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thyroid hormone

Wen-Bin Zhong, Yuan-Chin Tsai, Li-Han Chin, Jen-Ho Tseng, Li-Wen Tang, Steve Horng, Yu-Ching Fan, Sung-Po Hsu
Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is a malignant subtype of thyroid cancers and its mechanism of development remains inconclusive. Importantly, there is no effective strategy for treatment since ATC is not responsive to conventional therapies, including radioactive iodine therapy and thyroid-stimulating hormone suppression. Here, we report that a combinational approach consisting of drugs designed for targeting lipid metabolism, lovastatin (an inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, HMGCR) and troglitazone (an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, PPARγ), exhibits anti-proliferation in cell culture systems and leads to tumor regression in a mouse xenograft model...
June 22, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Natacha Verbeke, Nathalie Pirson, Arnaud Devresse, Raluca Furnica, Thierry Duprez, Dominique Maiter
BACKGROUND: Amyloid infiltration of endocrine glands has been reported, mostly in the thyroid, pancreas, adrenals, and testes, but affected patients do not frequently exhibit overt endocrine insufficiency. Here we report the case of a patient with complete anterior hypopituitarism probably due to a known systemic amyloidosis. CASE PRESENTATION: Our male Caucasian patient was diagnosed with Crohn's disease at the age of 22 years. At the age of 37, he developed secondary renal amyloidosis, which resulted in end-stage renal failure...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Yu San Chang, Yu Hsuan Wu, Chin Jen Wang, Shu Hui Tang, Hsiang Lan Chen
BACKGROUND: Cholinergic hypothesis has been advanced as an etiology of Alzheimer disease (AD) on the basis of the presynaptic deficit found in the diseased brains, and cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) are the treatment of choice for these patients. However, only about half of treatment efficacy was found. Because increasing evidence supports an extensive interrelationship between thyroid hormones (THs), cortisol level and the cholinergic system, the aim of the present study was to evaluate thyroid function and cortisol level in patients with mild to moderate AD before and after ChEIs treatment, and to identify possible variations in response...
June 22, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
Hao Chen, Xiaopeng Zhang, Xudong Jia, Zhaoping Liu
Benchmark dose (BMD) analysis is generally recognized superior to generate a point of departure (PoD) to conduct risk assessment on environmental toxicants, comparing with the traditionally employed no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) or lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) methods. However, only a few studies compared the two on producing PoD of thyroid toxicity caused by environmental chemicals. Here, we presented BMD analyses on several thyroid toxicity endpoints caused by a model chemical - propylthiouracil (PTU)...
June 18, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Henny Haensgen, Eduardo Albornoz, María C Opazo, Katherinne Bugueño, Evelyn Liliana Jara Fernández, Rebecca Binzberger, Tomás Rivero-Castillo, Luis F Venegas Salas, Felipe Simon, Claudio Cabello-Verrugio, Alvaro A Elorza, Alexis M Kalergis, Susan M Bueno, Claudia A Riedel
Hypothyroxinemia (Hpx) is a thyroid hormone deficiency (THD) condition highly frequent during pregnancy, which although asymptomatic for the mother, it can impair the cognitive function of the offspring. Previous studies have shown that maternal hypothyroidism increases the severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an autoimmune disease model for multiple sclerosis (MS). Here, we analyzed the immune response after EAE induction in the adult offspring gestated in Hpx. Mice gestated in Hpx showed an early appearance of EAE symptoms and the increase of all parameters of the disease such as: the pathological score, spinal cord demyelination, and immune cell infiltration in comparison to the adult offspring gestated in euthyroidism...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Rita Bettencourt-Silva, Josué Pereira, Sandra Belo, Daniela Magalhães, Joana Queirós, Davide Carvalho
Introduction: The diagnosis of pituitary carcinoma is very rare, requires the evidence of metastatic disease, and has a poor overall survival. Malignant prolactinoma frequently requires dopamine agonist therapy, pituitary surgery, radiotherapy, and even chemotherapy. Case description: A 19-year-old female presented with galactorrhea, primary amenorrhea, and left hemianopsia. Complementary study detected hyperprolactinemia and a pituitary macroadenoma with cavernous sinus invasion and suprasellar growth...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Annunziatina Laurino, Elisa Landucci, Laura Raimondi
3-Iodothyronamine (T1AM) is the last iodinated thyronamine generated from thyroid hormone alternative metabolism found circulating in rodents and in humans. So far, the physiopathological meaning of T1AM tissue levels is unknown. Much is instead known on T1AM pharmacological effects in rodents. Such evidence indicates that T1AM acutely modifies, with high potency and effectiveness, rodents' metabolism and behavior, often showing inverted U-shaped dose-response curves. Although several possible targets for T1AM were identified, the mechanism underlying T1AM behavioral effects remains still elusive...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Yi-Chao Zhou, Wen-Hui Fang, Tung-Wei Kao, Chung-Ching Wang, Yaw-Wen Chang, Tao-Chun Peng, Chen-Jung Wu, Hui-Fang Yang, James Yi-Hsin Chan, Wei-Liang Chen
A growing amount of evidence suggests that thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is associated with cardiometabolic risk. However, there have been few longitudinal studies. The aim of this study was to explore the causal relationship between TSH and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a large population-based longitudinal study. From 2010 to 2016 at the Health Management Center at Tri-Service General Hospital, 25,121 eligible patients were enrolled in our cross-sectional analyses. Cox proportional hazard models were used to investigate the longitudinal association among hypertension (HTN), prediabetes (pre-DM), MetS, diabetes (DM) and TSH levels (N = 12,463)...
2018: PloS One
N S Fedorova, A Yu Abrosimov, L K Dzeranova, E A Pigarova, I I Dedov
OBJECTIVE: To present the histological and immunohistochemical characteristics of pituitary lactotroph adenomas (PLAs) resistant to dopamine agonist treatment. SUBJECT AND METHODS: The investigators examined paraffin-embedded blocks and histological sections obtained from 19 patients (13 women, 6 men), whose median age was 29 (19, 38) years, after surgical treatment (adenomectomy) for PLAs resistant to dopamine agonist treatment. Immunohistological examination was performed using antibodies against prolactin (PRL), growth hormone (GH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), type 2 dopamine receptors (DR2 ), estrogen receptors-α (ERα), the proliferation marker Ki-67, and the endothelial cell marker CD34...
2018: Arkhiv Patologii
Marta Bombardo, Ermanno Malagola, Rong Chen, Arcangelo Carta, Gitta M Seleznik, Andrew P Hills, Rolf Graf, Sabrina Sonda
Adult pancreatic acinar cells have the ability to re-enter the cell cycle and proliferate upon injury or tissue loss. Despite this mitotic ability, the extent of acinar proliferation is often limited and unable to completely regenerate the injured tissue or restore the initial volume of the organ, thus leading to pancreatic dysfunction. Identifying molecular determinants of enhanced proliferation is critical to overcome this issue. In this study, we discovered that Murphy Roths Large (MRL/MpJ) mice can be exploited to identify molecular effectors promoting acinar proliferation upon injury, with the ultimate goal to develop therapeutic regimens to boost pancreatic regeneration...
June 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Karen Lariosa-Willingham, Dmitri Leonoudakis
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease that involves an immune-mediated inflammatory response in the central nervous system and optic nerve resulting in demyelination and neural degeneration, the cause of which is unknown. The adult central nervous system has the capacity to remyelinate axons by generating new oligodendrocytes (OLs). To identify clinical candidate compounds that may promote remyelination, we have developed a high-throughput screening (HTS) assay to identify compounds that promote the differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) into OLs...
June 2018: Current Protocols in Cell Biology
Mohamed-I Kotb El-Sayed, Ahmed A Abd El-Ghany, Refaat R Mohamed
The etiology of vitiligo is still unclear. The aim is to investigate a neural and hormonal etio-pathology of vitiligo. Sixty acrofacial vitiligo patients were divided into two subgroups as active vitiligo patients group (AVPs; n  = 35) and stable vitiligo patients group (SVP; n  = 25). Forty healthy subjects without any systemic or dermatological disease were used as controls. Blood samples were collected, and the samples were used for measurement of free triiodothyronine (fT3 ), free thyroxine (fT4 ), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, estrogen, testosterone, melatonin, and prolactin levels by ELISA, while norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (Epi), dopamine (DA), homo-vanillic acid (HVA), serotonin, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) by high-pressure liquid chromatography...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Arturo Hernandez, J Patrizia Stohn
Thyroid hormones (THs) influence multiple processes in the developing and adult central nervous system, and their local availability needs to be maintained at levels that are tailored to the requirements of their biological targets. The local complement of TH transporters, deiodinase enzymes, and receptors is critical to ensure specific levels of TH action in neural cells. The type 3 iodothyronine deiodinase (DIO3) inactivates THs and is highly present in the developing and adult brain, where it limits their availability and action...
June 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Michael Rosenbaum, Rochelle L Goldsmith, Fadia Haddad, Kenneth M Baldwin, Richard Smiley, Dympna Gallagher, Rudolph L Leibel
Subjects maintaining a 10% or greater dietary weight loss exhibit decreased circulating concentrations of bioactive thyroid hormones and increased skeletal muscle work efficiency largely due to increased expression of more efficient myosin heavy chain isoforms (MHCI) and significantly mediated by the adipocyte-derived hormone leptin. The primary purpose of this study was to examine the effects of triiodothyronine (T3) repletion on energy homeostasis and skeletal muscle physiology in weight-reduced subjects and to compare these results with the effects of leptin repletion...
June 19, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
K J Jerzak, J G Cockburn, S K Dhesy-Thind, G R Pond, K I Pritchard, S Nofech-Mozes, P Sun, S A Narod, A Bane
PURPOSE: Preliminary data suggest that high expression of the TRβ1 tumor suppressor is associated with longer survival among women with early breast cancer. We undertook this study to validate these findings. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, we analyzed the prognostic significance of TRβ1 protein expression in the breast tumors of 796 women who had undergone breast surgery in the Henrietta Banting Breast Cancer database. All women were recruited after undergoing primary surgical therapy at Women's College Hospital (Toronto, ON, Canada) between January 1987 and December 2000...
June 18, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Wen-Yao Wang, Kuo Zhang, Wei Zhao, A Martin Gerdes, Giorgio Iervasi, Yi-Da Tang
Background: Although thyroid hormone (TH) has important effects on lipid metabolism, the relationship between TH and statin responsiveness has never been investigated. We hypothesize that TH plays an important role in statin responsiveness in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Methods: Consecutive 1091 hospitalized AMI patients in Fuwai hospital (Beijing, China) were enrolled into this current study. The study population was divided into three groups based on the intensity of statin treatment: low-intensity ( n = 221), moderate-intensity ( n = 712) and high-intensity ( n = 158)...
April 2018: Journal of Geriatric Cardiology: JGC
Aneta Monika Gawlik, Elzbieta Berdej-Szczot, Dorota Blat, Renata Klekotka, Tomasz Gawlik, Ewa Blaszczyk, Magdalena Hankus, Ewa Malecka-Tendera
Objective: The risk of autoimmune diseases (AD) in patients with Turner Syndrome (TS) is twice higher than in the general female population and four times higher than in the male population. The causes of the increased incidence of AD in TS are still under discussion. We hypothesized the presence of a specific humoral, cellular, and regulatory T cell (Treg) immunity profile which predisposes to AD, disorders of immunity, and disorders of immune regulation. Methods: The study encompassed 37 girls with TS and with no signs of infection...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Dong Yoon Ji, Se Hee Park, Soo Jin Park, Kyoung Heon Kim, Cheol Ryong Ku, Dong Yeob Shin, Jin Sook Yoon, Do Yup Lee, Eun Jig Lee
Graves' disease (GD) is an autoimmune disorder that causes the overproduction of thyroid hormones and consequent cascade of systemic metabolism dysfunction. Moreover, Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) is the main extrathyroidal manifestation of Graves' disease (GD). The goal of the study was to identify metabolic signatures in association with diagnostic biomarkers of GD without GO and GO, respectively. Ninety metabolites were profiled and analyzed based on a non-targeted primary metabolite profiling from plasma samples of 21 GD patients without GO, 26 subjects with GO, and 32 healthy subjects...
June 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sunmi Park, Mark Willingham, Jun Qi, Sheue-Yann Cheng
Compelling epidemiological evidence shows a strong positive correlation of obesity with thyroid cancer. In vivo studies have provided molecular evidence that high-fat-diet-induced obesity promotes thyroid cancer progression by aberrantly activating leptin-JAK2-STAT3 signaling in a mouse model of thyroid cancer (ThrbPV/PVPten+/- mice). The ThrbPV/PVPten+/- mouse expresses a dominantly negative thyroid hormone receptor β (denoted as PV) and a deletion of one single allele of the Pten gene. The ThrbPV/PVPten+/- mouse spontaneously develops follicular thyroid cancer, which allows its use as a preclinical mouse model to test potential therapeutics...
June 18, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
Kazuko Yonezaki, Toshihiro Kobayashi, Hitomi Imachi, Takuo Yoshimoto, Fumi Kikuchi, Kensaku Fukunaga, Seisuke Sato, Tomohiro Ibata, Nao Yamaji, Jingya Lyu, Tao Dong, Koji Murao
BACKGROUND: Recently, immune checkpoint inhibitors have widely been used for the management of advanced melanoma. However, high-grade immune-related adverse events can occur, particularly with combination immunotherapy. We report a case of a patient with melanoma who developed thyroid storm following treatment with ipilimumab and nivolumab. CASE PRESENTATION: An 85-year-old Japanese man with a history of malignant melanoma presented to our department with severe thyrotoxicosis and poor blood glucose control...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
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