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adhd autism

Hilde de Kluiver, Jacobine E Buizer-Voskamp, Conor V Dolan, Dorret I Boomsma
We review the hypotheses concerning the association between the paternal age at childbearing and childhood psychiatric disorders (autism spectrum- and attention deficit/hyperactive disorder) and adult disorders (schizophrenia, bipolar-, obsessive-compulsive-, and major depressive disorder) based on epidemiological studies. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the paternal age effect. We discuss the four main-not mutually exclusive-hypotheses. These are the de novo mutation hypothesis, the hypothesis concerning epigenetic alterations, the selection into late fatherhood hypothesis, and the environmental resource hypothesis...
October 22, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
C H M Cheung, R Bedford, M H Johnson, T Charman, T Gliga
An enhanced ability to detect visual targets amongst distractors, known as visual search (VS), has often been documented in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Yet, it is unclear when this behaviour emerges in development and if it is specific to ASD. We followed up infants at high and low familial risk for ASD to investigate how early VS abilities links to later ASD diagnosis, the potential underlying mechanisms of this association and the specificity of superior VS to ASD. Clinical diagnosis of ASD as well as dimensional measures of ASD, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anxiety symptoms were ascertained at 3 years...
September 30, 2016: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Stephanie M Morris, Maria T Acosta, Shruti Garg, Jonathan Green, Susan Huson, Eric Legius, Kathryn N North, Jonathan M Payne, Ellen Plasschaert, Thomas W Frazier, Lauren A Weiss, Yi Zhang, David H Gutmann, John N Constantino
Importance: Recent reports have demonstrated a higher incidence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and substantially elevated autistic trait burden in individuals with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). However, important discrepancies regarding the distribution of autistic traits, sex predominance, and association between ASD symptoms and attentional problems have emerged, and critical features of the ASD phenotype within NF1 have never been adequately explored. Establishing NF1 as a monogenic cause for ASD has important implications for affected patients and for future research focused on establishing convergent pathogenic mechanisms relevant to the potential treatment targets for ASD...
October 19, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
Chelsie E Benca, Jaime L Derringer, Robin P Corley, Susan E Young, Matthew C Keller, John K Hewitt, Naomi P Friedman
Executive functions (EFs) have been proposed as an endophenotype for psychopathology because EF deficits are associated with most psychiatric disorders. To examine this hypothesis, we derived polygenic risk scores for autism, attention-deficit/hyperactive disorder (ADHD), bipolar disorder, major depression (MDD), and schizophrenia, using genome-wide data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium as discovery samples. We then examined the relationships between these polygenic risk scores and three separable EF components measured with a latent variable model...
October 14, 2016: Behavior Genetics
Christopher C Angelakos, Adam J Watson, W Timothy O'Brien, Kyle S Krainock, Thomas Nickl-Jockschat, Ted Abel
Sleep disturbances and hyperactivity are prevalent in several neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Evidence from genome-wide association studies indicates that chromosomal copy number variations (CNVs) are associated with increased prevalence of these neurodevelopmental disorders. In particular, CNVs in chromosomal region 16p11.2 profoundly increase the risk for ASD and ADHD, disorders that are more common in males than females...
October 14, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Benjamin E Yerys, Jenelle Nissley-Tsiopinis, Ashley de Marchena, Marley W Watkins, Ligia Antezana, Thomas J Power, Robert T Schultz
Scientists and clinicians regularly use clinical screening tools for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to assess comorbidity without empirical evidence that these measures are valid in youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We examined the prevalence of youth meeting ADHD criteria on the ADHD rating scale fourth edition (ADHD-RS-IV), the relationship of ADHD-RS-IV ratings with participant characteristics and behaviors, and its underlying factor structure in 386, 7-17 year olds with ASD without intellectual disability...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
M Kölch, P L Plener
Pharmacotherapeutic interventions are available for most psychiatric disorders in children. Evidence for these interventions varies, depending on the targeted disorders. For attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, a sound database on efficacy and safety of medication exists. For other common disorders or psychopathological phenomena like disruptive behavior, anxiety disorders, depressive disorders, or autism, data on efficacy and safety are much scarcer. This selective review aims to provide an overview about current psychopharmacological interventions in child and adolescent psychiatry...
October 13, 2016: Pharmacopsychiatry
Agnieszka Butwicka, Niklas Långström, Henrik Larsson, Sebastian Lundström, Eva Serlachius, Catarina Almqvist, Louise Frisén, Paul Lichtenstein
Despite limited and ambiguous empirical data, substance use-related problems have been assumed to be rare among patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Using Swedish population-based registers we identified 26,986 individuals diagnosed with ASD during 1973-2009, and their 96,557 non-ASD relatives. ASD, without diagnosed comorbidity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or intellectual disability, was related to a doubled risk of substance use-related problems. The risk of substance use-related problems was the highest among individuals with ASD and ADHD...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Meghan Miller, Ana-Maria Iosif, Gregory S Young, Monique Moore Hill, Sally Ozonoff
Converging evidence suggests shared genetic underpinnings of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Studies of infants at risk for ASD have proliferated over the past decade; the few studies that have followed these infants beyond age 3 report a range of difficulties facing a subset of these infants as they reach school age, including elevated levels of attention problems and externalizing behavior. Given this, we aimed to identify early predictors of school-age ADHD outcomes in a sample of infant siblings at risk for ASD...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
Jun Udagawa, Kodai Hino
Epidemiological studies suggest that exposure to prenatal stressors, including malnutrition, maternal immune activation (MIA), and adverse life events, is associated with increased risks of schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are unclear. The first trimester of pregnancy is particularly a vulnerable period. During this period, the self-renewal of neural stem cells and neurogenesis vigorously occur, and synaptic connections are partially formed in the telencephalon...
2016: Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Hygiene
Sara Mostafalou, Mohammad Abdollahi
Pesticides are a family of compounds which have brought many benefits to mankind in the agricultural, industrial, and health areas, but their toxicities in both humans and animals have always been a concern. Regardless of acute poisonings which are common for some classes of pesticides like organophosphoruses, the association of chronic and sub-lethal exposure to pesticides with a prevalence of some persistent diseases is going to be a phenomenon to which global attention has been attracted. In this review, incidence of various malignant, neurodegenerative, respiratory, reproductive, developmental, and metabolic diseases in relation to different routes of human exposure to pesticides such as occupational, environmental, residential, parental, maternal, and paternal has been systematically criticized in different categories of pesticide toxicities like carcinogenicity, neurotoxicity, pulmonotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, developmental toxicity, and metabolic toxicity...
October 8, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
Shari L Hutchison, Jaswinder K Ghuman, Harinder S Ghuman, Irina Karpov, James M Schuster
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed mental health disorders and is associated with higher incidence of comorbid oppositional or conduct, mood, anxiety, pervasive developmental, and substance-use disorders. Comorbid mental health conditions may alter the presence of symptoms and treatment of ADHD. Atomoxetine (ATX), a nonstimulant medication for the treatment of ADHD, may be prescribed for individuals with ADHD and comorbid conditions despite some risk for certain undesirable side effects and lower effectiveness for the treatment of ADHD than stimulants...
October 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology
Susan dosReis, Wendy Camelo Castillo, Melissa Ross, Marcy Fitz-Randolph, Angela Vaughn-Lee, Beverly Butler
OBJECTIVES: To develop a methodological approach for selecting, validating, and prioritizing attributes for health care decision making. METHODS: Participants (n = 48) were recruited from community support groups if they had a child aged 26 years or younger diagnosed with a coexisting mental health condition and cognitive impairment. Six in-depth interviews eliciting care management experiences were transcribed and coded into themes following the principles of grounded theory and the constant comparative method...
September 2016: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
Sohini Chatterjee, Trevor Humby, William Davies
BACKGROUND: X-linked ichthyosis (XLI) is a rare dermatological condition arising from deficiency for the enzyme steroid sulfatase (STS). Preliminary evidence in boys with XLI, and animal model studies, suggests that individuals lacking STS are at increased risk of developmental disorders and associated traits. However, the behavioural profile of children with XLI is poorly-characterised, and the behavioural profile of adults with XLI has not yet been documented at all. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using an online survey, advertised worldwide, we collected detailed self- or parent-reported information on behaviour in adult (n = 58) and younger (≤18yrs, n = 24) males with XLI for comparison to data from their non-affected brothers, and age/gender-matched previously-published normative data...
2016: PloS One
Ulf Jonsson, Iman Alaie, Anna Löfgren Wilteus, Eric Zander, Peter B Marschik, David Coghill, Sven Bölte
BACKGROUND: An individual's subjective perception of well-being is increasingly recognized as an essential complement to clinical symptomatology and functional impairment in children's mental health. Measurement of quality of life (QoL) has the potential to give due weight to the child's perspective. SCOPE AND METHODOLOGY: Our aim was to critically review the current evidence on how childhood mental disorders affect QoL. First, the major challenges in this research field are outlined...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
A Simons, F Eyskens, I Glazemakers, D van West
Many patients who visit a centre for hereditary metabolic diseases remarkably also suffer from a child psychiatric disorder. Those child psychiatric disorders may be the first sign or manifestation of an underlying metabolic disorder. Lack of knowledge of metabolic disorders in child psychiatry may lead to diagnoses being missed. Patients therefore are also at risk for not accessing efficacious treatment and proper counselling. To search the literature for the co-occurrence of child psychiatric disorders, such as ADHD, autism, psychosis, learning disorders and eating disorders and metabolic disorders...
September 30, 2016: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Chen Zhang
The present diagnostic classification of mental illnesses is primarily based on symptomatology. A recent cross-disorder genome-wide association study revealed that there were genetic similarities between multiple clinically defined diagnoses (including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and autism spectrum disorder) on regions of chromosomes 3p21 and 10q24 and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within two L-type voltage-gated calcium channel subunits of CACNA1C and CACNB2...
February 25, 2016: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
Mia E Persson, Dominic Wright, Lina S V Roth, Petros Batakis, Per Jensen
Unlike their wolf ancestors, dogs have unique social skills for communicating and cooperating with humans. Previously, significant heritabilities for human-directed social behaviors have been found in laboratory beagles. Here, a Genome-Wide Association Study identified two genomic regions associated with dog's human-directed social behaviors. We recorded the propensity of laboratory beagles, bred, kept and handled under standardized conditions, to initiate physical interactions with a human during an unsolvable problem-task, and 190 individuals were genotyped with an HD Canine SNP-chip...
September 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
Andrea G Edlow
There is a growing body of evidence from both human epidemiologic and animal studies that prenatal and lactational exposure to maternal obesity and high-fat diet are associated with neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders in offspring. These disorders include cognitive impairment, autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, cerebral palsy, anxiety and depression, schizophrenia, and eating disorders. This review synthesizes human and animal data linking maternal obesity and high-fat diet consumption to abnormal fetal brain development and neurodevelopmental and psychiatric morbidity in offspring...
September 29, 2016: Prenatal Diagnosis
May Loong Tan, Jacqueline J Ho, Keng Hwang Teh
BACKGROUND: About 5% of school children have a specific learning disorder, defined as unexpected failure to acquire adequate abilities in reading, writing or mathematics that is not a result of reduced intellectual ability, inadequate teaching or social deprivation. Of these events, 80% are reading disorders. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), in particular, omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, which normally are abundant in the brain and in the retina, are important for learning. Some children with specific learning disorders have been found to be deficient in these PUFAs, and it is argued that supplementation of PUFAs may help these children improve their learning abilities...
September 28, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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