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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212462/climate-change-contaminant-interactions-in-marine-food-webs-towards-a-conceptual-framework
#1
Juan José Alava, William W L Cheung, Peter S Ross, Rashid U Sumaila
Climate change is reshaping the way in which contaminants move through the global environment, in large part by changing the chemistry of the oceans and affecting the physiology, health and feeding ecology of marine biota. Climate change-associated impacts on structure and function of marine food webs, with consequent changes in contaminant transport, fate and effects, is likely to have significant repercussions to those human populations that rely on fisheries resources for food, recreation or culture. Published studies on climate change-contaminant interactions with a focus on food web bioaccumulation were systematically reviewed to explore how climate change and ocean acidification may impact contaminant levels in marine food webs...
February 17, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211993/recent-lab-on-chip-developments-for-novel-drug-discovery
#2
REVIEW
Nauman Khalid, Isao Kobayashi, Mitsutoshi Nakajima
Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and micro total analysis systems (μTAS) revolutionized the biochemical and electronic industries, and this miniaturization process became a key driver for many markets. Now, it is a driving force for innovations in life sciences, diagnostics, analytical sciences, and chemistry, which are called 'lab-on-a-chip, (LOC)' devices. The use of these devices allows the development of fast, portable, and easy-to-use systems with a high level of functional integration for applications such as point-of-care diagnostics, forensics, the analysis of biomolecules, environmental or food analysis, and drug development...
February 17, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197835/selenium-vanadium-and-chromium-as-micronutrients-to-improve-metabolic-syndrome
#3
REVIEW
Sunil K Panchal, Stephen Wanyonyi, Lindsay Brown
Trace metals play an important role in the proper functioning of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Some of the trace metals are thus essential for maintaining homeostasis, while deficiency of these trace metals can cause disorders with metabolic and physiological imbalances. This article concentrates on three trace metals (selenium, vanadium, and chromium) that may play crucial roles in controlling blood glucose concentrations possibly through their insulin-mimetic effects. For these trace metals, the level of evidence available for their health effects as supplements is weak...
March 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192909/local-rank-deficiency-caused-problems-in-analyzing-chemical-data
#4
Mahsa Akbari Lakeh, Róbert Rajkó, Hamid Abdollahi
Multivariate curve resolution (MCR) is a powerful methodology for analyzing chemical data in different application fields such as pharmaceutical analysis, agriculture, food chemistry, environment, and industrial and clinical chemistry. However, MCR results are often complicated by rotational ambiguity, meaning that there is a range of feasible solutions that fulfill the constraints and explain equally well the observed experimental data. Constraints determine the properties of resolved profiles in MCR methods by enforcing different assumptions on data...
February 3, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178268/influence-of-ocean-acidification-on-plankton-community-structure-during-a-winter-to-summer-succession-an-imaging-approach-indicates-that-copepods-can-benefit-from-elevated-co2-via-indirect-food-web-effects
#5
Jan Taucher, Mathias Haunost, Tim Boxhammer, Lennart T Bach, María Algueró-Muñiz, Ulf Riebesell
Plankton communities play a key role in the marine food web and are expected to be highly sensitive to ongoing environmental change. Oceanic uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) causes pronounced shifts in marine carbonate chemistry and a decrease in seawater pH. These changes-summarized by the term ocean acidification (OA)-can significantly affect the physiology of planktonic organisms. However, studies on the response of entire plankton communities to OA, which also include indirect effects via food-web interactions, are still relatively rare...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177013/recent-developments-in-sulfur-carbon-bond-formation-reaction-involving-thiosulfates
#6
Zongjun Qiao, Xuefeng Jiang
Sulfur-carbon bond construction has gained great attention recently since sulfur-containing organic molecules serve important functions in the pharmaceutical industry, agrochemistry, food chemistry, and materials science. Diverse sulfur sources have been developed over the past few decades, in which thiosulfates showed unique properties in many transformations. In this Perspective, we summarized recent research on sulfur-carbon bond formation involving thiosulfates.
February 8, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169227/the-design-features-cells-use-to-build-their-transmembrane-proton-gradient
#7
M R Gunner, Ronald Koder
Organisms store energy from food and sunlight as an electrochemical gradient across the membranes of mitochondria, chloroplasts and bacteria. The gradient arises from differences in the concentration of protons and ions on the negative (N) and positive (P) sides of these membranes. This perspective describes how the proton gradient is formed. One strategy is the movement of electrons but not protons across a membrane-embedded protein from a site of proton-releasing oxidative chemistry on the P-side of the protein to a site of proton-binding reductive chemistry on the N-side...
February 7, 2017: Physical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161122/acute-and-repeated-dose-28-days-toxicity-studies-in-rats-and-dogs-of-recombinant-batroxobin-a-snake-venom-thrombin-like-enzyme-expressed-from-pichia-pastoris
#8
Ok Hwan Kim, Kil-Sang Cho, Young Seomun, Jong-Tak Kim, Kwang-Hoe Chung
Recombinant batroxobin is a thrombin-like enzyme of Bothrops atrox moojeni venom. To evaluate its toxicological effect, it was highly expressed in Pichia pastorisand successfully purified to homogeneity from culture broth supernatant following Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP). The maximum tolerated dose of the recombinant batroxobin was examined in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat and Beagle dogs following Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) regulations. The approximate lethal dose of recombinant batroxobin was 10 National Institute of Health (NIH) u/kg in male and female rats...
February 1, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160212/phthalides-distribution-in-nature-chemical-reactivity-synthesis-and-biological-activity
#9
Alejandra León, Mayela Del-Ángel, José Luis Ávila, Guillermo Delgado
Phthalides are a relatively small group of natural compounds confined to several plant families and some genera of fungi and liverworts. They are divided into two structural groups, the monomeric and dimeric phthalides, and known mainly as bioactive constituents of different plant species used traditionally for medicinal purposes in Asia, Europe, and North America.The first reports on the chemistry of phthalides appeared at the end of the nineteenth century, in which they were identified as the odor constituents of the essential oil of celery (Apium graveolens) by Ciamician and Silber (1897)...
2017: Progress in the Chemistry of Organic Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145087/latest-generation-of-halogen-containing-pesticides
#10
REVIEW
Peter Jeschke
Agriculture is confronted with enormous challenges, from production of enough high-quality food to water use, environmental impacts and issues combined with a continually growing world population. The modern agricultural chemistry has to support farmers by providing innovative agrichemicals, used in applied agriculture. In this context, the introduction of halogen atoms into an active ingredient is still an important tool to modulate the properties of new crop protection compounds. Since 2010, around 96% of the launched products (herbicides, fungicides, insecticides/acaricides and nematicide) contain halogen atoms...
February 1, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133509/subchronic-oral-toxicity-study-of-acanthopanax-divaricatus-var-albeofructus-in-rats
#11
Myoung Jun Kim, Mi Ju Lee, Yong-Hoon Lee, Sun Hee Park, Duyeol Kim, Cheol Beom Park, Jin Seok Kang, Jong-Koo Kang
Acanthopanax divaricatus (Siebold & Zucc.) Seem. var. albeofructus (ADA), a traditional medical herb, has been used to treat arthritis and muscular injury, to strengthen muscle and bone, and to get vital energy. However, information regarding its toxicity is limited. ADA was administered by oral gavage to groups of rats at doses of 0 (control), 1,000, 1,500, 2,000, 2,500, and 3,000 mg/kg five times per week for 13 weeks. Mortality, clinical signs, body weights, food consumption, hematology, serum chemistry, urinalysis, organ weights, necropsy, histopathological finding, vaginal cytology, and sperm morphology were compared between control and ADA-treated groups...
January 2017: Toxicological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131478/significant-seasonal-variations-of-microbial-community-in-an-acid-mine-drainage-lake-in-anhui-province-china
#12
Chunbo Hao, Pengfei Wei, Lixin Pei, Zerui Du, Yi Zhang, Yanchun Lu, Hailiang Dong
Acid mine drainage (AMD),characterized by strong acidity and high metal concentrations, generates from the oxidative dissolution of metal sulfides, and acidophiles can accelerate the process significantly. Despite extensive research in microbial diversity and community composition, little is known about seasonal variations of microbial community structure (especially micro eukaryotes) in response to environmental conditions in AMD ecosystem. To this end, AMD samples were collected from Nanshan AMD lake, Anhui Province, China, over a full seasonal cycle from 2013 to 2014, and water chemistry and microbial composition were studied...
January 25, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127691/toxic-metals-in-tissues-of-fishes-from-the-black-sea-and-associated-human-health-risk-exposure
#13
Gabriel Plavan, Oana Jitar, Carmen Teodosiu, Mircea Nicoara, Dragos Micu, Stefan-Adrian Strungaru
The anthropogenic activities in the Black Sea area are responsible for toxic metal contamination of sea food products. In this study, several toxic metals: cadmium, lead, nickel, chromium, and copper were quantified in different tissues (digestive tract, muscle, skeleton, skin) of nine fish species (Neogobius melanostomus, Belone belone, Solea solea, Trachurus mediterraneus ponticus, Sardina pilchardus, Engraulis encrasicolus, Pomatomus saltatrix, Sprattus sprattus, Scorpaena porcus) by using atomic absorption spectrometer with a high-resolution continuum source and graphite furnace technique (HR-CS GF-AAS), and the risk of fish meat consumption by the young human population was evaluated...
January 27, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120310/microbial-strategy-for-potential-lead-remediation-a-review-study
#14
REVIEW
Xiaohong Pan, Zhi Chen, Lan Li, Wenhua Rao, Zhangyan Xu, Xiong Guan
The extensive exploitation and usage of lead compounds result in severe lead(II) pollution in water and soil environments, even in agricultural land, threatening the health of animals and humans via food chains. The recovery and remediation of lead(II) from water and soil environments have been intensively concerned in recent years. Compared with the traditional physic-chemistry treatment, microbial remediation strategy is a promising alternative to remediate lead(II)-contaminated environments due to its cost-effective and environmentally-friendly properties...
February 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093983/an-approach-towards-structure-based-antimicrobial-peptide-design-for-use-in-development-of-transgenic-plants-a-strategy-for-plant-disease-management
#15
Humaira Ilyas, Aritreyee Datta, Anirban Bhunia
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), also known as host defense peptides (HDPs), are ubiquitous and vital components of innate defense response that present themselves as potential candidates for drug design, aimed to control plant and animal diseases. Though their application for plant disease management has long been studied with natural AMPs, cytotoxicity and stability related shortcomings for the development of transgenic plants limits their usage. Newer technologies like molecular modelling, NMR spectroscopy and combinatorial chemistry allow screening for potent candidates and provide new avenues for the generation of rationally designed synthetic AMPs with multiple biological functions...
January 16, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091741/chemical-physical-and-biological-factors-shape-littoral-invertebrate-community-structure-in-coal-mining-end-pit-lakes
#16
Andreas Luek, Joseph B Rasmussen
Aquatic invertebrates form the base of the consumer food web in lakes. In coal-mining end-pit lakes, invertebrates are exposed to an environment with potentially challenging physical and chemical features. We hypothesized that the physical and chemical features of end-pit lakes reduce critical littoral habitat and thus reduce invertebrate diversity, thereby limiting the potential for these lakes to be naturalized. We used a multivariate approach using principle component analysis and redundancy analysis to study relationships between invertebrate community structure, habitat features, and water quality in five end-pit lakes and five natural lakes in the Rocky Mountain foothills of west-central Alberta, Canada...
January 13, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088572/bcs-class-iv-drugs-highly-notorious-candidates-for-formulation-development
#17
REVIEW
Rohan Ghadi, Neha Dand
BCS class IV drugs (e.g., amphotericin B, furosemide, acetazolamide, ritonavir, paclitaxel) exhibit many characteristics that are problematic for effective oral and per oral delivery. Some of the problems associated include low aqueous solubility, poor permeability, erratic and poor absorption, inter and intra subject variability and significant positive food effect which leads to low and variable bioavailability. Also, most of the class IV drugs are substrate for P-glycoprotein (low permeability) and substrate for CYP3A4 (extensive pre systemic metabolism) which further potentiates the problem of poor therapeutic potential of these drugs...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078890/metamorphosis-affects-metal-concentrations-and-isotopic-signatures-in-a-mayfly-baetis-tricaudatus-implications-for-the-aquatic-terrestrial-transfer-of-metals
#18
Jeff S Wesner, David M Walters, Travis S Schmidt, Johanna M Kraus, Craig A Stricker, William H Clements, Ruth E Wolf
Insect metamorphosis often results in substantial chemical changes that can alter contaminant concentrations and fractionate isotopes. We exposed larval mayflies (Baetis tricaudatus) and their food (periphyton) to an aqueous zinc gradient (3-340 μg Zn/l) and measured zinc concentrations at different stages of metamorphosis: larval, subimago, and imago. We also measured changes in stable isotopes (δ(15)N and δ(13)C) in unexposed mayflies. Larval zinc concentrations were positively related to aqueous zinc, increasing 9-fold across the exposure gradient...
February 1, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070107/effects-of-reduced-food-intake-for-4-weeks-on-physiological-parameters-in-toxicity-studies-in-dogs
#19
Junya Morita, Tomoko Izumi, Bunichiro Ogawa, Yoshiki Ban, Hironori Takagi, Minoru Sasaki, Shunsuke Tsutsumi
This study sought to clarify the effects of reduced feeding on physiological parameters in dogs to enable appropriate evaluations of the safety and toxicity of test compounds. We measured alkaline phosphatase isozymes and the circulating blood volume, as well as clinical signs, body weight, hematology, blood chemistry, electrocardiography, organ weight, and histopathology, in male beagle dogs fed a diet consisting of 300 g/day or 150 g/day for 4 weeks. There were no abnormal clinical signs in any of the dogs...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068053/surface-modification-of-gold-nanoparticles-with-small-molecules-for-biochemical-analysis
#20
Yiping Chen, Yunlei Xianyu, Xingyu Jiang
As one of the major tools for and by chemical science, biochemical analysis is becoming increasingly important in fields like clinical diagnosis, food safety, environmental monitoring, and the development of chemistry and biochemistry. The advancement of nanotechnology boosts the development of analytical chemistry, particularly the nanoparticle (NP)-based approaches for biochemical assays. Functional NPs can greatly improve the performance of biochemical analysis because they can accelerate signal transduction, enhance the signal intensity, and enable convenient signal readout due to their unique physical and chemical properties...
January 9, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
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