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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917797/a-rapid-and-specific-colorimetric-method-for-free-tryptophan-quantification
#1
Yinan Wu, Tianmin Wang, Chong Zhang, Xin-Hui Xing
Tryptophan is one of the eight essential amino acids and plays an important role in many biological processes. For its interaction with human health, environment and relevant commercial interest in biotechnology-based production, rapid and specific quantification method for this molecule accessible to common laboratories is badly needed. We herein reported a simple colorimetric method for free tryptophan quantification with 96-well-plate-level throughput. Our protocol firstly converted tryptophan to indole enzymatically by purified tryptophanases and then used reactivity of indole with hydroxylamine to form pink product with absorption peak at 530nm, enabling the quantification of tryptophan with simple spectrometry in just two hours...
January 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916246/pre-clinical-toxicology-considerations-for-vaccine-development
#2
REVIEW
Nabil Al-Humadi
Vaccine development requires pre-clinical toxicology studies, following good laboratory practice (GLP), before first in human (phase I) use. Many factors are critical in the final outcome of any pre-clinical toxicology study. The study design is one of these critical factors and should be carefully planned to avoid any false negative and/or false positive results. Preparation is another most critical factor in a successful study. Major changes in any procedure during the course of study should be avoided by all means...
September 12, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911543/chemistry-and-bioactivity-of-gardenia-jasminoides
#3
REVIEW
Wenping Xiao, Shiming Li, Siyu Wang, Chi-Tang Ho
Gardenia jasminoides, grown in multiple regions in China, was commonly used as a natural yellow dye but has been one of the popular traditional Chinese medicines since the discovery of its biological property a few decades ago. It has been reported that G. jasminoides possess multiple biological activities, such as antioxidant properties, hypoglycemic effect, inhibition of inflammation, antidepression activity, and improved sleeping quality. In this review, our aim was to have a comprehensive summary of its phytochemistry including the extraction, isolation, and characterization of volatiles and bioactive molecules in G...
January 2017: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902405/preparation-and-characterization-of-dendrobium-officinale-powders-through-superfine-grinding
#4
Qingran Meng, Haoran Fan, Feng Chen, Tiancun Xiao, Lianfu Zhang
BACKGROUND: Dendrobium officinale has been used in China for several thousand years as a health food, it has become one of the most expensive tea materials worldwide due to extremely scarce wild resources and increasing demand. Hence, it is very important to improve the depth and width of its application. In present work, the physico-chemical, surface chemistry, and thermal properties of micron range particles and coarse particles prepared by superfine grinding and shear pulverization were investigated...
September 13, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901218/four-week-dietary-supplementation-with-10-and-or-15-fold-basal-choline-caused-decreased-body-weight-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#5
Bradford D Bagley, Shu-Ching Chang, David J Ehresman, Alan Eveland, George A Parker, Jeffrey M Peters, John L Butenhoff
Choline is an essential nutrient utilized for phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis and lipoprotein packaging and secretion. Recently, choline supplementation has been used by athletes and the public for weight loss. However, the potential toxicological impact of choline dietary supplementation requires further investigation. This study examined the effects of choline dietary supplementation in Sprague Dawley rats for 4 weeks. Rats were fed diets containing basal choline levels (control) or 5-, 10-, or 15-fold (5×, 10×, or 15×) basal diet concentration...
January 1, 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894979/cuticular-hydrocarbons-of-tribolium-confusum-larvae-mediate-trail-following-and-host-recognition-in-the-ectoparasitoid-holepyris-sylvanidis
#6
Benjamin Fürstenau, Monika Hilker
Parasitic wasps which attack insects infesting processed stored food need to locate their hosts hidden inside these products. Their host search is well-known to be guided by host kairomones, perceived via olfaction or contact. Among contact kairomones, host cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) may provide reliable information for a parasitoid. However, the chemistry of CHC profiles of hosts living in processed stored food products is largely unknown. Here we showed that the ectoparasitoid Holepyris sylvanidis uses CHCs of its host Tribolium confusum, a worldwide stored product pest, as kairomones for host location and recognition at short range...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890268/novel-acylhydrazone-bond-dynamic-covalent-polymer-gel-monolithic-column-online-coupling-to-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-for-analysis-of-sulfonamides-and-fluorescent-whitening-agents-in-food
#7
Chengjiang Zhang, Xialin Luo, Tianfu Wei, Yufei Hu, Gongke Li, Zhuomin Zhang
A new dynamic covalent polymer (DCP) gel was well designed and constructed based on imine chemistry. Polycondensation of 4,4'-biphenyldicarboxaldehyde and 1,3,5-benzenetricarbohydrazide via Schiff-base reaction resulted in an acylhydrazone bond gel (AB-gel) DCP. AB-gel DCP had three-dimensional network of interconnected nanoparticles with hierarchically porous structure. AB-gel DCP was successfully fabricated as a monolithic column by an in-situ chemical bonding method for online enrichment and separation purpose with excellent permeability...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873658/impact-of-sulphur-fumigation-on-the-chemistry-of-ginger
#8
Cheng-Ying Wu, Ming Kong, Wei Zhang, Fang Long, Jing Zhou, Shan-Shan Zhou, Jin-Di Xu, Jun Xu, Song-Lin Li
Ginger (Zingiberis Rhizoma), a commonly-consumed food supplement, is often sulphur-fumigated during post-harvest handling, but it remains unknown if sulphur fumigation induces chemical transformations in ginger. In this study, the effects of sulphur fumigation on ginger chemicals were investigated by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS)-based metabolomics. The results showed that sulphur fumigation significantly altered the holistic chemical profile of ginger by triggering chemical transformations of certain original components...
January 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872605/vegetable-oils-as-alternative-solvents-for-green-oleo-extraction-purification-and-formulation-of-food-and-natural-products
#9
REVIEW
Edinson Yara-Varón, Ying Li, Mercè Balcells, Ramon Canela-Garayoa, Anne-Sylvie Fabiano-Tixier, Farid Chemat
Since solvents of petroleum origin are now strictly regulated worldwide, there is a growing demand for using greener, bio-based and renewable solvents for extraction, purification and formulation of natural and food products. The ideal alternative solvents are non-volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that have high dissolving power and flash point, together with low toxicity and less environmental impact. They should be obtained from renewable resources at a reasonable price and be easy to recycle. Based on the principles of Green Chemistry and Green Engineering, vegetable oils could become an ideal alternative solvent to extract compounds for purification, enrichment, or even pollution remediation...
September 5, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853868/evaluation-of-iodine-bioavailability-in-seaweed-using-in-vitro-methods
#10
M Raquel Domínguez-González, Gabriela M Chiocchetti, Paloma Herbello-Hermelo, Dinoraz Vélez, Vicenta Devesa, Pilar Bermejo-Barrera
Due to the high levels of iodine present in seaweed, the ingestion of a large amount of this type of food can produce excessive intake of iodine. However, the food after ingestion undergoes different chemistry and physical processes that can modify the amount of iodine that reaches the systemic circulation (bioavailability). Studies on the bioavailability of iodine from food are scarce and indicate that the bioavailable amount is generally lower than ingested. Iodine in vitro bioavailability estimation from different commercialized seaweed has been studied using different in vitro approaches (solubility, dialyzability, and transport and uptake by intestinal cells)...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846441/recent-developments-and-applications-of-hyperspectral-imaging-for-rapid-detection-of-mycotoxins-and-mycotoxigenic-fungi-in-food-products
#11
Fuguo Xing, Haibo Yao, Yang Liu, Xiaofeng Dai, Robert L Brown, Deepak Bhatnagar
Mycotoxins are the foremost naturally occurring contaminants of food products such as corn, peanuts, tree nuts, and wheat. As the secondary metabolites, mycotoxins are mainly synthesized by many species of the genera Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium, and are considered highly toxic and carcinogenic to humans and animals. Most mycotoxins are detected and quantified by analytical chemistry-based methods. While mycotoxigenic fungi are usually identified and quantified by biological methods. However, these methods are time-consuming, laborious, costly, and inconsistent because of the variability of the grain-sampling process...
August 28, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844184/the-argentinian-mother-and-child-contaminant-study-a-cross-sectional-study-among-delivering-women-in-the-cities-of-ushuaia-and-salta
#12
Inger Økland, Jon Øyvind Odland, Silvinia Matiocevich, Marisa Viviana Alvarez, Torbjørn Aarsland, Evert Nieboer, Solrunn Hansen
Several ongoing international multidisciplinary projects have examined linkages between environmental chemicals and health. In contrast to Arctic regions, information for the Southern Hemisphere is scarce. Because of the inherent practice of pesticide utilisation and mismanagement, food security is potentially threatened. The most vulnerable period in human life occurs during pregnancy and early childhood, thus a focus on the body burdens of PTS in pregnant or delivering women is warranted. The current study was designed to investigate health risks related to exposure to PTS and food security in two regions of Argentina (Ushuaia and Salta)...
2017: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842034/biologically-friendly-room-temperature-ionic-liquids-and-nanomaterials-for-the-development-of-innovative-enzymatic-biosensors
#13
D Zappi, R Caminiti, G M Ingo, C Sadun, C Tortolini, M L Antonelli
Main purpose of the work is assembling, testing and optimizing new disposable amperometric biosensors to analyze substances in different application fields as agribusiness, clinical chemistry and environment protection. Many kinds of modified electrodes have been prepared and tested to build portable devices to analyze quickly many analytes, in a simple and cost-effective manner. Bare electrodes of the screen-printed type, with silver as reference, have been used for modification. The glassy carbon electrodes with multi-walled carbon nanotubes or graphene or gold nanoparticles depositions were modified with generation IV ionic liquids...
December 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838081/us-pharmacopeial-convention-safety-evaluation-of-menaquinone-7-a-form-of-vitamin-k
#14
Robin J Marles, Amy L Roe, Hellen A Oketch-Rabah
Vitamin K plays important biological roles in maintaining normal blood coagulation, bone mineralization, soft tissue physiology, and neurological development. Menaquinone-7 is a form of vitamin K2 that occurs naturally in some animal-derived and fermented foods. It is also available as an ingredient of dietary supplements. Menaquinone-7 has greater bioavailability than other forms of vitamin K, which has led to increasing sales and use of menaquinone-7 supplements. This special article reviews the chemistry, nomenclature, dietary sources, intake levels, and pharmacokinetics of menaquinones, along with the nonclinical toxicity data available and the data on clinical outcomes related to safety (adverse events)...
July 1, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835652/litter-chemistry-explains-contrasting-feeding-preferences-of-bacteria-fungi-and-higher-plants
#15
Giuliano Bonanomi, Gaspare Cesarano, Nadia Lombardi, Riccardo Motti, Felice Scala, Stefano Mazzoleni, Guido Incerti
Litter decomposition provides a continuous flow of organic carbon and nutrients that affects plant development and the structure of decomposer communities. Aim of this study was to distinguish the feeding preferences of microbes and plants in relation to litter chemistry. We characterized 36 litter types by (13)C-CPMAS NMR spectroscopy and tested these materials on 6 bacteria, 6 fungi, and 14 target plants. Undecomposed litter acted as a carbon source for most of the saprophytic microbes, although with a large variability across litter types, severely inhibiting root growth...
August 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834784/determination-of-fat-content-in-chicken-hamburgers-using-nir-spectroscopy-and-the-successive-projections-algorithm-for-interval-selection-in-pls-regression-ispa-pls
#16
Gabriela Krepper, Florencia Romeo, David Douglas de Sousa Fernandes, Paulo Henrique Gonçalves Dias Diniz, Mário César Ugulino de Araújo, María Susana Di Nezio, Marcelo Fabián Pistonesi, María Eugenia Centurión
Determining fat content in hamburgers is very important to minimize or control the negative effects of fat on human health, effects such as cardiovascular diseases and obesity, which are caused by the high consumption of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol. This study proposed an alternative analytical method based on Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIR) and Successive Projections Algorithm for interval selection in Partial Least Squares regression (iSPA-PLS) for fat content determination in commercial chicken hamburgers...
August 17, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821347/stable-oil-laden-foams-formation-and-evolution
#17
REVIEW
Rémy Mensire, Elise Lorenceau
The interaction between oil and foam has been the subject of various studies. Indeed, oil can be an efficient defoaming agent, which can be highly valuable in various industrial applications where undesired foaming may occur, as seen in jet-dyeing processes or waste water treatment plant. However, oil and foam can also constructively interact as observed in detergency, fire-fighting, food and petroleum industries, where oil can be in the foam structure or put into contact with the foam without observing a catastrophic break-up of the foam...
August 2, 2017: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811882/seasonal-changes-in-leaf-chemistry-and-leaf-selection-of-the-japanese-giant-flying-squirrel-upon-two-tree-species
#18
Mutsumi Ito, Noriko Tamura, Fumio Hayashi
Tree leaves are important food sources for arboreal herbivores, such as primates, rodents, and marsupials. These animals do not eat leaves randomly in habitats with many tree species but rather choose based on the chemical components of leaves, such as sugars, fibers, proteins, and toxins. However, the effects of the microscale distribution of these chemicals within each leaf have not been examined for these animals. The giant flying squirrels Petaurista leucogenys are entirely arboreal, nocturnal herbivores, usually feeding on leaves and dropping leaf debris on the ground after partially consuming them...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809975/discovery-of-synthetic-small-molecules-that-enhance-the-number-of-stomata-c-h-functionalization-chemistry-for-plant-biology
#19
Asraa Ziadi, Naoyuki Uchida, Hiroe Kato, Rina Hisamatsu, Ayato Sato, Shinya Hagihara, Kenichiro Itami, Keiko U Torii
The increasing climate changes and global warming are leading to colossal agricultural problems such as abatement of food production and quality. As stomatal development is considered to play a key role in crop plant productivity and water-use efficiency, studying stomatal development is useful for understanding the productivity of plant systems for both natural and agricultural systems. Herein, we report the first-in-class synthetic small molecules enhancing the number of stomata in Arabidopsis thaliana that have been discovered by screening of the chemical library and further optimized by the Pd-catalyzed C-H arylation reaction...
August 15, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796812/toxicological-and-bio-distribution-profile-of-a-gm-csf-expressing-double-targeted-chimeric-oncolytic-adenovirus-oncos-102-support-for-clinical-studies-on-advanced-cancer-treatment
#20
Lukasz Kuryk, Lotta Vassilev, Tuuli Ranki, Akseli Hemminki, Aila Karioja-Kallio, Onerva Levälampi, Antti Vuolanto, Vincenzo Cerullo, Sari Pesonen
The purpose of this work was to carry out preclinical toxicity and bio-distribution studies required for regulatory approval of a clinical trial application for Phase I clinical studies of ONCOS-102 (Ad5/3-D24-GM-CSF) for therapy of advanced cancers (NCT01598129). The study design, route of administration and dosage differs from the clinical protocol and in more detail, investigate bio-distribution and toxicological profile of ONCOS-102 treatment in animal model. The study was carried out in 300 hamsters divided into nine test groups-three bio-distribution groups and six groups for analysis of toxicity...
2017: PloS One
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