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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764710/a-systematic-review-to-explore-the-feasibility-of-a-behavioural-sleep-intervention-for-insomnia-in-children-with-neurodevelopmental-disorders-a-transdiagnostic-approach
#1
REVIEW
Gabrielle Rigney, Nicole S Ali, Penny V Corkum, Cary A Brown, Evelyn Constantin, Roger Godbout, Ana Hanlon-Dearman, Osman Ipsiroglu, Graham J Reid, Sarah Shea, Isabel M Smith, Hendrik F M Van der Loos, Shelly K Weiss
Children with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD) are at high risk for sleep problems, especially insomnia. It is currently not known whether behavioural sleep interventions developed for typically developing (TD) children are effective for children with NDD, and if interventions need to be modified for each diagnostic group. The aim of this systematic review was to identify and evaluate commonalities, trends in outcomes, and the methodological quality of parent-delivered behavioural sleep interventions for children with NDD, specifically Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Cerebral Palsy, and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder...
March 31, 2018: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763648/autism-spectrum-disorder-classification-diagnosis-and-therapy
#2
REVIEW
Samata R Sharma, Xenia Gonda, Frank I Tarazi
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) refers to a group of neurodevelopmental disorders including autism, Asperger's syndrome (AS) and pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). The new diagnostic criteria of ASD focuses on two core domains: social communication impairment and restricted interests/repetitive behaviors. The prevalence of ASD has been steadily increasing over the past two decades, with current estimates reaching up to 1 in 36 children. Hereditary factors, parental history of psychiatric disorders, pre-term births, and fetal exposure to psychotropic drugs or insecticides have all been linked to higher risk of ASD...
May 12, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756080/-de-novo-mutations-and-rare-variants-occurring-in-nmda-receptors
#3
Wenshu XiangWei, Yuwu Jiang, Hongjie Yuan
A significant number of variants/mutations in the N -methyl-D -aspartate glutamatergic receptor (NMDAR) gene family ( GRIN ) have been identified along with stunning advances in the technologies of next generation of whole-exome sequencing. Mutations in human GRIN genes are distributed throughout the entire gene, from amino terminal domain to C-terminal domain, in patients with various neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorders, epilepsy, intellectual disability, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and schizophrenia...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748952/disentangling-tourette-syndrome-heterogeneity-through-hierarchical-ascendant-clustering
#4
Elena Cravedi, Emmanuelle Deniau, Marianna Giannitelli, Hugues Pellerin, Virginie Czernecki, Tiphanie Priou, Jean Xavier, Angèle Consoli, Andreas Hartmann, David Cohen
AIM: To explore the heterogeneity of Tourette syndrome as part of a neurodevelopmental spectrum. METHOD: Using hierarchical ascendant clustering based on tic symptoms, developmental milestones, and neurodevelopmental comorbidities, we analyzed the heterogeneity of Tourette syndrome phenotypes in a sample of 174 children and adolescents with Tourette syndrome referred to a tertiary university clinic. RESULTS: The model yielded three distinct clusters characterized as follows...
May 10, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744704/autism-and-the-university-experience-narratives-from-students-with-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#5
Yasamine Bolourian, Sasha M Zeedyk, Jan Blacher
Relatively limited research has been devoted to understanding the postsecondary experience from the students' perspectives. In the current study, individual interviews were conducted with university students with autism spectrum disorder (n = 13) and students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (n = 18) to investigate likely factors impeding meaningful postsecondary experiences. Through an iterative coding process, nine themes were identified, and direct narratives exemplifying each are included...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740699/de-novo-mutations-in-med13-a-component-of-the-mediator-complex-are-associated-with-a-novel-neurodevelopmental-disorder
#6
Lot Snijders Blok, Susan M Hiatt, Kevin M Bowling, Jeremy W Prokop, Krysta L Engel, J Nicholas Cochran, E Martina Bebin, Emilia K Bijlsma, Claudia A L Ruivenkamp, Paulien Terhal, Marleen E H Simon, Rosemarie Smith, Jane A Hurst, Heather McLaughlin, Richard Person, Amy Crunk, Michael F Wangler, Haley Streff, Joseph D Symonds, Sameer M Zuberi, Katherine S Elliott, Victoria R Sanders, Abigail Masunga, Robert J Hopkin, Holly A Dubbs, Xilma R Ortiz-Gonzalez, Rolph Pfundt, Han G Brunner, Simon E Fisher, Tjitske Kleefstra, Gregory M Cooper
Many genetic causes of developmental delay and/or intellectual disability (DD/ID) are extremely rare, and robust discovery of these requires both large-scale DNA sequencing and data sharing. Here we describe a GeneMatcher collaboration which led to a cohort of 13 affected individuals harboring protein-altering variants, 11 of which are de novo, in MED13; the only inherited variant was transmitted to an affected child from an affected mother. All patients had intellectual disability and/or developmental delays, including speech delays or disorders...
May 8, 2018: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726058/visual-search-and-autism-symptoms-what-young-children-search-for-and-co-occurring-adhd-matter
#7
Brianna R Doherty, Tony Charman, Mark H Johnson, Gaia Scerif, Teodora Gliga
Superior visual search is one of the most common findings in the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) literature. Here, we ascertain how generalizable these findings are across task and participant characteristics, in light of recent replication failures. We tested 106 3-year-old children at familial risk for ASD, a sample that presents high ASD and ADHD symptoms, and 25 control participants, in three multi-target search conditions: easy exemplar search (look for cats amongst artefacts), difficult exemplar search (look for dogs amongst chairs/tables perceptually similar to dogs), and categorical search (look for animals amongst artefacts)...
May 3, 2018: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704525/opportunities-and-challenges-for-using-the-zebrafish-to-study-neuronal-connectivity-as-an-endpoint-of-developmental-neurotoxicity
#8
REVIEW
Galen W Miller, Vidya Chandrasekaran, Bianca Yaghoobi, Pamela J Lein
Chemical exposures have been implicated as environmental risk factors that interact with genetic susceptibilities to influence individual risk for complex neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and intellectual disabilities. Altered patterns of neuronal connectivity represent a convergent mechanism of pathogenesis for these and other neurodevelopmental disorders, and growing evidence suggests that chemicals can interfere with specific signaling pathways that regulate the development of neuronal connections...
April 25, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704141/2d-4d-ratio-in-neurodevelopmental-disorders-a-twin-study
#9
Lynnea Myers, Annelies Van't Westeinde, Ralf Kuja-Halkola, Kristiina Tammimies, Sven Bölte
The second to fourth digit (2D:4D) ratio is of interest in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Studies on the relationship of this ratio with other neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) are lacking. Investigating the association between the ratio and NDDs in twins can provide insight into genetic and/or environmental factors driving the ratio. Hand images were collected in N = 238 twins with NDDs or typical development from 70 monozygotic and 49 dizygotic pairs to examine ratios and their associations to DSM-5 defined categorical NDDs, autistic traits, zygosity, and sex...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703679/a-network-neuroscience-approach-to-typical-and-atypical-brain-development
#10
REVIEW
Sarah E Morgan, Simon R White, Edward T Bullmore, Petra E Vértes
Human brain networks based on neuroimaging data have already proven useful in characterizing both normal and abnormal brain structure and function. However, many brain disorders are neurodevelopmental in origin, highlighting the need to go beyond characterizing brain organization in terms of static networks. Here, we review the fast-growing literature shedding light on developmental changes in network phenotypes. We begin with an overview of recent large-scale efforts to map healthy brain development, and we describe the key role played by longitudinal data including repeated measurements over a long period of follow-up...
March 14, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694241/a-1-5-year-follow-up-of-parent-training-and-atomoxetine-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-symptoms-and-noncompliant-disruptive-behavior-in-autism
#11
L Eugene Arnold, Nicole Ober, Michael G Aman, Benjamin Handen, Tristram Smith, Xueliang Pan, Susan L Hyman, Jill Hollway, Luc Lecavalier, Kristin Page, Robert Rice
OBJECTIVE: To examine status of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) 10 months after a 34-week clinical trial of atomoxetine (ATX) and parent training (PT). METHODS: In a 2 × 2 design, 128 children with ASD and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were randomly assigned ATX, PT+placebo, PT+ATX, or placebo alone. PT was weekly for 10 weeks, and then monthly. ATX/placebo was titrated over 6 weeks [≤1.8 mg/kg/d], and then maintained until week 10...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693461/an-update-on-pharmacotherapy-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-children-and-adolescents
#12
Ritu Goel, Ji Su Hong, Robert L Findling, Na Young Ji
To date, no medication is proven to be effective in treating core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Psychotropic medications are widely used to target emotional and behavioural symptoms in ASD. This article reviewed evidence for pharmacotherapy, novel therapeutic agents, and Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) in children and adolescents with ASD. Currently, only risperidone and aripiprazole have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment of irritability associated with ASD in children and adolescents...
April 25, 2018: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688876/neuroanatomical-phenotypes-in-mental-illness-identifying-convergent-and-divergent-cortical-phenotypes-across-autism-adhd-and-schizophrenia
#13
Min Tae M Park, Armin Raznahan, Philip Shaw, Nitin Gogtay, Jason P Lerch, M Mallar Chakravarty
BACKGROUND: There is evidence suggesting neuropsychiatric disorders share genomic, cognitive and clinical features. Here, we ask if autism-spectrum disorders (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and schizophrenia share neuroanatomical variations. METHODS: First, we used measures of cortical anatomy to estimate spatial overlap of neuroanatomical variation using univariate methods. Next, we developed a novel methodology to determine whether cortical deficits specifically target or are "enriched" within functional resting-state networks...
May 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687944/association-of-copy-number-variation-across-the-genome-with-neuropsychiatric-traits-in-the-general-population
#14
Anna L Guyatt, Evie Stergiakouli, Joanna Martin, James Walters, Michael O'Donovan, Michael Owen, Anita Thapar, George Kirov, Santiago Rodriguez, Dheeraj Rai, Stan Zammit, Tom R Gaunt
Copy number variants (CNVs) are associated with psychiatric conditions in clinical populations. The relationship between rare CNV burden and neuropsychiatric traits in young, general populations is underexplored. A total of 6,807 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) were studied. CNVs were inferred from single nucleotide polymorphism-array data using PennCNV. After excluding children with known candidate CNVs for schizophrenia (SCZ), rare (<1%) CNV burden (total number of genes affected by CNVs, total length of CNVs, and largest CNV carried) was analyzed in relation to: psychotic experiences (PEs) and anxiety/depression in adolescence; autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), ASD and ADHD traits, and cognitive measures during childhood...
April 24, 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682271/eu-aims-longitudinal-european-autism-project-leap-the-autism-twin-cohort
#15
Johan Isaksson, Kristiina Tammimies, Janina Neufeld, Élodie Cauvet, Karl Lundin, Jan K Buitelaar, Eva Loth, Declan G M Murphy, Will Spooren, Sven Bölte
EU-AIMS is the largest European research program aiming to identify stratification biomarkers and novel interventions for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Within the program, the Longitudinal European Autism Project (LEAP) has recruited and comprehensively phenotyped a rare sample of 76 monozygotic and dizygotic twins, discordant, or concordant for ASD plus 30 typically developing twins. The aim of this letter is to complete previous descriptions of the LEAP case-control sample, clinically characterize, and investigate the suitability of the sample for ASD twin-control analyses purposes and share some 'lessons learnt...
2018: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675767/high-risk-for-severe-emotional-dysregulation-in-psychiatrically-referred-youth-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-controlled-study
#16
Gagan Joshi, Janet Wozniak, Maura Fitzgerald, Stephen Faraone, Ronna Fried, Maribel Galdo, Stephannie L Furtak, Kristina Conroy, J Ryan Kilcullen, Abigail Belser, Joseph Biederman
To assess prevalence and severity of emotional dysregulation (ED) in psychiatrically referred youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). ASD youth (N = 123) were compared to youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and controls. The majority of psychiatrically referred youth with ASD had positive Child Behavior Checklist-ED (CBCL-ED) profile that was significantly higher than in youth with ADHD (82 vs. 53%; p < 0.001). The severe emotional dysregulation (SED) profile was significantly greater in ASD youth than ADHD (44 vs...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673576/the-role-of-genetic-variation-of-human-metabolism-for-bmi-mental-traits-and-mental-disorders
#17
Johannes Hebebrand, Triinu Peters, Dick Schijven, Moritz Hebebrand, Corinna Grasemann, Thomas W Winkler, Iris M Heid, Jochen Antel, Manuel Föcker, Lisa Tegeler, Lena Brauner, Roger A H Adan, Jurjen J Luykx, Christoph U Correll, Inke R König, Anke Hinney, Lars Libuda
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to assess whether loci associated with metabolic traits also have a significant role in BMI and mental traits/disorders METHODS: We first assessed the number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with genome-wide significance for human metabolism (NHGRI-EBI Catalog). These 516 SNPs (216 independent loci) were looked-up in genome-wide association studies for association with body mass index (BMI) and the mental traits/disorders educational attainment, neuroticism, schizophrenia, well-being, anxiety, depressive symptoms, major depressive disorder, autism-spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, Alzheimer's disease, bipolar disorder, aggressive behavior, and internalizing problems...
April 3, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664902/a-general-prediction-model-for-the-detection-of-adhd-and-autism-using-structural-and-functional-mri
#18
Bhaskar Sen, Neil C Borle, Russell Greiner, Matthew R G Brown
This work presents a novel method for learning a model that can diagnose Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), as well as Autism, using structural texture and functional connectivity features obtained from 3-dimensional structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 4-dimensional resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans of subjects. We explore a series of three learners: (1) The LeFMS learner first extracts features from the structural MRI images using the texture-based filters produced by a sparse autoencoder...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662527/stimulant-withdrawal-in-a-child-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-adhd-a-case-report
#19
Aneta Krakowski, Abel Ickowicz
Objective: To consider whether the concepts of tolerance and withdrawal to stimulant medications apply to a preadolescent female, affected by autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and treated for associated attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods: We describe the case history and review scientific English language literature pertaining to acute withdrawal effects associated with methylphenidate and amphetamine derivatives in children. Results: An 11-year-old female with ASD and ADHD referred to our clinic experienced vomiting, headaches, and light sensitivity following abrupt discontinuation of methylphenidate; she subsequently presented with migraines and marked malaise immediately after a dose reduction in lisdexamfetamine...
April 2018: Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655938/delineation-of-early-brain-development-from-fetuses-to-infants-with-diffusion-mri-and-beyond
#20
REVIEW
Minhui Ouyang, Jessica Dubois, Qinlin Yu, Pratik Mukherjee, Hao Huang
Dynamic macrostructural and microstructural changes take place from the mid-fetal stage to 2 years after birth. Delineating brain structural changes during this early developmental period provides new insights into the complicated processes of both typical brain development and the pathological mechanisms underlying various psychiatric and neurological disorders including autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia. Decades of histological studies have identified strong spatial and functional gradients of maturation in human brain gray and white matter...
April 12, 2018: NeuroImage
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