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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223589/breakthroughs-in-neuroactive-steroid-drug-discovery
#1
REVIEW
Maria-Jesus Blanco, Daniel La, Quinn Coughlin, Caitlin A Newman, Andrew M Griffin, Boyd L Harrison, Francesco G Salituro
Endogenous and synthetic neuroactive steroids (NASs) or neurosteroids are effective modulators of multiple signaling pathways including receptors for the γ-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA) and glutamate, in particular N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA). These receptors are the major inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitters in the central nervous system (CNS), and there is growing evidence suggesting that dysregulation of neurosteroid production plays a role in numerous neurological disorders. The significant unmet medical need for treatment of CNS disorders has increased the interest for these types of compounds...
December 2, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223525/case-series-of-rare-thymoma-metastases-to-the-spine-and-complete-literature-review
#2
Rebecca L Achey, Bryan S Lee, Swetha Sundar, Edward C Benzel, Ajit A Krishnaney
BACKGROUND: We report a series of three cases of metastatic thymoma to the spine with spinal cord compression. An extensive literature review of thymic metastases to the spine was completed in order to provide a comprehensive appraisal of current prognostic indicators and potential treatment algorithms to help guide clinicians in treatment management. CASE DESCRIPTIONS: Between 2000 and 2017, three patients were diagnosed with thymic metastases to the spine at our institution...
December 6, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223352/atp-binding-cassette-transporter-2-abca2-as-a-therapeutic-target
#3
REVIEW
Warren Davis, Kenneth D Tew
The ATP binding cassette transporter ABCA2 is primarily an endolysosomal membrane protein that demonstrates pleiotropic functionalities, coalescing around the maintenance of homeostasis of sterols, sphingolipids and cholesterol. It is most highly expressed in brain tissue and ABCA2 knockout mice express neurological defects consistent with aberrant myelination. Increased expression of the transporter has been linked with resistance to cancer drugs, particularly those possessing a steroid backbone and gene expression (in concert with other genes involved in cholesterol metabolism) was found to be regulated by sterols...
December 6, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222831/a-review-of-structural-brain-abnormalities-in-pallister-killian-syndrome
#4
Cathryn Poulton, Gareth Baynam, Clarissa Yates, Hamid Alinejad-Rokny, Simon Williams, Helen Wright, Karen J Woodward, Soruba Sivamoorthy, Joanne Peverall, Peter Shipman, David Ravine, John Beilby, Julian Ik-Tsen Heng
BACKGROUND: Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) is a rare multisystem developmental syndrome usually caused by mosaic tetrasomy of chromosome 12p that is known to be associated with neurological defects. METHODS: We describe two patients with PKS, one of whom has bilateral perisylvian polymicrogyria (PMG), the other with macrocephaly, enlarged lateral ventricles and hypogenesis of the corpus callosum. We have also summarized the current literature describing brain abnormalities in PKS...
December 9, 2017: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222770/ocular-nerve-growth-factor-ngf-and-ngf-eye-drop-application-as-paradigms-to-investigate-ngf-neuroprotective-and-reparative-actions
#5
Paola Tirassa, Pamela Rosso, Angela Iannitelli
The eye is a central nervous system structure that is uniquely accessible to local treatment. Through the ocular surface, it is possible to access the retina, optic nerve, and brain. Animal models of retina degeneration or optic nerve crush could thus serve as tools to investigate whether and how factors, which are anterogradely or retrogradely transported through the optic nerve, might contribute to activate neuroprotection and eventually regeneration. Among these factors, nerve growth factor (NGF) plays a crucial role during development of the visual system, as well as during the entire life span, and in pathological conditions...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222126/autoimmune-crmp5-neuropathy-phenotype-and-outcome-defined-from-105-cases
#6
Divyanshu Dubey, Vanda A Lennon, Avi Gadoth, Sean J Pittock, Eoin P Flanagan, John E Schmeling, Andrew McKeon, Christopher J Klein
OBJECTIVE: To establish the phenotype and clinical outcomes of collapsin response-mediator protein-5 (CRMP5) autoimmune neuropathy in comparison with anti-neuronal nuclear antibody type 1 (ANNA1)-immunoglobulin G (IgG) neuropathy. METHODS: Patients with CRMP5-IgG and/or ANNA1-IgGs were identified in our service-line testing, and medical records were reviewed. RESULTS: One hundred five patients with CRMP5-IgG neuropathy (88% smokers; 69% having cancer, most commonly small cell lung cancer [75%]) were identified and compared to 51 patients with ANNA1-IgG neuropathy, 27 with coexisting CRMP5-IgG...
December 8, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221727/epigenetic-mechanisms-in-developmental-neurotoxicity
#7
REVIEW
M Raciti, S Ceccatelli
The constant interplay between environment (including both exogenous and endogenous factors) and epigenome (defined as the combination of chromatin, its covalent modifications and noncoding RNAs) triggers epigenetic events that, by modulating gene expression, capture information about changes in the environment. In this mini review, we will focus on the neurodevelopmental implications of exposure to adverse prenatal milieu with emphasis on mechanistic and functional aspects. Several neurotoxic insults have been shown to affect epigenetics with negative consequences on the development of the nervous system; among them are methylmercury, lead, arsenic and cadmium, as well as excess of glucocorticoids...
December 5, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221687/leptomeningeal-carcinomatosis-in-colorectal-cancer-the-mayo-clinic-experience
#8
Gretchen Taylor, Nina Karlin, Thorvardur R Halfdanarson, Kyle Coppola, Axel Grothey
BACKGROUND: Leptomeningeal metastasis (LM) is an uncommon form of metastatic disease in many cancers. There remains a paucity of literature with regard to the course and management of LM in colorectal cancers (CRCs). The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of LM in patients with CRC seen at our institution over a 15-year period, and to describe the clinical course and outcome of these cases. METHODS: LM in CRC primary cases between 2000 and 2014 were identified in the Mayo Clinic databases...
November 21, 2017: Clinical Colorectal Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220331/regenerative-potential-of-secretome-from-dental-stem-cells-a-systematic-review-of-preclinical-studies
#9
Suleiman Alhaji Muhammad, Norshariza Nordin, Sharida Fakurazi
Injury to tissues is a major clinical challenge due to the limited regenerative capacity of endogenous cells. Stem cell therapy is evolving rapidly as an alternative for tissue regeneration. However, increasing evidence suggests that the regenerative ability of stem cells is mainly mediated by paracrine actions of secretome that are generally secreted by the cells. We aimed to systematically evaluate the efficacy of dental stem cell (DSC)-conditioned medium in in vivo animal models of various tissue defects...
December 8, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220106/chemoprevention-by-resveratrol-and-pterostilbene-targeting-on-epigenetic-regulation
#10
REVIEW
Pei-Sheng Lee, Yi-Shiou Chiou, Chi-Tang Ho, Min-Hsiung Pan
Epigenetic mechanisms are essential in regulating normal cellular functions and play an important role during the disease developmental stages. However, aberrant epigenetic mechanisms may lead to pathological consequences such as cancer, neurological disorders, bone and skeletal diseases, cardiovascular dysfunction, and metabolic syndrome. The molecular mechanisms of epigenetic modification include DNA methylation, histone modification (acetylation, methylation and phosphorylation), and microRNAs (miRNAs). Unlike genetic modifications, epigenetic states of genes are reversible and can be altered by certain intrinsic and extrinsic factors...
December 8, 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219962/predictors-of-long-term-neurological-outcomes-in-non-accidental-head-injury
#11
C F Chong, S L Misra, J A Escardo-Paton, S Dai
BackgroundNon-accidental head injury (NAI) is an inflicted injury usually on a child, often resulting in long-term neurological impairment and occasionally death. This study aimed to investigate the predictive values of acute findings, especially ocular, for long-term neurological outcomes.MethodsMedical records including retinal images of all children who attended the local Children's hospital with a diagnosis of NAI from over a period of 5 years were reviewed and data collected via the electronic patient record system...
December 8, 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219779/metastases-of-spinal-myxopapillary-ependymoma-unique-characteristics-and-clinical-management
#12
Theresa Kraetzig, Lily McLaughlin, Mark H Bilsky, Ilya Laufer
OBJECTIVE Myxopapillary ependymoma is a benign WHO Grade I tumor most commonly located in the conus-cauda equina region of the spine. Although this tumor is defined by an overall excellent survival, dissemination throughout the whole neuraxis occurs frequently. The current study evaluated the clinical characteristics and significance of myxopapillary ependymoma metastases. METHODS Patients who underwent surgery from 2005 to 2015 for treatment of spinal myxopapillary ependymoma were included in the study. Charts were reviewed for primary tumor symptoms and initial treatment, local recurrence, response to salvage therapy, and presence and behavior of distant metastases...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219753/resection-of-primary-motor-cortex-tumors-feasibility-and-surgical-outcomes
#13
Stephen T Magill, Seunggu J Han, Jing Li, Mitchel S Berger
OBJECTIVE Brain tumors involving the primary motor cortex are often deemed unresectable due to the potential neurological consequences that result from injury to this region. Nevertheless, we have challenged this dogma for many years and used asleep, as well as awake, intraoperative stimulation mapping to maximize extent of resection. It remains unclear whether these tumors can be resected with acceptable morbidity, whether performing the surgery with the patient awake or asleep impacts extent of resection, and how stimulation mapping influences outcomes...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219190/phenomenology-genetics-and-cns-network-abnormalities-in-laryngeal-dystonia-a-30-year-experience
#14
Andrew Blitzer, Mitchell F Brin, Kristina Simonyan, Laurie J Ozelius, Steven J Frucht
OBJECTIVE: Laryngeal dystonia (LD) is a functionally specific disorder of the afferent-efferent motor coordination system producing action-induced muscle contraction with a varied phenomenology. This report of long-term studies aims to review and better define the phenomenology and central nervous system abnormalities of this disorder and improve diagnosis and treatment. METHODS: Our studies categorized over 1,400 patients diagnosed with LD over the past 33 years, including demographic and medical history records and their phenomenological presentations...
December 8, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219009/micrornas-as-potential-prognosticators-of-neurological-outcome-in-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest-patients
#15
Sarah S Gul, Karl Huesgen, Kevin K Wang, Joseph A Tyndall
Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survival rates have increased due to advancement in resuscitative measures, yet approximately 90% of survivors ultimately die or have severe neurologic dysfunction caused by ischemic injury. Currently, there are few early prognostic indicators of which patients have possibility of meaningful recovery. This leads to uncertainty for families and clinicians, as well as aggressive, invasive and expensive treatments despite medical futility. Several biomarkers investigated in traumatic brain injury have shown prognostication potential in ischemic brain injury...
December 8, 2017: Biomarkers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218822/european-academy-of-neurology-european-stroke-organisation-consensus-statement-and-practical-guidance-for-pre-hospital-management-of-stroke
#16
A Kobayashi, A Czlonkowska, G A Ford, A C Fonseca, G J Luijckx, J Korv, N Pérez de la Ossa, C Price, D Russell, A Tsiskaridze, M Messmer-Wullen, J De Keyser
Reduction of delay between onset and hospital arrival and adequate pre-hospital care of persons with acute stroke are important for improving chances of a favorable outcome. The objective is to recommend evidence-based practices for the management of patients with suspected stroke in the pre-hospital setting. The GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) methodology was used to define the key clinical questions. An expert panel then reviewed the literature, established the quality of the evidence, and made recommendations...
December 7, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218468/prediction-of-unfavorable-outcomes-in-cryptococcal-meningitis-results-of-the-multicenter-infectious-diseases-international-research-initiative-id-iri-cryptococcal-meningitis-study
#17
I N Hakyemez, H Erdem, G Beraud, M Lurdes, A Silva-Pinto, C Alexandru, B Bishop, F Mangani, X Argemi, M Poinot, R Hasbun, M Akcaer, S Alp, T Demirdal, K Angamuthu, F Amer, E Ragab, G A Shehata, D Ozturk-Engin, N Ozgunes, L Larsen, S Zimmerli, O R Sipahi, E Tukenmez Tigen, G Celebi, N Oztoprak, A C Yardimci, Y Cag
Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is mostly seen in immunocompromised patients, particularly human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients, but CM may also occur in apparently immunocompetent individuals. Outcome analyses have been performed in such patients but, due to the high prevalence of HIV infection worldwide, CM patients today may be admitted to hospitals with unknown HIV status, particularly in underdeveloped countries. The objective of this multicenter study was to analyze all types of CM cases in an aggregate cohort to disclose unfavorable outcomes...
December 8, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218384/is-it-possible-to-give-a-single-definition-of-the-rectosigmoid-junction
#18
Damien Massalou, David Moszkowicz, Daniela Mariage, Patrick Baqué, Olivier Camuzard, Nicolas Bronsard
AIM: The rectosigmoid junction is the limit separating the sigmoid colon and rectum. This transition zone has different definitions. We want to highlight different landmarks of the rectosigmoid junction (RSJ), to help the clinicians to adopt a consensual definition. METHOD: We reviewed anatomical, endoscopic, physiological and surgical points of view concerning the rectosigmoid junction (RSJ). RESULTS: The rectosigmoid junction has a different definition depending on who is studying it...
December 7, 2017: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218262/neurologic-outcomes-following-care-in-the-pediatric-intensive-care-unit
#19
Sherrill D Caprarola, Sapna R Kudchadkar, Melania M Bembea
Purpose of review: With increasing survival of children requiring admission to pediatric intensive care units (PICU), neurodevelopmental outcomes of these patients are an area of increased attention. Our goal was to systematically review recently published literature on neurologic outcomes of PICU patients. Recent Findings: Decline in neurofunctional status occurs in 3%-20% of children requiring PICU care. This proportion varies based on primary diagnosis and severity of illness, with children admitted for primary neurologic diagnosis, children who suffer cardiac arrest or who require invasive interventions during the PICU admission, having worse outcomes...
September 2017: Current Treatment Options in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218261/bilateral-occipital-lobe-hemorrhages-presenting-as-denial-of-blindness-in-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-a-rare-combination-of-anton-syndrome-and-encephalopathy
#20
Raja Godasi, Chintan Rupareliya, Pradeep C Bollu
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) or reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy (RPL) is an acute neurological syndrome characterized by the development of radiological abnormalities on brain imaging along with clinical manifestations, such as a headache, seizures, encephalopathy, etc. We report the case of a middle-aged male who presented to the emergency department after he woke up with complete blindness and was found to have hemorrhagic PRES. Intracranial hemorrhages were seen in around 15% of patients who presented with this condition...
October 4, 2017: Curēus
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