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Pro Renin diabetic retinopathy

Sónia Simão, Daniela F Santos, Gabriela A Silva
There is growing evidence on the role of ocular renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR), particularly due to the trigger of oxidative stress and angiogenesis. Despite this there is no effective RAS-based therapy in DR capable of preventing retinal damage induced by RAS activation. We recently described that retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells express the main components of the RAS. We here propose to investigate the role of glucose upon the retinal RAS and whether aliskiren, a direct renin inhibitor, protects RPE cells from angiogenesis and oxidative stress...
October 1, 2016: Angiogenesis
Margarida Capitão, Raquel Soares
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the most prevalent microvascular complications of diabetes and one of the most frequent causes of blindness in active age. Etiopathogenesis behind this important complication is related to several biochemical, hemodynamic and endocrine mechanisms with a preponderant initial role assumed by polyol pathways, increment of growth factors, accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGE), activation of protein kinase C (PKC), activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), and leukostasis...
November 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Devy Deliyanti, Yuan Zhang, Fay Khong, David R Berka, David I Stapleton, Darren J Kelly, Jennifer L Wilkinson-Berka
Diabetic retinopathy features inflammation as well as injury to glial cells and the microvasculature, which are influenced by hypertension and overactivity of the renin-angiotensin system. FT011 is an anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic agent that has been reported to attenuate organ damage in diabetic rats with cardiomyopathy and nephropathy. However, the potential therapeutic utility of FT011 for diabetic retinopathy has not been evaluated. We hypothesized that FT011 would attenuate retinopathy in diabetic Ren-2 rats, which exhibit hypertension due to an overactive extra-renal renin-angiotensin system...
2015: PloS One
Rashidul Haque, Elizabeth H Hur, Annie N Farrell, P Michael Iuvone, Jennifer C Howell
PURPOSE: The (pro)renin receptor (PRR), a component of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), plays an important role in the physiologic and pathophysiological regulation of blood pressure and fluid/electrolyte homeostasis. The RAS including the PRR has been identified in retinal endothelial cells and other ocular tissues. In this study, the potential involvement of miRNAs in the posttranscriptional regulation of PRR was investigated in human retinal endothelial cells (hRECs) under high glucose (HG) conditions...
2015: Molecular Vision
Atsuhiro Kanda
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS), originally regarded as an important controller of systemic blood pressure (circulatory RAS), plays a pivotal role in pathological vascular conditions including inflammation and angiogenesis (tissue RAS). (Pro) renin receptor [(P) RR] is known to bind with prorenin causing the dual activation of tissue renin-angiotensin system (RAS) together with RAS-independent intracellular signaling pathways and contributes to the molecular pathogenesis of end-organ damage. In this review, we investigated localization and expression of (P)RR in fibrovascular tissues and vitreous fluids from patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy and evaluated the molecular mechanisms in vitro in order to confirm the conclusions regarding (P) RR from animal studies...
November 2014: Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi
Wendy W Batenburg, Amrisha Verma, Yunyang Wang, Ping Zhu, Mieke van den Heuvel, Richard van Veghel, A H Jan Danser, Qiuhong Li
Dysfunction of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) contributes to the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Prorenin, the precursor of renin is highly elevated in ocular fluid of diabetic patients with proliferative retinopathy. Prorenin may exert local effects in the eye by binding to the so-called (pro)renin receptor ((P)RR). Here we investigated the combined effects of the renin inhibitor aliskiren and the putative (P)RR blocker handle-region peptide (HRP) on diabetic retinopathy in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic transgenic (mRen2)27 rats (a model with high plasma prorenin levels) as well as prorenin stimulated cytokine expression in cultured Müller cells...
2014: PloS One
Daniela Zaade, Jennifer Schmitz, Eileen Benke, Sabrina Klare, Kerstin Seidel, Sebastian Kirsch, Petra Goldin-Lang, Frank S Zollmann, Thomas Unger, Heiko Funke-Kaiser
The (pro)renin receptor ((P)RR) signaling is involved in different pathophysiologies ranging from cardiorenal end-organ damage via diabetic retinopathy to tumorigenesis. We have previously shown that the transcription factor promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF) is an adaptor protein of the (P)RR. Furthermore, recent publications suggest that major functions of the (P)RR are mediated ligand-independently by its transmembrane and intracellular part, which acts as an accessory protein of V-ATPases. The transcriptome and recruitmentome downstream of the V-ATPase function and PLZF in the context of the (P)RR are currently unknown...
2013: PloS One
J David Symons, E Dale Abel
Cardiovascular complications are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in individuals with obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and insulin resistance. Complications include pathologies specific to large (atherosclerosis, cardiomyopathy) and small (retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy) vessels. Common among all of these pathologies is an altered endothelial cell phenotype i.e., endothelial dysfunction. A crucial aspect of endothelial dysfunction is reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, activation of the renin-angiotensin system, and increased pro-inflammatory cytokines are systemic disturbances in individuals with obesity, T2DM, and insulin resistance and each of these contribute independently and synergistically to decreasing NO bioavailability...
March 2013: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
A Kanda, K Noda, W Saito, S Ishida
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) potentially has a role in the development of end-organ damage, and tissue RAS activation has been suggested as a risk factor for diabetic retinopathy. We have recently shown significant involvement of (pro)renin receptor ([P]RR) in retinal inflammation in a rodent model of early diabetes. In this study we aim to elucidate the (P)RR-associated pathogenesis of fibrovascular proliferation, a late-stage angiogenic complication in human diabetic retinopathy...
November 2012: Diabetologia
Shingo Satofuka, Atsuhiro Kanda, Susumu Ishida
Receptor-associated prorenin system (RAPS) refers to the pathogenic mechanisms whereby prorenin binding to (pro)renin receptor [(P)RR] dually activates tissue renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and RAS-independent intracellular signaling through the receptor. Although we found significant involvement of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1-R) in intraocular inflammation and neovascularization, central pathologies of age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy, the association of RAPS with these vision-threatening disorders has not been defined...
2012: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
Shingo Satofuka
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS), or circulating RAS, is a hormone system that regulates systemic blood pressure. Although several types of organ damage are known to result from the activation of the tissue RAS, the precise mechanism of this activation is not fully understood. The recent discovery of the (pro)renin receptor elucidates the pathogenic mechanism whereby prorenin, by binding to its receptor, dually activates the tissue RAS and RAS-independent intracellular signaling via the receptor. We propose a nomenclature receptor-associated prorenin system (RAPS) for these two major pathways, triggered by the (pro)renin receptor...
November 2011: Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi
Kazi Rafiq, Hirofumi Hitomi, Daisuke Nakano, Atsuhiro Ichihara, Akira Nishiyama
It is widely acknowledged that activation of the renin-angiotensin system impairs insulin sensitivity. Pharmacological inhibition of the (pro)renin receptor-dependent system has shown beneficial effects in diabetic nephropathy, retinopathy and hypertensive cardiac damage in animal models. Previously, we showed that fructose feeding stimulated nonproteolytic activation of prorenin and subsequent production of angiotensin II in skeletal muscle in rats, and that inhibition of the (pro)renin receptor-dependent system improved the development of fructose feeding-induced insulin resistance...
2011: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
Jennifer L Wilkinson-Berka, Antonia G Miller, Katrina J Binger
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a treatment target for diabetic retinopathy and possibly other ocular diseases. However, angiotensin II blockade, though beneficial in diabetic retinopathy, is not completely retinoprotective. There is speculation that this shortfall is due to incomplete suppression of other RAS components. This review discusses the possibility that prorenin, which initiates the RAS, and the (pro)renin receptor [(P)RR] are potential candidates. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite prorenin being elevated in diabetic retinopathy, it remains unclear whether it exerts any functional effects in tissues, including the eye...
January 2011: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
Andreea Ciudin, Cristina Hernández, Rafael Simó
Iron is an essential ion for life, playing a central role in many metabolic processes. The most important property of free iron is its capacity to be reversibly oxidized and reduced, but at same time this make it highly pro-oxidant molecule. In this regard, iron is able to generate powerful reactive oxygen species (ROS). For this reason, careful control on iron availability is central to the maintenance of normal cell function in the retina. In the diabetic eye there is an impairment of iron homeostasis, thus leading to iron overload...
2010: Experimental Diabetes Research
Jennifer L Wilkinson-Berka, Antonia G Miller, Erica L Fletcher
Prorenin, the inactive precursor of renin has been suggested to be an indicator of diabetic complications including retinopathy. This concept was originally based on findings that prorenin is elevated in the plasma and vitreous of patients with diabetic retinopathy. Experimental studies in animal models of diabetic retinopathy and retinopathy of prematurity, have confirmed these reports and localized prorenin to macroglial Muller cells and blood vessels. The identification of a (pro)renin receptor ((P)RR) which binds both prorenin and renin, and influences intracellular signaling pathways independently of angiotensin II, suggests that prorenin-(P)RR may be pathogenic under certain circumstances...
2010: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
Jennifer L Wilkinson-Berka, Duncan J Campbell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2009: Diabetes
Carlos Ferrario
Endothelial dysfunction is the common link between cardiovascular disease risk factors and the earliest event in the cascade of incidents that results in target organ damage. Angiotensin II, the terminal pressor effector arm of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, increases blood pressure (BP) by vasoconstriction and sodium and fluid retention, and has a pro-oxidative action that induces endothelial dysfunction and contributes to vascular remodeling. Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) reduce BP and morbidity and mortality in patients with hypertension, ventricular hypertrophy, diabetes mellitus, and renal disease...
2009: Vascular Health and Risk Management
Shingo Satofuka, Atsuhiro Ichihara, Norihiro Nagai, Kousuke Noda, Yoko Ozawa, Akiyoshi Fukamizu, Kazuo Tsubota, Hiroshi Itoh, Yuichi Oike, Susumu Ishida
OBJECTIVE: The term "receptor-associated prorenin system" (RAPS) refers to the pathogenic mechanisms whereby prorenin binding to its receptor dually activates the tissue renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and RAS-independent intracellular signaling via the receptor. The aim of the present study was to define the association of the RAPS with diabetes-induced retinal inflammation. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Long-Evans rats, C57BL/6 mice, and angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1-R)-deficient mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes were treated with (pro)renin receptor blocker (PRRB)...
July 2009: Diabetes
Susumu Ishida
Lifestyle-related diseases cause macro-and microangiopathies in the major organs including the brain, heart, kidney, and eye, and as a result, shorten the lifespan. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has recently been shown to contribute to the processes of accelerated aging caused by lifestyle-related diseases from visceral obesity in the early stage to late-onset organ damage. Vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration (AMD), associated with lifestyle-related diseases as risk factors for progression, develop retinal and choroidal neovascularization (CNV), respectively, in their advanced stages...
March 2009: Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi
Satu Luhtala, Anu Vaajanen, Olli Oksala, Jarkko Valjakka, Heikki Vapaatalo
PURPOSE: An active local renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has recently been found in the human eye. The aim of the present study was to compare the activities of central RAS enzymes (ACE1 and 2) in porcine ocular tissues, morphologically and physiologically close to the human eye. In addition, the effects of three ACE-inhibitory tripeptides on these enzymes were evaluated. METHODS: Enucleated fresh porcine eyes were used. Activities of ACE1 and ACE2 and their inhibition by bioactive tripeptides (Ile-Pro-Pro, Val-Pro-Pro, Leu-Pro-Pro) as well as by a standard ACE-inhibitor captopril were assayed in the vitreous body, the retina and the ciliary body using fluorometric detection methods...
February 2009: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
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