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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144774/strategies-for-enhanced-crop-resistance-to-insect-pests
#1
Angela E Douglas
Insect pests are responsible for substantial crop losses worldwide through direct damage and transmission of plant diseases, and novel approaches that complement or replace broad-spectrum chemical insecticides will facilitate the sustainable intensification of food production in the coming decades. Multiple strategies for improved crop resistance to insect pests, especially strategies relating to plant secondary metabolism and immunity and microbiome science, are becoming available. Recent advances in metabolic engineering of plant secondary chemistry offer the promise of specific toxicity or deterrence to insect pests; improved understanding of plant immunity against insects provides routes to optimize plant defenses against insects; and the microbiomes of insect pests can be exploited, either as a target or as a vehicle for delivery of insecticidal agents...
November 16, 2017: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130542/safety-evaluation-of-p-synephrine-following-15%C3%A2-days-of-oral-administration-to-healthy-subjects-a-clinical-study
#2
Mohd Shara, Sidney J Stohs, Mahmoud M Smadi
Extracts of bitter orange (BOE, Citrus aurantium L.) and its primary protoalkaloid p-synephrine are extensively consumed as dietary supplements. p-Synephrine is also present in foods and juices prepared from various Citrus species. The safety of p-synephrine has been questioned as a result of structural similarities with ephedrine. This study assessed the cardiovascular (stimulant) and hemodynamic effects of BOE (49 mg p-synephrine) daily given to 16 healthy subjects for 15 days in a placebo-controlled, cross-over, double-blinded study...
November 12, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126135/habitat-modification-by-the-leaf-cutter-ant-atta-cephalotes-and-patterns-of-leaf-litter-arthropod-communities
#3
Rachel L Wells, Serena K Murphy, Matthew D Moran
Ecosystem engineers are profoundly important in many biological communities. A Neotropical taxonomic group considered to have engineering effects is the Formicidae (ants). Leaf-cutter ants (LCAs), in particular, which form extensive colonies of millions of individuals, can be important ecosystem engineers in these environments. While the effects of LCAs on plant community structure and soil chemistry are well-studied, their effects on consumers are poorly understood. Therefore, we examined the indirect effects of the LCA Atta cephalotes L...
November 4, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121863/multiplex-real-time-pcr-assay-for-detection-of-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-and-screening-for-non-o157-shiga-toxin-producing-e-coli
#4
Baoguang Li, Huanli Liu, Weimin Wang
BACKGROUND: Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), including E. coli O157:H7, are responsible for numerous foodborne outbreaks annually worldwide. E. coli O157:H7, as well as pathogenic non-O157:H7 STECs, can cause life-threating complications, such as bloody diarrhea (hemolytic colitis) and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). Previously, we developed a real-time PCR assay to detect E. coli O157:H7 in foods by targeting a unique putative fimbriae protein Z3276. To extend the detection spectrum of the assay, we report a multiplex real-time PCR assay to specifically detect E...
November 9, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118136/variably-hungry-caterpillars-predictive-models-and-foliar-chemistry-suggest-how-to-eat-a-rainforest
#5
Simon T Segar, Martin Volf, Brus Isua, Mentap Sisol, Conor M Redmond, Margaret E Rosati, Bradley Gewa, Kenneth Molem, Chris Dahl, Jeremy D Holloway, Yves Basset, Scott E Miller, George D Weiblen, Juha-Pekka Salminen, Vojtech Novotny
A long-term goal in evolutionary ecology is to explain the incredible diversity of insect herbivores and patterns of host plant use in speciose groups like tropical Lepidoptera. Here, we used standardized food-web data, multigene phylogenies of both trophic levels and plant chemistry data to model interactions between Lepidoptera larvae (caterpillars) from two lineages (Geometridae and Pyraloidea) and plants in a species-rich lowland rainforest in New Guinea. Model parameters were used to make and test blind predictions for two hectares of an exhaustively sampled forest...
November 15, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117131/natural-deep-eutectic-solvents-nades-to-enhance-berberine-absorption-an-in-vivo-pharmacokinetic-study
#6
Stefania Sut, Marta Faggian, Valeria Baldan, Gabriele Poloniato, Ignazio Castagliuolo, Iztok Grabnar, Beatrice Perissutti, Paola Brun, Filippo Maggi, Dario Voinovich, Gregorio Peron, Stefano Dall'Acqua
In the present study results related to the in vivo administration of Natural Deep Eutectic Solvents (NADES)-solubilized berberine are reported for the first time. NADES are mixtures of small natural compounds having a melting point significantly lower than that of any individual component. Such solvents have gained much attention of the scientific community in the green chemistry area, being considered useful alternatives to common organic solvents. NADES can be used also as administration vehicles, and this can be attractive for nutraceutical products when eutectics are formed with food grade ingredients...
November 8, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116596/antibody-drug-conjugates-for-the-treatment-of-solid-tumors-clinical-experience-and-latest-developments
#7
Aiko Nagayama, Leif W Ellisen, Bruce Chabner, Aditya Bardia
Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are complex immunoconjugates designed to selectively deliver toxic small molecules preferentially to cancer cells. These immunoconjugates consist of a monoclonal antibody - directed to a tumor antigen - and a cytotoxic agent that is conjugated to the antibody via a molecular linker. Following the binding to a specific antigen on the surface of cancer cells, the conjugate is internalized and releases its cytotoxic payload to kill the malignant cell. ADCs that have gained regulatory approval from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) include brentuximab vedotin for CD30-positive Hodgkin's lymphoma and trastuzumab emtansine for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer...
November 8, 2017: Targeted Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111728/nanoparticle-cell-interactions-relevance-for-public-health
#8
Sabiha Runa, Michael Hussey, Christine K Payne
Nanoparticles, especially metal oxide nanoparticles, are used in a wide range of commercial and industrial applications that result in direct human contact, such as TiO2 nanoparticles in paints, food colorings, and cosmetics, or indirectly through release of nanoparticle-containing materials into the environment. Workers who process nanoparticles for downstream applications are exposed to especially high concentrations of nanoparticles. For physical chemists, nanoparticles present an interesting area of study as the small size of nanoparticles changes the properties from that of the bulk material, leading to novel properties and reactivity...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111621/medical-devices-clinical-chemistry-and-clinical-toxicology-devices-classification-of-the-total-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-mass-spectrometry-test-system-final-order
#9
(no author information available yet)
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA, the Agency, or we) is classifying the total 25-hydroxyvitamin D mass spectrometry test system into class II (special controls). The special controls that apply to the device type are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the total 25-hydroxyvitamin D mass spectrometry test system's classification. We are taking this action because we have determined that classifying the device into class II (special controls) will provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device...
November 7, 2017: Federal Register
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107008/acute-and-a-28-day-repeated-dose-toxicity-study-of-total-flavonoids-from-clinopodium-chinense-benth-o-ktze-in-mice-and-rats
#10
Yonglin Gao, Yunzhi Wang, Kezhou Wang, Jing Zhu, Guisheng Li, Jingwei Tian, Chunmei Li, Zhenhua Wang, Ji Li, Albert W Lee, Chenghua Guo
Clinopodium chinense (Benth.) O. Ktze (Labiatae), known as 'Duanxueliu' in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, has been widely used as a traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of hemorrhagic disease. Total flavonoids from Clinopodium chinense (Benth.) O. Ktze (TFCC), the most active ingredient, possess a variety of properties, such as antioxygenation. Until now, evidence-based toxicity data on TFCC has been limited. This study evaluated the acute (in mice and rat) and the 28-day repeated-dose (in rat) toxicity study of TFCC, respectively...
October 30, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105153/making-sense-of-antisense-oligonucleotides-a-narrative-review
#11
REVIEW
Neelam Goyal, Pushpa Narayanaswami
Synthetic nucleic acid sequences that bind to ribonucleic acid (RNA) through Watson-Crick base pairing are known as antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) because they are complementary to "sense strand" nucleic acids. ASOs bind to selected sequences of RNA and regulate the expression of genes by several mechanisms depending on their chemical properties and targets. They can be used to restore deficient protein expression, reduce the expression of a toxic protein, modify functional effects of proteins or reduce toxicity of mutant proteins...
November 3, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097517/neuropeptides-in-obesity-and-metabolic-disease
#12
REVIEW
Agatha A van der Klaauw
BACKGROUND: The global rise in the prevalence of obesity and associated comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer represents a major public health concern. CONTENT: Studies in rodents with the use of global and targeted gene disruption, and mapping of neurocircuitry by using optogenetics and designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs) have greatly advanced our understanding of the neural control of body weight...
November 2, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095518/periphyton-and-abiotic-factors-influencing-arsenic-speciation-in-aquatic-environments
#13
Adeline R Lopez, Silmara Costa Silva, Samuel M Webb, Dean Hesterberg, David B Buchwalter
Benthic periphytic biofilms are important food sources at the base of aquatic ecosystems. These biofilms also sit at the interface of oxic waters and hypoxic sediments, and can be influenced by, or influence trace element speciation. Here we compared arsenic enrichment in periphyton exposed to arsenate [As(V)] or arsenite [As(III)] (20 ug/L, static renewal, 7 days), and we found similar accumulation patterns of total As (101 ± 27 and 88 ± 22 mg kg(-1) dw, respectively). Periphyton As was 6281- and 6684-fold, higher than their aqueous exposures and occurred primarily as As(V)...
November 2, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091368/medical-devices-clinical-chemistry-and-clinical-toxicology-devices-classification-of-the-acute-kidney-injury-test-system-final-order
#14
(no author information available yet)
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is classifying the acute kidney injury test system into class II (special controls). The special controls that apply to the device type are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the acute kidney injury test system's classification. We are taking this action because we have determined that classifying the device into class II (special controls) will provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device. We believe this action will also enhance patients' access to beneficial innovative devices, in part by reducing regulatory burdens...
October 30, 2017: Federal Register
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089043/safety-evaluation-of-lotilaner-in-dogs-after-oral-administration-as-flavoured-chewable-tablets-credelio%C3%A2
#15
Emmanuelle A Kuntz, Srinivas Kammanadiminti
BACKGROUND: Lotilaner (Credelio™, Elanco) is a novel isoxazoline that provides rapid speed of flea and tick knockdown which is sustained for at least 1 month following oral administration to dogs. The safety of lotilaner flavoured chewable tablets was investigated in a randomized, blinded, parallel-group design study in healthy Beagle puppies starting at 8 weeks of age. Lotilaner was administered orally once a month over 8 months at one, three and five times the upper level of the recommended dose range (of 20 to 43 mg/kg)...
November 1, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071018/a-90-day-inhalation-toxicity-study-of-ethyl-formate-in-rats
#16
Mi Ju Lee, Hyeon-Yeong Kim
Ethyl formate, a volatile solvent, has insecticidal and fungicidal properties and is suggested as a potential fumigant for stored crop and fruit. Its primary contact route is through the respiratory tract; however, reliable repeated toxicological studies focusing on the inhalation route have not been published to date. Therefore, the present study was conducted to investigate the safety of a 90-day repeated inhalation exposure in rats. Forty male and 40 female rats were exposed to ethyl formate vapor via inhalation at concentrations of 0, 66, 330, and 1,320 ppm for 6 hr/day, 5 days a week for 13 weeks...
October 2017: Toxicological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067661/designing-effective-antisense-oligonucleotides-for-exon-skipping
#17
Takenori Shimo, Rika Maruyama, Toshifumi Yokota
During the past 10 years, antisense oligonucleotide-mediated exon skipping and splice modulation have proven to be powerful tools for correction of mRNA splicing in genetic diseases. In 2016, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved Exondys 51 (eteplirsen) and Spinraza (nusinersen), the first exon skipping and exon inclusion drugs, to treat patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), respectively. The exon skipping of DMD mRNA aims to restore the disrupted reading frame using antisense oligonucleotides (AONs), allowing the production of truncated but partly functional dystrophin proteins, and slow down the progression of the disease...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058005/application-of-spin-ratio-scaled-mp2-for-the-prediction-of-intermolecular-interactions-in-chemical-systems
#18
Samuel Y S Tan, Luke Wylie, Ivan Begic, Dennis Tran, Ekaterina I Izgorodina
Accurate prediction of intermolecular interactions plays a pivotal role in many areas of chemistry and biology including (but not limited to) the design of pharmaceuticals, solid electrolytes and food additives. Here we present the application of the recently developed spin-ratio scaled MP2 method (termed SRS-MP2) to six different datasets covering a wide range of interaction types from strong hydrogen bonding to van der Waals dispersion and π-π stacking. The method achieves a remarkably low mean absolute error of 1...
November 1, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055857/coumarinyl-pyranopyrimidines-as-new-neuropeptide-s-receptor-antagonists-design-synthesis-homology-and-molecular-docking
#19
Rasha Z Batran, Dina H Dawood, Samia A El-Seginy, Timothy J Maher, Kuljeet S Gugnani, Alejandro N Rondon-Ortiz
In this work, we described the design, synthesis and characterization of a new class of NPSR antagonists bearing the tetracyclic coumarinyl pyranopyrimidine scaffold incorporated with different acyclic and/or heterocyclic moieties. These compounds are highlighted in this study as never being used as NPSR antagonists before which provides a model for the discovery of new bioactive inhibitors that may hold potential for drug development towards anxiety, food, and addiction disorders. Synthetic and medicinal chemistry studies led to the identification of four potent antagonists, compounds 7d, 10, 12 and 13, which were able to significantly inhibit the stimulatory effect of NPS through counteracting the increased intracellular Ca(2+) accumulation...
October 12, 2017: Bioorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053599/gut-fermentation-of-dietary-fibres-physico-chemistry-of-plant-cell-walls-and-implications-for-health
#20
REVIEW
Barbara A Williams, Lucas J Grant, Michael J Gidley, Deirdre Mikkelsen
The majority of dietary fibre (DF) originates from plant cell walls. Chemically, DF mostly comprise carbohydrate polymers, which resist hydrolysis by digestive enzymes in the mammalian small intestine, but can be fermented by large intestinal bacteria. One of the main benefits of DF relate to its fermentability, which affects microbial diversity and function within the gastro-intestinal tract (GIT), as well as the by-products of the fermentation process. Much work examining DF tends to focus on various purified ingredients, which have been extracted from plants...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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