in South Italy, using a combination of approaches including analytical chemistry analyses and computational fluid dynamics to reconstruct the air ventilation in response to air temperature gradients within the working environment...
February 27, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Qifang Wu, Lijuan Xie, Huirong Xu
Nuts and dried fruits contain rich nutrients and are thus highly vulnerable to contamination with toxigenic fungi and aflatoxins because of poor weather, processing and storage conditions. Imaging and spectroscopic techniques have proven to be potential alternative tools to wet chemistry methods for efficient and non-destructive determination of contamination with fungi and toxins. Thus, this review provides an overview of the current developments and applications in frequently used food safety testing techniques, including near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIRS), conventional imaging techniques (colour imaging (CI) and hyperspectral imaging (HSI)), and fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging (FS/FI)...
June 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
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