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schizophrenia. borderline. psychosis

Anvi K Vora, Amanda M Fisher, Antonia S New, Erin A Hazlett, Margaret McNamara, Qiaoping Yuan, Zhifeng Zhou, Colin Hodgkinson, David Goldman, Larry J Siever, Panos Roussos, M Mercedes Perez-Rodriguez
Schizotypy captures the underlying genetic vulnerability to schizophrenia. However, the genetic underpinnings of schizotypy remain unexplored. The authors examined the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and schizotypy. A sample of 137 subjects (43 healthy controls, 34 subjects with schizotypal personality disorder [SPD], 32 with borderline personality disorder, and 25 with other personality disorders) completed the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ). Subjects were genotyped using a custom array chip...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
Guy Chouinard, Anne-Noël Samaha, Virginie-Anne Chouinard, Charles-Siegfried Peretti, Nobuhisa Kanahara, Masayuki Takase, Masaomi Iyo
The first-line treatment for psychotic disorders remains antipsychotic drugs with receptor antagonist properties at D2-like dopamine receptors. However, long-term administration of antipsychotics can upregulate D2 receptors and produce receptor supersensitivity manifested by behavioral supersensitivity to dopamine stimulation in animals, and movement disorders and supersensitivity psychosis (SP) in patients. Antipsychotic-induced SP was first described as the emergence of psychotic symptoms with tardive dyskinesia (TD) and a fall in prolactin levels following drug discontinuation...
2017: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics
Alfredo Ortega-Alonso, Jesper Ekelund, Antti-Pekka Sarin, Jouko Miettunen, Juha Veijola, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, William Hennah
The current study examined quantitative measures of psychosis proneness in a nonpsychotic population, in order to elucidate their underlying genetic architecture and to observe if there is any commonality to that already detected in the studies of individuals with overt psychotic conditions, such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Heritability, univariate and multivariate genome-wide association (GWAs) tests, including a series of comprehensive gene-based association analyses, were developed in 4269 nonpsychotic persons participating in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 study with information on the following psychometric measures: Hypomanic Personality, Perceptual Aberration, Physical and Social Anhedonia (also known as Chapman's Schizotypia scales), and Schizoidia scale...
October 21, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Juan L Molina, María Calvó, Eduardo Padilla, Mara Balda, Gabriela González Alemán, Néstor V Florenzano, Gonzalo Guerrero, Danielle Kamis, Beatriz Molina Rangeon, Mercedes Bourdieu, Sergio A Strejilevich, Horacio A Conesa, Javier I Escobar, Igor Zwir, C Robert Cloninger, Gabriel A de Erausquin
Identifying endophenotypes of schizophrenia is of critical importance and has profound implications on clinical practice. Here we propose an innovative approach to clarify the mechanims through which temperament and character deviance relates to risk for schizophrenia and predict long-term treatment outcomes. We recruited 61 antipsychotic naïve subjects with chronic schizophrenia, 99 unaffected relatives, and 68 healthy controls from rural communities in the Central Andes. Diagnosis was ascertained with the Schedules of Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry; parkinsonian motor impairment was measured with the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale; mesencephalic parenchyma was evaluated with transcranial ultrasound; and personality traits were assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory...
2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
A Landais, A Crespel, J-L Moulis, P Coubes, P Gelisse
BACKGROUND: "Alien tissue" may be responsible for a higher frequency of psychiatric disorders in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Also, ganglioglioma and dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNET) could represent a risk-factor for the development of post-surgical psychoses. Classically, severe psychiatric disorders contra-indicate epilepsy surgery. OBJECTIVES: Assessment of inter-ictal psychiatric disorders in 10 consecutive patients with temporal DNET, before and after epilepsy surgery with a minimum of a 2-year follow-up evaluation...
June 2016: Neuro-Chirurgie
Emily R Revell, Jo C Neill, Michael Harte, Zarshed Khan, Richard J Drake
Neurocognitive impairment predicts disability in schizophrenia, making intervention theoretically attractive as a means to minimise chronic disability. Many trials confirm that cognitive remediation (CR) produces meaningful, durable improvements in cognition and functioning but fewer focus on the early stages. We systematically reviewed CR trials in early schizophrenia to determine its efficacy on global cognition, functioning and symptoms. Two reviewers independently searched electronic databases to identify randomised controlled trials investigating CR following a first episode of psychosis...
October 2015: Schizophrenia Research
A K Agarwal, Shashi Rai, M C Upreti, A K Srivastava, Sheeba
CONTEXT: This article aims at demonstrating the effectiveness of day care centers in Indian setting. This is to provide impetus for an innovative approach in psychiatric practice in India. AIMS: The aim was to narrate the experiences of a day care center being practiced in India. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: The study provides the experiences gained in a day care center at Lucknow. The center was started in a hired building with a minimum of staff...
April 2015: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Sivasankaran Balaratnasingam, Aleksandar Janca
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this article is to review recent literature examining the occurrence of psychotic experiences in normal population and those with personality disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Up to 15% of individuals in the general population report some type or degree of psychotic experience. Most of these individuals function adequately, do not require psychiatric treatment and do not receive diagnosis of a psychotic illness. A significant number of individuals diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (25-50%) also report psychotic symptoms...
January 2015: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Francesco Oliva, Marinella Dalmotto, Elvezio Pirfo, Pier Maria Furlan, Rocco Luigi Picci
BACKGROUND: Although previous studies suggest a high frequency of psychotic symptoms in DSM-IV Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) there is currently no consensus on their prevalence and characteristics (type, frequency, duration, location etc.). Similarly, there are few papers addressing psychotic reactivity, the crucial aspect of BPD included in the ninth criterion for DSM-IV BPD, which remained unchanged in DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5. The purposes of the present study were to compare thought and perception disorders in patients with DSM-IV BPD and schizophrenia (SC), investigating their relationship with social functioning...
2014: BMC Psychiatry
A Gras, A Amad, P Thomas, R Jardri
INTRODUCTION: Hallucinations constitute understudied symptoms in borderline personality disorders (BPD), which can be observed in about 30% of the patients, essentially in the auditory modality. Most of these experiences are transitory, triggered by intermittent stressors, but chronicity remains a major cause of concern. In order to better circumscribe hallucinations in BPD, we summarized the literature on this particular phenomenon. METHODS: We conducted a review using Medline, Scopus and Google Scholar databases up to March 2013, using the following keywords combinations: "borderline personality disorder", "hallucinat*" and "psychotic symptoms"...
December 2014: L'Encéphale
Heinz Weiss
The paper deals with some basic problems concerning the experience of time and space in the psychoanalytic treatment of psychotic patients. Whereas borderline patients tend to distort the experience of time and space under emotional pressure, the concepts of time and space seem to dissolve in acute psychotic states of mind. Sometimes this manifests itself in an explosion of the present, where the past is ubiquitous and the future is perceived as the end of all times. The case of a 48 year-old patient with the external diagnosis of 'paranoid-hallucinatory schizophrenia' is presented to illustrate that the main task is to recreate a structure to contain the experience of space and time...
December 2013: International Journal of Psycho-analysis
Nikolaos Koutsouleris, Christos Davatzikos, Stefan Borgwardt, Christian Gaser, Ronald Bottlender, Thomas Frodl, Peter Falkai, Anita Riecher-Rössler, Hans-Jürgen Möller, Maximilian Reiser, Christos Pantelis, Eva Meisenzahl
Structural brain abnormalities are central to schizophrenia (SZ), but it remains unknown whether they are linked to dysmaturational processes crossing diagnostic boundaries, aggravating across disease stages, and driving the neurodiagnostic signature of the illness. Therefore, we investigated whether patients with SZ (N = 141), major depression (MD; N = 104), borderline personality disorder (BPD; N = 57), and individuals in at-risk mental states for psychosis (ARMS; N = 89) deviated from the trajectory of normal brain maturation...
September 2014: Schizophrenia Bulletin
D Kingdon, L Taylor, K Ma, Y Kinoshita
Names matter! Schizophrenia has negative associations which impede individual recovery and induce societal and self-stigmatization. Alternatives have been proposed and are worthy of debate; changes made in Japan have generally been considered successful. The group of 'schizophrenia and other psychoses' could be further differentiated based on the major social factors identified, i.e. drug misuse and the effects of severe childhood trauma. The use of appropriate International Classification of Diseases (ICD) coding and definitions could usefully differentiate these groups - the former is a drug-induced psychosis and the latter frequently presents as comorbid schizophrenia and borderline personality disorder (often attracting a diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder)...
December 2013: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
Mark Agius, Rashid Zaman, Dean Hanafy
An audit has been carried out of the patients who have been assessed using the CAARMS tool in order to assess patients who have been judged to have a prodromal psychotic syndrome. Instead of advocating PRS, Johannessen & McGorry (Johannessen 2010), have offered an alternative: a 'Pluripotent risk syndrome'. This less specific prodrome reflects the unpredictable nature of "Ultra-High Risk" states which have been shown to be more likely to develop into a non-psychotic mood disorder than schizophrenia (Hoon 2012)...
September 2013: Psychiatria Danubina
Phillip Grant, Yvonne Kuepper, Eva A Mueller, Catrin Wielpuetz, Oliver Mason, Juergen Hennig
The concept of schizotypy or "psychosis proneness" captures individual differences in perceptual, cognitive, and affective experiences that may relate to a range of psychotic disorders. The concept is an important way to assess the contribution of pre-existing psychological and genetically based biological features to the development of illnesses such as schizophrenia (so called endophenotypes). The Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences (O-LIFE) is a widely used multi-dimensional measure of the construct and consists of four scales which mirror several groups of psychotic symptoms: Unusual Experiences (UnEx; positive symptoms), Cognitive Disorganization (CogDis; cognitive symptoms), Introvertive Anhedonia (IntAn; negative symptoms), and Impulsive Nonconformity (ImpNon; impulsive and antisocial symptoms)...
2013: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Barnaby Nelson, Andrew Thompson, Andrew M Chanen, Günther Paul Amminger, Alison R Yung
AIM: Research in the phenomenological tradition suggests that the schizophrenia spectrum is characterized by disturbance of the 'basic' self, whereas borderline personality disorder involves disturbance of the 'narrative' self. The current study investigated this proposal in an ultra-high risk for psychosis sample. METHODS: The sample consisted of 42 ultra-high-risk participants with a mean age of 19.22 years. Basic self-disturbance was measured using the Examination of Anomalous Self-Experience...
August 2013: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
J Ben Thabet, N Zouari, F Charfeddine, L Zouari, M Maâlej
INTRODUCTION: Constitutional mythomania presents several diagnostic, aetiopathogenic and forensic problems for the doctor. We have discussed these aspects through the analysis of a case report. CASE REPORT: The case report relates to a 43 year-old man, who was subjected to a penal expertise following the emission of cheques without provision. During the examination, he pretended being both a doctor and a lawyer at the same time. He was in charge, among other things, of sale contracts dealing sometimes with high value transactions, obviously without following the required legal procedure...
December 2012: L'Encéphale
Carsten Rygaard Hjorthøj, Lone Vesterager, Merete Nordentoft
BACKGROUND: The New Adult Reading Test is a common instrument for assessing pre-morbid IQ for patients with, for instance, schizophrenia. However, test-retest reliability has not been established for patients dually diagnosed with psychosis and substance use disorder. Furthermore, test-retest reliability of the Danish adaptation has never been established in any population. AIMS: To determine the test-retest reliability of the Danish Adult Reading Test (DART) (adapted from the National Adult Reading Test, NART) for patients dually diagnosed with psychosis and cannabis-use disorder...
June 2013: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
Rebecca E Anglin, Sarah L Garside, Mark A Tarnopolsky, Michael F Mazurek, Patricia I Rosebush
OBJECTIVE: Mitochondrial disorders are caused by gene mutations in mitochondrial or nuclear DNA and affect energy-dependent organs such as the brain. Patients with psychiatric illness, particularly those with medical comorbidities, may have primary mitochondrial disorders. To date, this issue has received little attention in the literature, and mitochondrial disorders are likely underdiagnosed in psychiatric patients. DATA SOURCES: This article describes a patient who presented with borderline personality disorder and treatment-resistant depression and was ultimately diagnosed with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) 3271...
April 2012: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Yaron Gilat, Yehuda Shoenfeld, Moshe Kotler, Iulian Iancu
BACKGROUND: A series of epidemiological, clinical and laboratory findings suggest an autoimmune process in schizophrenia and include, among others, high titers of various autoantibodies in the sera of patients. Antiribosomal P antibody is known to exist in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients with a psychiatric presentation, including psychosis, rationalizing the examination of its existence in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: Sera of 59 patients, 48 diagnosed with schizophrenia and 11 diagnosed with a schizoaffective disorder, were examined for the presence of antiribosomal P antibody titers using ELISA...
2011: Israel Journal of Psychiatry and related Sciences
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