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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603700/the-type-ix-secretion-system-t9ss-highlights-and-recent-insights-into-its-structure-and-function
#1
REVIEW
Anna M Lasica, Miroslaw Ksiazek, Mariusz Madej, Jan Potempa
Protein secretion systems are vital for prokaryotic life, as they enable bacteria to acquire nutrients, communicate with other species, defend against biological and chemical agents, and facilitate disease through the delivery of virulence factors. In this review, we will focus on the recently discovered type IX secretion system (T9SS), a complex translocon found only in some species of the Bacteroidetes phylum. T9SS plays two roles, depending on the lifestyle of the bacteria. It provides either a means of movement (called gliding motility) for peace-loving environmental bacteria or a weapon for pathogens...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600344/root-tip-shape-governs-root-elongation-rate-under-increased-soil-strength
#2
Tino Colombi, Norbert Kirchgessner, Achim Walter, Thomas Keller
Increased soil strength due to soil compaction or soil drying is a major limitation to root growth and crop productivity. Energy requirement for root growth increases with soil strength due to increased root penetration stress. This study aimed to quantify how genotypic diversity of root tip geometry and root diameter influences root elongation under different levels of soil strength and to determine the extent to which roots adjust to increased soil strength. Fourteen wheat varieties were grown in soil columns packed to three bulk densities representing low, moderate and high soil strength...
June 9, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582458/reproducibility-of-up-flow-column-percolation-tests-for-contaminated-soils
#3
Tetsuo Yasutaka, Angelica Naka, Hirofumi Sakanakura, Akihiko Kurosawa, Toru Inui, Miyuki Takeo, Seiji Inoba, Yasutaka Watanabe, Takuro Fujikawa, Toshihiko Miura, Shinji Miyaguchi, Kunihide Nakajou, Mitsuhiro Sumikura, Kenichi Ito, Shuichi Tamoto, Takeshi Tatsuhara, Tomoyuki Chida, Kei Hirata, Ken Ohori, Masayuki Someya, Masahiko Katoh, Madoka Umino, Masanori Negishi, Keijiro Ito, Junichi Kojima, Shohei Ogawa
Up-flow column percolation tests are used at laboratory scale to assess the leaching behavior of hazardous substance from contaminated soils in a specific condition as a function of time. Monitoring the quality of these test results inter or within laboratory is crucial, especially if used for Environment-related legal policy or for routine testing purposes. We tested three different sandy loam type soils (Soils I, II and III) to determine the reproducibility (variability inter laboratory) of test results and to evaluate the difference in the test results within laboratory...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536585/exploring-niches-for-short-season-grain-legumes-in-semi-arid-eastern-kenya-coping-with-the-impacts-of-climate-variability
#4
Anne Sennhenn, Donald M G Njarui, Brigitte L Maass, Anthony M Whitbread
Climate variability is the major risk to agricultural production in semi-arid agroecosystems and the key challenge to sustain farm livelihoods for the 500 million people who inhabit these areas worldwide. Short-season grain legumes have great potential to address this challenge and help to design more resilient and productive farming systems. However, grain legumes display a great diversity and differ widely in growth, development, and resource use efficiency. Three contrasting short season grain legumes common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511958/selection-of-discriminant-mid-infrared-wavenumbers-by-combining-a-na%C3%A3-ve-bayesian-classifier-and-a-genetic-algorithm-application-to-the-evaluation-of-lignocellulosic-biomass-biodegradation
#5
REVIEW
Abbas Rammal, Eric Perrin, Valeriu Vrabie, Rabih Assaf, Hassan Fenniri
Infrared spectroscopy provides useful information on the molecular compositions of biological systems related to molecular vibrations, overtones, and combinations of fundamental vibrations. Mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy is sensitive to organic and mineral components and has attracted growing interest in the development of biomarkers related to intrinsic characteristics of lignocellulose biomass. However, not all spectral information is valuable for biomarker construction or for applying analysis methods such as classification...
May 13, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450723/direct-formation-of-structural-components-using-a-martian-soil-simulant
#6
Brian J Chow, Tzehan Chen, Ying Zhong, Yu Qiao
Martian habitats are ideally constructed using only locally available soils; extant attempts to process structural materials on Mars, however, generally require additives or calcination. In this work we demonstrate that Martian soil simulant Mars-1a can be directly compressed at ambient into a strong solid without additives, highlighting a possible aspect of complete Martian in-situ resource utilization. Flexural strength of the compact is not only determined by the compaction pressure but also significantly influenced by the lateral boundary condition of processing loading...
April 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442005/implications-of-using-different-water-sources-when-hydrologically-compacting-bioretention-columns
#7
Clayton A Stahnke, Cara J Poor
  Many investigators have conducted research on bioretention systems both in the laboratory and field. There is little consensus on which sources of water are best suited to hydrologically compact bioretention columns. Water with low ionic strength can leach ions from soil media, resulting in a different soil chemistry environment than would be found in typical bioretention applications. Soil columns were hydrologically compacted with three different water sources often used in column studies: deionized water, tap water, and rain water...
May 1, 2017: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437777/testing-decontaminated-sediments-as-a-substrate-for-ornamentals-in-field-nursery-plantations
#8
Francesca Ugolini, Costanza Calzolari, Giuseppe Mario Lanini, Luciano Massetti, Stefania Pollaki, Antonio Raschi, Francesco Sabatini, Giacomo Tagliaferri, Fabrizio Ungaro, Daniele Massa, Maurizio Antonetti, Carlos Garcia Izquierdo, Cristina Macci, Grazia Masciandaro
When canals and harbours are dredged, huge amount of polluted sediments has to be stocked and transported to the landfill with incredibly high costs of management. Among the remediation techniques for the reclamation of polluted sediments and soils, phytoremediation represents a sustainable and effective technique though still not fully promoted or commercialized. In this study we have tested the suitability for plant nursing of a substrate resulting from sediments dredged from a canal and treated with phytoremediation...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424726/size-mediated-interaction-between-a-cushion-species-and-other-non-cushion-species-at-high-elevations-of-the-hengduan-mountains-sw-china
#9
Yang Yang, Jian-Guo Chen, Christian Schöb, Hang Sun
Arenaria polytrichoides (Caryophyllaceae) is a common cushion plant occurring at high elevations in the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains, SW China. It frequently has other non-cushion species growing within its canopy, forming a contrast with the surrounding areas because it creates patches of higher diversity and greater biomass. In this study, we examined the relationship between the cushions and associated non-cushion species along a gradient of cushion size. A total of 200 A. polytrichoides individuals were selected to fit four size classes...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400783/genetic-diversity-under-soil-compaction-in-wheat-root-number-as-a-promising-trait-for-early-plant-vigor
#10
Tino Colombi, Achim Walter
Soil compaction of arable land, caused by heavy machinery constitutes a major threat to agricultural soils in industrialized countries. The degradation of soil structure due to compaction leads to decreased (macro-) porosity resulting in increased mechanical impedance, which adversely affects root growth and crop productivity. New crop cultivars, with root systems that are adapted to conditions of increased soil strength, are needed to overcome the limiting effects of soil compaction on plant growth. This study aimed (i) to quantify the genetic diversity of early root system development in wheat and to relate this to shoot development under different soil bulk densities and (ii) to test whether root numbers are suitable traits to assess the genotypic tolerance to soil compaction...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393122/effect-of-class-f-fly-ash-on-fine-sand-compaction-through-soil-stabilization
#11
Siavash Mahvash, Susana López-Querol, Ali Bahadori-Jahromi
This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation carried out to evaluate the effect of fly ash (FA) on fine sand compaction and its suitability as a material for embankments. The literature review demonstrates the lack of research on stabilization of sandy material using FA. The study is concerned with the role of FA content in stabilized soil physical characteristics. The main aim of this paper is to determine the optimum quantity of FA content for stabilization of this type of soil. This is achieved through particle size distribution and compaction (standard proctor) tests...
March 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391460/estimation-of-heavy-metal-contaminated-soils-mechanical-characteristics-using-electrical-resistivity
#12
Ya Chu, Songyu Liu, Fei Wang, Guojun Cai, Hanliang Bian
Under the process of urbanization in China, more and more attention has been paid to the reuse of heavy metal-contaminated sites. The shear characteristics of heavy metal-contaminated soils are investigated by electrical detection in this paper. Three metal ions (Zn(2+), Cd(2+), and Pb(2+)) were used, the metal concentrations of which are 50, 166.67, 500, 1666.67, and 5000 mg/kg, respectively. Direct shear tests were used to investigate the influence of heavy metal ions on the shear characters of soil samples...
May 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348395/the-role-of-local-instabilities-in-fluid-invasion-into-permeable-media
#13
Kamaljit Singh, Hagen Scholl, Martin Brinkmann, Marco Di Michiel, Mario Scheel, Stephan Herminghaus, Ralf Seemann
Wettability is an important factor which controls the displacement of immiscible fluids in permeable media, with far reaching implications for storage of CO2 in deep saline aquifers, fuel cells, oil recovery, and for the remediation of oil contaminated soils. Considering the paradigmatic case of random piles of spherical beads, fluid front morphologies emerging during slow immiscible displacement are investigated in real time by X-ray micro-tomography and quantitatively compared with model predictions. Controlled by the wettability of the bead matrix two distinct displacement patterns are found...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334122/a-laboratory-evaluation-of-chemigation-to-manage-stink-bugs-hemiptera-pentatomidae
#14
Xing Wei, Phillip M Roberts, Wesley M Porter, Calvin D Perry, Michael D Toews
Application of insecticides for stink bug management through overhead irrigation, also called chemigation, could reduce application costs, soil compaction, and applicator exposure, while enabling growers to treat multiple fields simultaneously. The objective of these laboratory experiments was to compare knockdown, survival, and efficacy of insecticides when appropriately diluted for ground sprayer and chemigation applications. Treatments included water, bifenthrin [0.11 kg (AI)/ha] and dicrotophos [0.56 kg (AI)/ha] diluted for a ground sprayer (93...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203533/modification-of-extraction-method-for-community-dna-isolation-from-salt-affected-compact-wasteland-soil-samples
#15
Purvi Zaveri, Rushika Patel, Meghavi Patel, Devki Sarodia, Nasreen S Munshi
To overcome the issue of interferences by salt and compactness in release of bacterial cell required for lysis, method described by Yeates et al. (1998), was optimized for isolation of genomic material (Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid, DNA) from soil microbial community by addition of Al(NH4)SO4. Very low total viable count was observed in the samples tested and hence use of higher amount of soil is required primarily for DNA isolation from wasteland soils. The method proves itself efficient where commercially available bead beating and enzymatic lysis methods could not give isolation of any amount of community genomic DNA due to compact nature and salt concentrations present in soil...
2017: MethodsX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188986/effects-of-biochar-and-wood-pellets-amendments-added-to-landfill-cover-soil-on-microbial-methane-oxidation-a-laboratory-column-study
#16
Erin N Yargicoglu, Krishna R Reddy
Alternate landfill covers designed to enhance microbial methane (CH4) oxidation and reduce the negative impacts of landfill gas emissions on global climate have recently been proposed and investigated. In this study, the use of biochar as a soil amendment is examined in order to assess the feasibility and effectiveness for enhanced CH4 removal in landfill covers when incorporated under high compaction conditions and relatively low soil moisture. Four different cover configurations were tested in large soil columns for ∼510 days and potential CH4 oxidation rates were determined following long-term incubation in small batch assays...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149182/characterization-of-spatial-variability-of-soil-physicochemical-properties-and-its-impact-on-rhodes-grass-productivity
#17
E Tola, K A Al-Gaadi, R Madugundu, A M Zeyada, A G Kayad, C M Biradar
Characterization of soil properties is a key step in understanding the source of spatial variability in the productivity across agricultural fields. A study on a 16 ha field located in the eastern region of Saudi Arabia was undertaken to investigate the spatial variability of selected soil properties, such as soil compaction 'SC', electrical conductivity 'EC', pH (acidity or alkalinity of soil) and soil texture and its impact on the productivity of Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana L.). The productivity of Rhodes grass was investigated using the Cumulative Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (CNDVI), which was determined from Landsat-8 (OLI) images...
February 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144874/tailoring-a-non-path-dependent-model-for-environmental-risk-management-and-polycentric-urban-land-use-planning
#18
Yousef Sakieh, Abdolrassoul Salmanmahiny, Seyed Hamed Mirkarimi
This study attempts to develop a non-path-dependent model for environmental risk management and polycentric urban land-use planning in Gorgan Township area, Iran. Applying three suitability layers of environmental risk (soil erosion, flood risk, fire risk, and land susceptibility), urbanization potential, and integrated surface (environmental risk plus urbanization potential layers), a non-path-dependent Cellular Automata-Markov Chain (CA-MC) model was configured to execute three scenarios of polycentric urban growth allocation...
February 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108925/soil-compaction-effects-on-soil-health-and-cropproductivity-an-overview
#19
REVIEW
Adnan Noor Shah, Mohsin Tanveer, Babar Shahzad, Guozheng Yang, Shah Fahad, Saif Ali, Muhammad Adnan Bukhari, Shahbaz Atta Tung, Abdul Hafeez, Biangkham Souliyanonh
Soil compaction causes substantial reduction in agriculture productivity and has always been of great distress for farmers. Intensive agriculture seems to be more crucial in causing compaction. High mechanical load, less crop diversification, intensive grazing, and irrigation methods lead to soil compaction. It is further exasperated when these factors are accompanied with low organic matter, animal trampling, engine vibrations, and tillage at high moisture contents. Soil compaction increases soil bulk density and soil strength, while decreases porosity, aggregate stability index, soil hydraulic conductivity, and nutrient availability, thus reduces soil health...
April 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104330/evaluation-of-individual-and-combined-management-practices-to-reduce-the-off-site-transport-of-pesticides-from-golf-course-turf
#20
Pamela J Rice, Brian P Horgan, Jennifer L Hamlin
The detection of pesticides, associated with turfgrass management, in storm runoff and surface waters of urban watersheds has raised concerns regarding their source, potential environmental effects and a need for strategies to reduce their inputs. In previous research we discovered that hollow tine core cultivation (HTCC) was more effective than other management practices for reducing the off-site transport of pesticides with runoff from creeping bentgrass turf managed as a golf course fairway. This was primarily the result of enhanced infiltration and reduced runoff volumes associated with turf managed with hollow tines...
January 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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