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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093983/an-approach-towards-structure-based-antimicrobial-peptide-design-for-use-in-development-of-transgenic-plants-a-strategy-for-plant-disease-management
#1
Humaira Ilyas, Aritreyee Datta, Anirban Bhunia
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), also known as host defense peptides (HDPs), are ubiquitous and vital components of innate defense response that present themselves as potential candidates for drug design, aimed to control plant and animal diseases. Though their application for plant disease management has long been studied with natural AMPs, cytotoxicity and stability related shortcomings for the development of transgenic plants limits their usage. Newer technologies like molecular modelling, NMR spectroscopy and combinatorial chemistry allow screening for potent candidates and provide new avenues for the generation of rationally designed synthetic AMPs with multiple biological functions...
January 16, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091741/chemical-physical-and-biological-factors-shape-littoral-invertebrate-community-structure-in-coal-mining-end-pit-lakes
#2
Andreas Luek, Joseph B Rasmussen
Aquatic invertebrates form the base of the consumer food web in lakes. In coal-mining end-pit lakes, invertebrates are exposed to an environment with potentially challenging physical and chemical features. We hypothesized that the physical and chemical features of end-pit lakes reduce critical littoral habitat and thus reduce invertebrate diversity, thereby limiting the potential for these lakes to be naturalized. We used a multivariate approach using principle component analysis and redundancy analysis to study relationships between invertebrate community structure, habitat features, and water quality in five end-pit lakes and five natural lakes in the Rocky Mountain foothills of west-central Alberta, Canada...
January 13, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088572/bcs-class-iv-drugs-highly-notorious-candidates-for-formulation-development
#3
REVIEW
Rohan Ghadi, Neha Dand
BCS class IV drugs (e.g., amphotericin B, furosemide, acetazolamide, ritonavir, paclitaxel) exhibit many characteristics that are problematic for effective oral and per oral delivery. Some of the problems associated include low aqueous solubility, poor permeability, erratic and poor absorption, inter and intra subject variability and significant positive food effect which leads to low and variable bioavailability. Also, most of the class IV drugs are substrate for P-glycoprotein (low permeability) and substrate for CYP3A4 (extensive pre systemic metabolism) which further potentiates the problem of poor therapeutic potential of these drugs...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078890/metamorphosis-affects-metal-concentrations-and-isotopic-signatures-in-a-mayfly-baetis-tricaudatus-implications-for-the-aquatic-terrestrial-transfer-of-metals
#4
Jeff S Wesner, David M Walters, Travis S Schmidt, Johanna M Kraus, Craig A Stricker, William H Clements, Ruth E Wolf
Insect metamorphosis often results in substantial chemical changes that can alter contaminant concentrations and fractionate isotopes. We exposed larval mayflies (Baetis tricaudatus) and their food (periphyton) to an aqueous zinc gradient (3-340 µg Zn/l) and measured zinc concentrations at different stages of metamorphosis: larval, subimago, and imago. We also measured changes in stable isotopes (δ15N and δ13C) in unexposed mayflies. Larval zinc concentrations were positively related to aqueous zinc, increasing 9-fold across the exposure gradient...
January 12, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070107/effects-of-reduced-food-intake-for-4-weeks-on-physiological-parameters-in-toxicity-studies-in-dogs
#5
Junya Morita, Tomoko Izumi, Bunichiro Ogawa, Yoshiki Ban, Hironori Takagi, Minoru Sasaki, Shunsuke Tsutsumi
This study sought to clarify the effects of reduced feeding on physiological parameters in dogs to enable appropriate evaluations of the safety and toxicity of test compounds. We measured alkaline phosphatase isozymes and the circulating blood volume, as well as clinical signs, body weight, hematology, blood chemistry, electrocardiography, organ weight, and histopathology, in male beagle dogs fed a diet consisting of 300 g/day or 150 g/day for 4 weeks. There were no abnormal clinical signs in any of the dogs...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068053/surface-modification-of-gold-nanoparticles-with-small-molecules-for-biochemical-analysis
#6
Yiping Chen, Yunlei Xianyu, Xingyu Jiang
As one of the major tools for and by chemical science, biochemical analysis is becoming increasingly important in fields like clinical diagnosis, food safety, environmental monitoring, and the development of chemistry and biochemistry. The advancement of nanotechnology boosts the development of analytical chemistry, particularly the nanoparticle (NP)-based approaches for biochemical assays. Functional NPs can greatly improve the performance of biochemical analysis because they can accelerate signal transduction, enhance the signal intensity, and enable convenient signal readout due to their unique physical and chemical properties...
January 9, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056951/capromorelin-oral-solution-entyce%C3%A2-increases-food-consumption-and-body-weight-when-administered-for-4-consecutive-days-to-healthy-adult-beagle-dogs-in-a-randomized-masked-placebo-controlled-study
#7
Bill Zollers, Linda Rhodes, Ernst Heinen
BACKGROUND: Dogs can suffer from inappetence caused by a variety of medical conditions. This may present as anorexia (complete loss of appetite), hyporexia (decreased appetite) or dysrexia (change in food preferences). A drug with a new mechanism of action, capromorelin, has potential to stimulate appetite in dogs. Capromorelin is a ghrelin receptor agonist, which mimics the action of endogenous ghrelin. It is a member of the growth hormone secretagogue (GHS) class of drugs. Capromorelin oral solution (ENTYCE®) was tested in healthy adult male and female Beagle dogs (n = 6 males and 6 females per group) for its effect on food consumption and body weight...
January 5, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052198/contribution-of-surface-chemistry-to-the-shear-thickening-of-silica-nanoparticle-suspensions
#8
Wufang Yang, Yang Wu, Xiaowei Pei, Feng Zhou, Qunji Xue
Shear thickening is a general process crucial for many processed products ranging from food and personal care to pharmaceuticals. Theoretical calculations and mathematical simulations of hydrodynamic interactions and granular-like contacts have proved that contact forces between suspended particles dominate the rheological characteristic of colloidal suspensions. However, relevant experimental studies are very rare. This study was conducted to reveal the influence of nanoparticle (NP) interactions on the rheological behavior of shear-thickening fluids (STFs) by changing the colloidal surface chemistries...
January 17, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039423/relative-toxicity-of-two-aphicides-to-hippodamia-convergens-coleoptera-coccinellidae-implications-for-integrated-management-of-sugarcane-aphid-melanaphis-sacchari-hemiptera-aphididae
#9
Felipe Colares, J P Michaud, Clint L Bain, Jorge B Torres
Flupyradifurone and sulfoxaflor present novel insecticide chemistries with particular efficacy against aphids, and the recent emergence of sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner), as a pest of sorghum in the United States has resulted in their widespread use. We examined their toxicity to Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville, an important aphid biocontrol agent. We exposed beetles to topical applications of the field rate (FR) of these insecticides, fed them contaminated food (eggs of Ephestia kuehniella Zeller), and gave first-instar larvae 24-h exposures to leaf residues...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027702/making-a-global-sensation-vanilla-flavor-synthetic-chemistry-and-the-meanings-of-purity
#10
Nadia Berenstein
How did vanilla, once a rare luxury, become a global sensation? Rather than taking the vanilla flavor of vanilla beans as a pre-existing natural fact, this essay argues that the sensory experience that came to be recognized as vanilla was a hybrid artifact produced by an expanding global trade in a diverse set of pleasurable substances, including cured beans from artificially pollinated vanilla orchids, synthetic vanillin, sugar, and a far-flung miscellany of other botanical and chemical materials. Global trade and large-scale production resulted not in the production of a homogenous, stable commodity, but in a range of local vanillas, heterogeneous mixtures with a range of qualities and virtues...
December 2016: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992579/seawater-ph-predicted-for-the-year-2100-affects-the-metabolic-response-to-feeding-in-copepodites-of-the-arctic-copepod-calanus-glacialis
#11
Peter Thor, Allison Bailey, Claudia Halsband, Ella Guscelli, Elena Gorokhova, Agneta Fransson
Widespread ocean acidification (OA) is transforming the chemistry of the global ocean, and the Arctic is recognised as a region where the earliest and strongest impacts of OA are expected. In the present study, metabolic effects of OA and its interaction with food availability was investigated in Calanus glacialis from the Kongsfjord, West Spitsbergen. We measured metabolic rates and RNA/DNA ratios (an indicator of biosynthesis) concurrently in fed and unfed individuals of copepodite stages CII-CIII and CV subjected to two different pH levels representative of present day and the "business as usual" IPCC scenario (RCP8...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983765/selected-ion-flow-tube-study-of-the-reactions-of-h3-o-and-no-with-a-series-of-primary-alcohols-in-the-presence-of-water-vapour-in-support-of-sift-ms
#12
Patrik Spanel, Jan Žabka, Illya Zymak, David Smith
RATIONALE: Alcohols are often present in foods and other biological media, including exhaled breath, urine and cell culture headspace. For their analysis by SIFT-MS, the ion chemistry initiated by the reactions of the reagent ions H3 O(+) and NO(+) with alcohol molecules in the presence of water molecules needs to be understood and quantitatively described. METHODS: The reactions of H3 O(+) and NO(+) ions have been studied with the primary alcohols, methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 1-pentanol and 1-hexanol, under the conditions used for SIFT-MS analyses (1 Torr He; 0...
December 16, 2016: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979080/distribution-of-yloid-in-soil-grapevine-system-vitis-vinifera-l-as-tool-for-geographical-characterization-of-agro-food-products-a-two-years-case-study-on-different-grafting-combinations
#13
Antonino Pisciotta, Livia Tutone, Filippo Saiano
The knowledge of a chemistry relationship between the soil and the agricultural products is an important tool for the quality assessment of food. We studied YLOID (Y, La and lanthanoids), recognized as very useful tracers due their coherent and predictable behavior, to trace and evaluate their distribution from soil to the grape in Vitis vinifera L. Because much of the world's viticulture is based on grafting, and rootstocks have proved affect vine growth, yield, fruit and wine quality, we carried out experimental trials to analyse the YLOID distribution of two different red cultivars, grafted onto six different rootstocks, on the same soil...
April 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966081/vectorization-of-agrochemicals-amino-acid-carriers-are-more-efficient-than-sugar-carriers-to-translocate-phenylpyrrole-conjugates-in-the-ricinus-system
#14
Hanxiang Wu, Sophie Marhadour, Zhi-Wei Lei, Wen Yang, Cécile Marivingt-Mounir, Jean-Louis Bonnemain, Jean-François Chollet
Producing quality food in sufficient quantity while using less agrochemical inputs will be one of the great challenges of the twenty-first century. One way of achieving this goal is to greatly reduce the doses of plant protection compounds by improving the targeting of pests to eradicate. Therefore, we developed a vectorization strategy to confer phloem mobility to fenpiclonil, a contact fungicide from the phenylpyrrole family used as a model molecule. It consists in coupling the antifungal compound to an amino acid or a sugar, so that the resulting conjugates are handled by active nutrient transport systems...
December 13, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959548/marine-primary-productivity-as-a-potential-indirect-source-of-selenium-and-other-trace-elements-in-atmospheric-deposition
#15
Tim Blazina, Alexander Läderach, Gerrad D Jones, Harald Sodemann, Heini Wernli, James W Kirchner, Lenny H E Winkel
Atmospheric processes play an important role in the supply of the trace element selenium (Se) as well as other essential trace elements to terrestrial environments, mainly via wet deposition. Here we investigate whether the marine biosphere can be identified as a source of Se and of other trace elements in precipitation samples. We used artificial neural network (ANN) modeling and other statistical methods to analyze relationships between a high-resolution atmospheric deposition chemistry time series (March 2007-January 2009) from Plynlimon (UK) and exposure of air masses to marine chlorophyll a and to other source proxies...
January 3, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958327/widespread-episodic-thiamine-deficiency-in-northern-hemisphere-wildlife
#16
Lennart Balk, Per-Åke Hägerroth, Hanna Gustavsson, Lisa Sigg, Gun Åkerman, Yolanda Ruiz Muñoz, Dale C Honeyfield, Ulla Tjärnlund, Kenneth Oliveira, Karin Ström, Stephen D McCormick, Simon Karlsson, Marika Ström, Mathijs van Manen, Anna-Lena Berg, Halldór P Halldórsson, Jennie Strömquist, Tracy K Collier, Hans Börjeson, Torsten Mörner, Tomas Hansson
Many wildlife populations are declining at rates higher than can be explained by known threats to biodiversity. Recently, thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency has emerged as a possible contributing cause. Here, thiamine status was systematically investigated in three animal classes: bivalves, ray-finned fishes, and birds. Thiamine diphosphate is required as a cofactor in at least five life-sustaining enzymes that are required for basic cellular metabolism. Analysis of different phosphorylated forms of thiamine, as well as of activities and amount of holoenzyme and apoenzyme forms of thiamine-dependent enzymes, revealed episodically occurring thiamine deficiency in all three animal classes...
December 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932218/bisphenol-a-bpa-in-the-serum-of-pet-dogs-following-short-term-consumption-of-canned-dog-food-and-potential-health-consequences-of-exposure-to-bpa
#17
Zoe L Koestel, Robert C Backus, Kaoru Tsuruta, William G Spollen, Sarah A Johnson, Angela B Javurek, Mark R Ellersieck, Charles E Wiedmeyer, Kurunthachalam Kannan, Jingchuan Xue, Nathan J Bivens, Scott A Givan, Cheryl S Rosenfeld
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widely present endocrine disruptor chemical found in many household items. Moreover, this chemical can bioaccumulate in various terrestrial and aquatic sources; thereby ensuring continual exposure of animals and humans. For most species, including humans, diet is considered the primary route of exposure. However, there has been little investigation whether commercial-brands of dog foods contain BPA and potential health ramifications of BPA-dietary exposure in dogs. We sought to determine BPA content within dog food, whether short-term consumption of these diets increases serum concentrations of BPA, and potential health consequences, as assessed by potential hematological, serum chemistry, cortisol, DNA methylation, and gut microbiome changes, in dogs associated with short-term dietary exposure to BPA...
February 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929431/internet-databases-of-the-properties-enzymatic-reactions-and-metabolism-of-small-molecules-search-options-and-applications-in-food-science
#18
REVIEW
Piotr Minkiewicz, Małgorzata Darewicz, Anna Iwaniak, Justyna Bucholska, Piotr Starowicz, Emilia Czyrko
Internet databases of small molecules, their enzymatic reactions, and metabolism have emerged as useful tools in food science. Database searching is also introduced as part of chemistry or enzymology courses for food technology students. Such resources support the search for information about single compounds and facilitate the introduction of secondary analyses of large datasets. Information can be retrieved from databases by searching for the compound name or structure, annotating with the help of chemical codes or drawn using molecule editing software...
December 6, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909986/toxicity-and-pharmacokinetic-profile-for-single-dose-injection-of-aby-029-a-fluorescent-anti-egfr-synthetic-affibody-molecule-for-human-use
#19
Kimberley S Samkoe, Jason R Gunn, Kayla Marra, Sally M Hull, Karen L Moodie, Joachim Feldwisch, Theresa V Strong, Daniel R Draney, P Jack Hoopes, David W Roberts, Keith Paulsen, Brian W Pogue
PURPOSE: ABY-029, a synthetic Affibody peptide, Z03115-Cys, labeled with a near-infrared fluorophore, IRDye® 800CW, targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been produced under good manufacturing practices for a US Food and Drug Administration-approved first-in-use human study during surgical resection of glioma, as well as other tumors. Here, the pharmacology, phototoxicity, receptor activity, and biodistribution studies of ABY-029 were completed in rats, prior to the intended human use...
December 1, 2016: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909941/degradation-and-half-life-of-dna-present-in-biomass-from-a-genetically-modified-organism-during-land-application
#20
Mathew C Halter, James A Zahn
White biotechnology has made a positive impact on the chemical industry by providing safer, more efficient chemical manufacturing processes that have reduced the use of toxic chemicals, harsh reaction conditions, and expensive metal catalysts, which has improved alignment with the principles of Green Chemistry. The genetically-modified (GM) biocatalysts that are utilized in these processes are typically separated from high-value products and then recycled, or eliminated. Elimination routes include disposal in sanitary landfills, incineration, use as a fuel, animal feed, or reuse as an agricultural soil amendment or other value-added products...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
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