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adhd autism

Freja Herborg, Thorvald F Andreassen, Frida Berlin, Claus J Loland, Ulrik Gether
Genetic factors are known to significantly contribute to the etiology of psychiatric diseases such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum and bipolar disorders, but the underlying molecular processes remain largely elusive. The dopamine transporter (DAT) has received continuous attention as a potential risk factor for psychiatric disease, as it is critical for dopamine homeostasis and serves as principal target for ADHD medications. Constrain metrics for the DAT-encoding gene solute carrier family 6 member 3 (SLC6A3) indicate that missense mutations are under strong negative selection, pointing to pathophysiological outcomes when DAT function is compromised...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Robert Freedman, Sharon K Hunter, M Camille Hoffman
Genes, infection, malnutrition, and other factors affecting fetal brain development are a major component of risk for a child's emotional development and later mental illnesses, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism. Prenatal interventions to ameliorate that risk have yet to be established for clinical use. A systematic review of prenatal nutrients and childhood emotional development and later mental illness was performed. Randomized trials of folic acid, phosphatidylcholine, and omega-3 fatty acid supplements assess effects of doses beyond those adequate to remedy deficiencies to promote normal fetal development despite genetic and environmental risks...
March 21, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Jeffrey Braithwaite, Peter D Hibbert, Adam Jaffe, Les White, Christopher T Cowell, Mark F Harris, William B Runciman, Andrew R Hallahan, Gavin Wheaton, Helena M Williams, Elisabeth Murphy, Charlotte J Molloy, Louise K Wiles, Shanthi Ramanathan, Gaston Arnolda, Hsuen P Ting, Tamara D Hooper, Natalie Szabo, John G Wakefield, Clifford F Hughes, Annette Schmiede, Chris Dalton, Sarah Dalton, Joanna Holt, Liam Donaldson, Ed Kelley, Richard Lilford, Peter Lachman, Stephen Muething
Importance: The quality of routine care for children is rarely assessed, and then usually in single settings or for single clinical conditions. Objective: To estimate the quality of health care for children in Australia in inpatient and ambulatory health care settings. Design, Setting, and Participants: Multistage stratified sample with medical record review to assess adherence with quality indicators extracted from clinical practice guidelines for 17 common, high-burden clinical conditions (noncommunicable [n = 5], mental health [n = 4], acute infection [n = 7], and injury [n = 1]), such as asthma, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, tonsillitis, and head injury...
March 20, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Ruth E K Stein, Ellen J Silver, Marilyn C Augustyn, Nathan J Blum, Pamela High, Nancy J Roizen
BACKGROUND: It is unknown how insurance status affects elements of evaluation at developmental behavioral (DB) pediatric sites. OBJECTIVE: To compare DB referrals, evaluation, and treatment for children with Medicaid and private insurance. DESIGN/METHODS: Fifty-six developmental behavioral pediatricians at 12 sites recorded anonymous data on structured forms for ≤15 consecutive referrals. Children with Medicaid (n = 309) and private insurance (n = 393) were compared on sociodemographic factors, referral concerns, evaluation elements, and resulting diagnoses...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
Satoshi Nobusako, Ayami Sakai, Taeko Tsujimoto, Takashi Shuto, Yuki Nishi, Daiki Asano, Emi Furukawa, Takuro Zama, Michihiro Osumi, Sotaro Shimada, Shu Morioka, Akio Nakai
The neurological basis of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is thought to be deficits in the internal model and mirror-neuron system (MNS) in the parietal lobe and cerebellum. However, it is not clear if the visuo-motor temporal integration in the internal model and automatic-imitation function in the MNS differs between children with DCD and those with typical development (TD). The current study aimed to investigate these differences. Using the manual dexterity test of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (second edition), the participants were either assigned to the probable DCD (pDCD) group or TD group...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Nicole Ali, Gabrielle Rigney, Shelly K Weiss, Cary A Brown, Evelyn Constantin, Roger Godbout, Ana Hanlon-Dearman, Osman Ipsiroglu, Graham J Reid, Sarah Shea, Isabel M Smith, Machiel Van der Loos, Penny V Corkum
Insomnia, which is related to daytime deficits and is a common problem for children with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), is often successfully treated with behavioral strategies. However, there are barriers to accessing these treatments, and there has been little research examining what these interventions need to be usable and effective. The goal of this study was to gain consensus from experts in the field on the key components of an eHealth, parent-implemented, intervention program aimed at improving sleep in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, cerebral palsy, and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder...
April 2018: Sleep Health
Dong-Oh Seo, Laura E Motard, Michael R Bruchas
Great efforts in clinical and basic research have shown progress in understanding the neurobiological mechanisms of neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism, schizophrenia, and attention-deficit hyperactive disorders. Literature on this field have suggested that these disorders are affected by the complex interaction of genetic, biological, psychosocial and environmental risk factors. However, this complexity of interplaying risk factors during neurodevelopment has prevented a complete understanding of the causes of those neuropsychiatric symptoms...
March 14, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Harshini Manohar, Pooja Patnaik Kuppili, Preeti Kandasamy, Venkatesh Chandrasekaran, Ravi Philip Rajkumar
BACKGROUND: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder commonly associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), the prevalence ranging from 14-70%. The current study attempted to assess the impact of comorbid ADHD in children with ASD, in terms of challenges in diagnosis, treatment, intervention outcomes and parental stress and coping through a naturalistic design. METHODS: Fifty children aged 2-6 years with ASD were recruited, assessed and followed up for six months...
March 2, 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Mami Miyasaka, Shogo Kajimura, Michio Nomura
Recent research has shown high rates of comorbidity between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and difficulties regarding differential diagnosis. Unlike those in Western countries, the Japanese ADHD prevalence rate is lower relative to that of ASD. This inconsistency could have occurred because of cultural diversities among professionals such as physicians. However, little is known about attitudes toward ADHD and ASD in non-Western cultural contexts. We conducted two experiments to identify biases in ASD and ADHD assessment...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Laura C Politte, Lawrence Scahill, Janet Figueroa, James T McCracken, Bryan King, Christopher J McDougle
In a prior report, we showed that extended-release guanfacine (GEXR) is safe and effective for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) accompanied by ADHD symptoms. Here, we examine the impact of GEXR on oppositional behavior, anxiety, repetitive behavior, and sleep disturbance. Sixty-two subjects with ASD (53 boys, 9 girls; ages 5-14 years) were randomly assigned to GEXR (n = 30) or placebo (n = 32) for 8 weeks. Outcomes include the Home Situation Questionnaire-Modified for ASD (HSQ-ASD), Anxiety scale of the Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory (CASI), Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale-Modified for ASD (CYBOCS-ASD), and Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ)...
February 27, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
D Zoenen, V Delvenne
INTRODUCTION: The processing of information coming from the elementary sensory systems conditions the development and fulfilment of a child's abilities. A dysfunction in the sensory stimuli processing may generate behavioural patterns that might affect a child's learning capacities as well as his relational sphere. The DSM-5 recognizes the sensory abnormalities as part of the symptomatology of Autism Spectrum Disorders. However, similar features are observed in other neurodevelopmental disorders...
2018: Revue Médicale de Bruxelles
A J P Bloemen, A J Oldehinkel, O M Laceulle, J Ormel, N N J Rommelse, C A Hartman
BACKGROUND: We modeled both psychopathology and executive function (EF) as bi-factor models to study if EF impairments are transdiagnostic or relate to individual syndromes, and concurrently, if such associations are with general EF or specific EF impairments. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS; N = 2230). Psychopathology was assessed with parent-report questionnaires at ages 11, 14, 16, and 19, and EF with tasks from the Amsterdam Neuropsychological Tasks program at ages 11 and 19...
March 9, 2018: Psychological Medicine
B Rosello-Miranda, C Berenguer-Forner, A Miranda-Casas
INTRODUCTION: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) present difficulties in adaptive functioning and learning, possibly associated with failures in executive functioning characteristic of both disorders. AIM: To analyze the impact of executive functioning in the adaptive behaviors of socialization and daily life and in learning behaviors in children with ASD and children with ADHD. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The participants were 124 children matched in age and intellectual quotient: 37 children with typical development, 52 children with ASD and 35 children with ADHD...
March 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
F Mulas, P Roca
INTRODUCTION: The current literature acknowledges an overlap of genetic, clinical and neuropsychological aspects between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), suggesting that there may be a common pattern that covers features ranging from the common genetic and structural aetiology to shared patterns of symptoms. AIM: To review the current advances in these common aspects. DEVELOPMENT: Several studies have pointed out preschool attentional difficulties as the basis of both disorders...
March 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
Ziv Ronel
A previous paper from our lab (Shalom, 2009) presented evidence that the medial part of the prefrontal cortex is involved in the integration of raw, unintegrated information into coherent, wholistic mental representations such as perceptual objects, episodic memories, emotional states, and motor actions. It has used this analysis to classify some challenges encountered by people with Autism Spectrum Disorders, linking different types of difficulties in integration with different subareas of the medial prefrontal cortex...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Sara Boxhoorn, Eva Lopez, Catharina Schmidt, Diana Schulze, Susann Hänig, Christine M Freitag
Attention problems are observed in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Most neuropsychological studies that compared both disorders focused on complex executive functions (EF), but missed to contrast basic attention functions, as well as ASD- and ADHD subtypes. The present study compared EF as well as basic attention functioning of children with the combined subtype (ADHD-C), the predominantly inattentive subtype (ADHD-I), and autism spectrum disorder without ADHD (ASD-) with typically developing controls (TD)...
March 6, 2018: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Marie M A Nankoo, Romina Palermo, Jason Alan Bell, Carmela M Pestell
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the rate of ADHD-related traits among young adults in an Australian university, and to examine whether higher endorsement of ADHD-related symptoms is associated with self-reported symptoms of depression, anxiety, distress, and autistic-like traits. METHOD: In total, 1,002 students aged 17 to 25 years completed the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS), the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS), and the Autism Quotient (AQ). RESULTS: About 17...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Andy Barnes, Richard Ziegler, Neena McConnico, Martin T Stein
Carter is a 12-year-old boy who has been seeing a developmental-behavioral pediatrician since the age of 7 years for problems with behavioral regulation. Around that time, he began to receive special education services after an educational assessment of autism. He has average intellectual abilities, with below-average semantic-pragmatic speech (e.g., conversations are one-sided). His medical diagnoses included attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), combined presentation, and generalized anxiety disorder...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
Sarah A Keim, Barbara Gracious, Kelly M Boone, Mark A Klebanoff, Lynette K Rogers, Joseph Rausch, Daniel L Coury, Kelly W Sheppard, Jesse Husk, Dale A Rhoda
Background: Children born preterm are at increased risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). n-3 (ω-3) Combined with n-6 (ω-6) fatty acids including γ-linolenic acid (GLA) may benefit children born preterm showing early signs of ASD. Previous trials have reported that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) promotes cognitive development in preterm neonates and n-3 fatty acids combined with GLA improve attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder. Objectives: The objectives of the pilot Preemie Tots Trial were 1) to confirm the feasibility of a full-scale trial in toddlers born very preterm and exhibiting ASD symptoms and 2) to explore the effects of supplementation on parent-reported ASD symptoms and related behaviors...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Berit Hjelde Hansen, Beate Oerbeck, Benedicte Skirbekk, Beáta Éva Petrovski, Hanne Kristensen
BACKGROUND: Accurate prevalence rates of the neurodevelopmental disorders (ND) and comorbid conditions in child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) are essential for treatment planning and organization of health care. However, valid and reliable prevalence estimates from Nordic CAMHS populations are scarce, and the published findings vary. AIMS: To report prevalence rates of ND (attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: ADHD, tic disorder: TD or autism spectrum disorder: ASD) and comorbid disorders by a validated diagnostic instrument in children referred to CAMHS outpatient clinics...
February 28, 2018: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
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