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soil compaction

Mirosław Mleczek, Piotr Goliński, Bogusława Waliszewska, Andrzej Mocek, Monika Gąsecka, Magdalena Zborowska, Zuzanna Magdziak, Wojciech J Cichy, Bartłomiej Mazela, Tomisław Kozubik, Agnieszka Mocek-Płóciniak, Waldemar Moliński, Przemysław Niedzielski
Trees of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) are known for their effective phytoextraction capabilities. The results obtained in this study point to the significant role of substrate composition and chemical characteristics in the phytoextraction potential of this species. A multi-elemental (53 elements) analysis of pines from unpolluted (soil) and polluted (post-flotation tailings) sites was performed using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The analyzed flotation tailings were characterized by alkaline pH (7...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
A R Ghiasvand, N Heidari, S Abdolhosseini, A Hamdi, P R Haddad
A low-cost and reliable cooling/heating-assisted microextraction (CHaME) instrument was designed and fabricated for use in different modes of microextraction methods. The CHaME setup is able to cool down the sorbent and simultaneously heat the sample in a wide temperature range. Consequently, it can create a large thermal gap between the sorbent and the sample matrix, to promote the release of analytes from the sample tissue and enhance their effective trapping on the microextraction phase. The primary versions of the instrument have previously been evaluated, coupled with different modes of solid- and liquid-phase microextraction strategies...
May 14, 2018: Analyst
M L Hornseth, K E Pigeon, D MacNearney, T A Larsen, G Stenhouse, J Cranston, L Finnegan
Natural regeneration of seismic lines, cleared for hydrocarbon exploration, is slow and often hindered by vegetation damage, soil compaction, and motorized human activity. There is an extensive network of seismic lines in western Canada which is known to impact forest ecosystems, and seismic lines have been linked to declines in woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou). Seismic line restoration is costly, but necessary for caribou conservation to reduce cumulative disturbance. Understanding where motorized activity may be impeding regeneration of seismic lines will aid in prioritizing restoration...
May 11, 2018: Environmental Management
M Sukru Ozcoban, M Erdem Isenkul, S Güneş-Durak, T Ormanci-Acar, S Övez, N Tüfekci
It is important to protect the soil and groundwater from the pollution originating from leachate. Compacted clay soils is a favorable and economic method to protect groundwater and soil against contamination. In this study, compaction tests of leachate was done by using Modified Proctor method. The effects of microbial activity on the permeability of compacted clay soils were analyzed and the obtained data were applied to k-Nearest Neighbors (k-NN) method to predict the permeability of soils in landfill sites...
May 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Sanneke van Asselen, Gilles Erkens, Esther Stouthamer, Hessel A G Woolderink, Rebecca E E Geeraert, Mariet M Hefting
An increasing number of people lives in coastal zones with a subsurface consisting of heterogenic soft-soil sequences. Many of these sequences contain substantial amounts of peat. While population growth and urbanization continues in coastal zones, they are threatened by global sea-level rise and land subsidence. Peat compaction and oxidation, caused by loading and drainage, are important contributors to land subsidence, and hence relative sea-level rise, in peat-rich coastal zones. Especially built-up areas, having densely-spaced urban assets, are heavily impacted by land subsidence, in terms of livelihoods and damage-related costs...
April 25, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Zhi Wen, He Zhao, Lei Liu, Zhi Yun OuYang, Hua Zheng, Hong Xu Mi, Yan Min Li
In tropical areas, a large number of natural forests have been transformed into other plantations, which affected the water conservation function of terrestrial ecosystems. In order to clari-fy the effects of land use changes on soil water conservation function, we selected four typical land use types in the central mountainous region of Hainan Island, i.e., natural forests with stand age greater than 100 years (VF), secondary forests with stand age of 10 years (SF), areca plantations with stand age of 12 years (AF) and rubber plantations with stand age of 35 years (RF)...
December 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Yu Jie Niu, Si Wei Yang, Gui Zhen Wang, Li Liu, Guo Zhen Du, Li Min Hua
The research selected the alpine meadow located in the northeastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau to study the changes of vegetation community and soil properties under different grazing intensities, as well as the quantitative relation between the distribution patterns of plant species and the physical and chemical properties of soil. The results showed that the grazing caused the differentiation of the initial vegetation community with the dominant plants, Elymus nutans and Stipa grandis. In the plots with high and low grazing intensities, the dominant plants had changed to Kobresia humilis and Melissitus ruthenica, and E...
December 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
João Flavio da Silveira Petruci, Andreas Wilk, Arnaldo Alves Cardoso, Boris Mizaikoff
Following the Kyoto protocol, all signatory countries must provide an annual inventory of greenhouse-gas emission including N2 O. This fact associated with the wide variety of sources for N2 O emissions requires appropriate sensor technologies facilitating in-situ monitoring, compact dimensions, ease of operation, and sufficient sensitivity for addressing such emission scenarios. In this contribution, we therefore describe an innovative portable mid-infrared chemical sensor system for quantifying gaseous N2 O via coupling a substrate-integrated hollow waveguide (iHWG) simultaneously serving as highly miniaturized mid-infrared photon conduit and gas cell to a custom-made preconcentrator...
April 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Enrique Cardillo, Angel Acedo, Enrique Abad
Phytophthora cinnamomi is one of the most important plant pathogens in the world, causing root rot in more than a thousand plant species. This observational study was carried out on a P. cinnamomi infected heathland of Erica umbellata used as goat pasture. The patterns and shapes of disease foci and their distribution were described in a spatial and temporal context using an aerial photograph record. A set of topographic traits was selected on the basis of a disease dynamic hypothesis and their effects on observed spatial disease patterns were analyzed...
2018: PloS One
Ping Sun, Torsten Wronski, Jean D Bariyanga, Ann Apio
The distribution of gastro-intestinal (GI) parasites across landscapes is closely related to the spatial distribution of hosts. In GI parasites with environmental life stages, the vitality of parasites is also affected by ecological and landscape-related components of the environment. This is particularly relevant for domestic livestock species that are often kept across habitats with varying degrees of degradation, exposing them to a wide range of environmentally robust parasite species. In our study, we examined the effect of environmental and anthropogenic factors on the prevalence and intensity of GI parasites across a free-ranging stock of Ankole cattle in the Mutara rangelands of northeastern Rwanda...
March 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Baoli Fan, Allen David McHugh, Shujiang Guo, Quanlin Ma, Jianhui Zhang, Xiaojuan Zhang, Weixing Zhang, Juan Du, Qiushi Yu, Changming Zhao
Calligonum mongolicum is a successful pioneer shrub to combat desertification, which is widely used for vegetation restoration in the desert regions of northwest China. In order to reveal the limitations to natural regeneration of C. mongolicum by asexual and sexual reproduction, following the process of sand dune stabilization, we assessed clonal shoots, seedling emergence, soil seed bank density, and soil physical characteristics in mobile and stabilized sand dunes. Controlled field and pot experiments were also conducted to assess germination and seedling emergence in different dune soil types and seed burial depths...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Franziska Stoessel, Thomas Sonderegger, Peter Bayer, Stefanie Hellweg
Maintaining biotic capacity is of key importance with regard to global food and biomass provision. One reason for productivity loss is soil compaction. In this paper, we use a statistical empirical model to assess long-term yield losses through soil compaction in a regionalized manner, with global coverage and for different agricultural production systems. To facilitate the application of the model, we provide an extensive dataset including crop production data (with 81 crops and corresponding production systems), related machinery application, as well as regionalized soil texture and soil moisture data...
July 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Amin Gheibi, Ahmadreza Hedayat
Ultrasonic wave propagation measurement has been used as a suitable technique for studying the granular materials and investigating the soil fabric structure, the grain contact stiffness, frictional strength, and inter-particle contact area. Previous studies have focused on the variations of shear and compressional wave velocities with effective stress and void ratio, and lesser effort has been made in understanding the variation of amplitude and dominant frequency of transmitted compressional waves with deformation of soil packing...
July 2018: Ultrasonics
Robert S McCann, John E Gimnig, M Nabie Bayoh, Maurice Ombok, Edward D Walker
Impoundments formed by microdams in rural areas of Africa are important sources of water for people, but they provide potential larval habitats for Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes that are vectors of malaria. To study this association, the perimeters of 31 microdam impoundments in western Kenya were sampled for Anopheles larvae in three zones (patches of floating and emergent vegetation, shorelines of open water, and aggregations of cattle hoofprints) across dry and rainy seasons. Of 3,169 larvae collected, most (86...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Benjamin Zuckerberg, Jonathan N Pauli
In regions where snowfall historically has been a defining seasonal characteristic of the landscape, warming winters have reduced the depth, duration, and extent of snowpack. However, most management and conservation has focused on how aboveground wildlife will be affected by altered snow conditions, even though the majority of species that persist through the winter do so under the snowpack in a thermally stable refugium: the subnivium. Shortened winters, forest management practices, and winter recreation can alter subnivium conditions by increasing snow compaction and compromising thermal stability at the soil-snow interface...
February 8, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Qiang Fu, Renjie Hou, Tianxiao Li, Ruiqi Jiang, Peiru Yan, Ziao Ma, Zhaoqiang Zhou
In this study, the spatial variations of soil water and heat under bare land (BL), natural snow (NS), compacted snow (CS) and thick snow (TS) treatments were analyzed. The relationship curve between soil temperature and water content conforms to the exponential filtering model, by means of the functional form of the model, it was defined as soil water and heat relation function model. On this basis, soil water and heat function models of 10, 20, 40, 60, 100, and 140 cm were established. Finally, a spatial variation law of the relationship effect was described based on analysising of the differences between the predicted and measured results...
January 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sebastian Parra-Londono, Mareike Kavka, Birgit Samans, Rod Snowdon, Silke Wieckhorst, Ralf Uptmoor
Background and Aims: Roots facilitate acquisition of macro- and micronutrients, which are crucial for plant productivity and anchorage in the soil. Phosphorus (P) is rapidly immobilized in the soil and hardly available for plants. Adaptation to P scarcity relies on changes in root morphology towards rooting systems well suited for topsoil foraging. Root-system architecture (RSA) defines the spatial organization of the network comprising primary, lateral and stem-derived roots and is important for adaptation to stress conditions...
February 12, 2018: Annals of Botany
Yuxin Qiao, Xiaoyan Zhao, Jun Zhu, Ran Tu, Libing Dong, Li Wang, Zhiyang Dong, Qinhong Wang, Wenbin Du
Lipases are ubiquitous enzymes of great physiological significance that have been used extensively in multiple industries. Environmental microorganisms are a major source for the discovery of novel lipases with high catalytic efficiency and selectivity. However, current plate-based screening of lipase-producing strains is time consuming, labour intensive and inefficient. In this study, we developed an ultra-high throughput screening pipeline for lipase-producing strains based on fluorescence-activated droplet sorting (FADS) using a compact optical system that could be easily set up in an alignment-free manner...
December 19, 2017: Lab on a Chip
Sujay S Kaushal, Arthur J Gold, Paul M Mayer
Land use and climate change can accelerate the depletion of freshwater resources that support humans and ecosystem services on a global scale. Here, we briefly review studies from around the world, and highlight those in this special issue. We identify stages that characterize increasing interaction between land use and climate change. During the first stage, hydrologic modifications and the built environment amplify overland flow via processes associated with runoff-dominated ecosystems (e.g., soil compaction, impervious surface cover, drainage, and channelization)...
October 24, 2017: Water
James Tsz Fung Wong, Zhongkui Chen, Annie Yan Yan Wong, Charles Wang Wai Ng, Ming Hung Wong
Compacted clay is widely used as capillary barriers in landfill final cover system. Recently, biochar amended clay (BAC) has been proposed as a sustainable alternative cover material. However, the effects of biochar on saturated hydraulic conductivity (ksat ) of clay with high degree of compaction is not yet understood. The present study aims to investigate the effects of biochar on ksat of compacted kaolin clay. Soil specimens were prepared by amending kaolin clay with biochar derived from peanut-shell at 0, 5 and 20% (w/w)...
March 2018: Environmental Pollution
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