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food chemistry

Lucía Soliño, Pedro Reis Costa
Ciguatoxins (CTXs) are fish metabolism products and a result of biotransformation of precursor gambiertoxins produced, in the first instance, by benthic dinoflagellates Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa. Ciguatoxins are potent neurotoxins that selectively open voltage gated sodium channels in excitable cells causing the human food poisoning known as Ciguatera (CFP). Endemic from tropical areas in central Pacific and West Indian Ocean, and the Caribbean Sea, CTX may affects up to 500,000 people annually due to fish consumption...
May 17, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
My Duyen Ho, Yiyi Liu, Dashen Dong, Yunmeng Zhao, Wenlong Cheng
Percolation networks of one-dimensional (1D) building blocks (e.g., metallic nanowires or carbon nanotubes) represent the mainstream strategy to fabricate stretchable conductors. One of the inherent limitations is the control over junction resistance between 1D building blocks in natural and strained states of conductors. Herein, we report highly stretchable transparent strain-insensitive conductors using fractal gold (F-Au) nanoframework based on a one-pot templateless wet chemistry synthesis method. The monolayered F-Au nanoframework (∼20 nm in thickness) can be obtained from the one-pot synthesis without any purification steps involved and can be transferred directly to arbitrary substrates like polyethylene terephthalate, food-wrap, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and ecoflex...
May 16, 2018: Nano Letters
Susanne Wintzheimer, Tim Granath, Maximilian Oppmann, Thomas Kister, Thibaut Thai, Tobias Kraus, Nicolas Vogel, Karl Mandel
Under the right process conditions, nanoparticles can cluster together to form defined particular structures, which can be termed supraparticles. Controlling the size, shape, and morphology of such entities is a central step in various fields of science and technology, ranging from colloid chemistry and soft matter physics to powder technology and pharmaceutical and food sciences. These diverse scientific communities have been investigating formation processes and structure/property relations of such supraparticles under completely different boundary conditions...
May 15, 2018: ACS Nano
Maurits Geert Laurent Olthof, Marianna A Tryfonidou, Mahrokh Dadsetan, Wouter Dhert, Michael J Yaszemski, Diederik H R Kempen, Lichun Lu
Local sustained delivery of bioactive molecules from biomaterials is a promising strategy to enhance bone regeneration. To optimize delivery vehicles for bone formation, the design characteristics are tailored with consequential effect on BMP-2 release and bone regeneration. Complying with the 3R principles, the growth factor release is often investigated in vitro using several buffers to mimic the in vivo physiological environment. However, this remains an unmet need. Therefore, this study investigates the correlation between the in vitro and in vivo (IVIVC) BMP-2 release from complex delivery vehicles in several commonly used in vitro buffers: cell culture model, phosphate buffered saline, and a strong desorption buffer...
May 14, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
Nagarajan Subbiah, Muthusamy K, Lalitha Krishnamoorthy, Siva Prasad Yadavali, Thamizhanban Ayyapillai, Sridharan Vellaisamy, Maheswari C Uma
Bio-based polyesters are well-known biodegradable materials that are frequently used in our daily life, which include food industries and biomedical fields. The journey towards the development of sustainable polymer materials and technology postulate the replacement of traditionally using petrochemical-based monomers, transition metal catalyst, and more intensive purification techniques, which do not agree with the green chemistry principles. This contribution investigates the synthesis of bio-based hydrophilic and hydrophobic oligoesters, which in turn derived from easily accessible monomers of natural resources...
May 11, 2018: ChemSusChem
Monika Pischetsrieder
"… Food chemistry has the important task to improve food security by the development of applicable strategies to give perishable products longer shelf lives. The discovery of unknown food contaminants and adulterants that are not being searched for is crucial in order to avoid scandals and to provide safe and pure food for the consumer …" Read more in the Guest Editorial by Monika Pischetsrieder.
May 8, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Ramesh Kumar Saini, So Hyun Moon, Young-Soo Keum
Globally, the amount of food processing waste has become a major concern for environmental sustainability. The valorization of these waste materials can solve the problems of its disposal. Notably, the tomato pomace and crustacean processing waste presents enormous opportunities for the extraction of commercially vital carotenoids, lycopene, and astaxanthin, which have diverse applications in the food, feed, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetic industries. Moreover, such waste can generate surplus revenue which can significantly improve the economics of food production and processing...
June 2018: Food Research International
Jagdish K Sahu, Arun K Mishra
OBJECTIVE: Ozenoxacin is one of the potent quinolone antibiotics, recently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) with reported pharmacology to treat the impetigo. The demand for better acting topical formulation is increasing day by day. The present review is an attempt to summarize the facts behind the chemistry and biological applications of Ozenoxacin. Mechanism of action: This novel drug being a quinolone antibiotic compound, acts by inhibiting DNA gyrase A and topoisomerase IV and affects supercoiling, supercoil relaxation, chromosomal condensation, chromosomal decatenation and many others...
May 2, 2018: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
E J S Emilson, M A Carson, K M Yakimovich, H Osterholz, T Dittmar, J M Gunn, N C S Mykytczuk, N Basiliko, A J Tanentzap
Freshwater ecosystems are a major source of methane (CH4 ), contributing 0.65 Pg (in CO2 equivalents) yr-1 towards global carbon emissions and offsetting ~25% of the terrestrial carbon sink. Most freshwater CH4 emissions come from littoral sediments, where large quantities of plant material are decomposed. Climate change is predicted to shift plant community composition, and thus change the quality of inputs into detrital food webs, with the potential to affect CH4 production. Here we find that variation in phenol availability from decomposing organic matter underlies large differences in CH4 production in lake sediments...
May 4, 2018: Nature Communications
Ashok Verma
Genetic neuromuscular diseases are caused by defective expression of nuclear or mitochondrial genes. Mutant genes may reduce expression of wild-type proteins, and strategies to activate expression of the wild-type proteins might provide therapeutic benefits. Also, a toxic mutant protein may cause cell death, and strategies that reduce mutant gene expression may provide therapeutic benefit. Synthetic antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) can recognize cellular RNA and control gene expression. In recent years, advances in ASO chemistry, creation of designer ASO molecules to enhance their safety and target delivery, and scientific controlled clinical trials to ascertain their therapeutic safety and efficacy have led to an era of plausible application of ASO technology to treat currently incurable neuromuscular diseases...
January 2018: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
Jian Gao, Joelle Sasse, Kyle M Lewald, Kateryna Zhalnina, Lloyd T Cornmesser, Todd A Duncombe, Yasuo Yoshikuni, John P Vogel, Mary K Firestone, Trent R Northen
Beneficial plant-microbe interactions offer a sustainable biological solution with the potential to boost low-input food and bioenergy production. A better mechanistic understanding of these complex plant-microbe interactions will be crucial to improving plant production as well as performing basic ecological studies investigating plant-soil-microbe interactions. Here, a detailed description for ecosystem fabrication is presented, using widely available 3D printing technologies, to create controlled laboratory habitats (EcoFABs) for mechanistic studies of plant-microbe interactions within specific environmental conditions...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Yanhua Liu, Dongjuan Yuan, Zexin Zhao, Dongming Lan, Bo Yang, Yonghua Wang
Penicillium camembertii (PCL), a mono- and di-acylglycerol lipase (DGL), has the vital potential in the oil chemistry for food industry. However, known DGLs are mesophilic enzymes which restricts its application in the industry. To improve thermostability of PCL, we used amino acid substitution by comparison of amino acids compositions of PCL and protein sequences from typical thermophilic bacteria. Then, some conservative residues around active center were avoided to mutate according to homologous alignment analyses...
April 18, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Ewelina Chajduk, Marta Pyszynska, Halina Polkowska-Motrenko
The aim of this study was to assess the levels of 13 essential and toxic elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, V, Zn) in the infant formulas, available on Polish market. Selected food samples were of animal (cow- and goat-based milks) and plant (soy-based milk, hypoallergic products, grain porridges) origin. Two analytical techniques, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and neutron activation analysis (NAA), have been complementarily applied to analyze elemental content of 16 formulas dedicated for infants between 0 and 8 months...
April 21, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Edvaldo V Soares Maciel, Ana Lúcia de Toffoli, Fernando Mauro Lanças
The accelerated rising of the world's population increased the consumption of food, thus demanding more rigors in the control of residue and contaminants in food-based products marketed for human consumption. In view of the complexity of most food matrices, including fruits, vegetables, different types of meat, beverages, among others, a sample preparation step is important to provide more reliable results when combined with high performance liquid chromatography separations. An adequate sample preparation step before the chromatographic analysis is mandatory in obtaining higher precision and accuracy in order to improve the extraction of the target analytes, one of the priorities in analytical chemistry...
April 20, 2018: Electrophoresis
Dominic E Ponton, Claude Fortin, Landis Hare
Selenium (Se) concentrations measured in lake planktonic food chains (microplankton < 64 µm, copepods and Chaoborus larvae) were strongly correlated with the concentrations of dissolved organic Se. These correlations were strengthened slightly by adding the concentrations of dissolved selenate to those of organic Se. To better understand the role of Se species and the influence of water chemistry on Se uptake, we exposed the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to selenite, selenate or selenomethionine at various H+ ion and sulfate concentrations under controlled laboratory conditions...
April 19, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Juan Perez, Clementine Charoux, P J Cullen, Brijesh K Tiwari
A range of nonthermal techniques have demonstrated process efficacy in ensuring product safety, extension of shelf-life and in general a retention of key quality attributes. However, various physical, chemical and biochemical effects of nonthermal techniques on macro and micro nutrients are evident, leading to both desirable and undesirable changes in food products. The objective of this review is to outline the effects of non-thermal techniques on food chemistry and the associated degradation mechanisms with the treatment of foods...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Leslie Z Benet
Individualization of patient drug dosing to maximize efficacy and minimize toxicity is the goal of clinical pharmacology. Here we review the history of drug dosing individualization from early predictions for renally eliminated drugs based on kidney function through the introduction of clearance concepts for metabolic processes, the differentiation of volume of distribution between pharmacokinetics and chemistry, the role of transporters, the unique pharmacokinetic aspects of oral dosing, and the relevance of protein binding to the emergence of pharmacogenomics...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Ae Wha Ha, Hyeon Jung Kang, Sun Lim Kim, Myung Hwan Kim, Woo Kyoung Kim
Many studies have reported therapeutic efficacy of corn silk extract. However, research on its toxicity and safe dose range is limited. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the acute and subacute toxicity of corn silk extract in ICR mice. To determine acute toxicity, corn silk extract containing high levels of maysin was orally administered to mice at a dose of 0 or 2,000 mg/kg. Clinical symptoms, mortality, and body weight changes were recorded for 14 days. To determine subacute toxicity, corn silk extract was orally administered to mice over a 4-week period, and then body weight, water and food consumption, and organ weight were determined...
March 2018: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
Angela M DiCiccio, Young-Ah Lucy Lee, Dean L Glettig, Elizabeth S E Walton, Eva L de la Serna, Veronica A Montgomery, Tyler M Grant, Robert Langer, Giovanni Traverso
Covalently cross-linked gels are utilized in a broad range of biomedical applications though their synthesis often compromises easy implementation. Cross-linking reactions commonly utilize catalysts or conditions that can damage biologics and sensitive compounds, producing materials that require extensive post processing to achieve acceptable biocompatibility. As an alternative, we report a batch synthesis platform to produce covalently cross-linked materials appropriate for direct biomedical application enabled by green chemistry and commonly available food grade ingredients...
April 6, 2018: Biomaterials
C Sethulekshmi, C Latha, C J Anu
Aim: The objective of the study was to detect Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and develop a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay to quantify the bacterial DNA present in different food matrices. Materials and Methods: A total of 758 samples were collected during a period from January 2015 to December 2016 from Kozhikode, Thrissur, and Alappuzha districts of Kerala. The samples consisted of raw milk (135), pasteurized milk (100), beef (132), buffalo meat (130), chevon (104), beef kheema (115), and beef sausage (42)...
February 2018: Veterinary World
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