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soil compaction

Baoli Fan, Allen David McHugh, Shujiang Guo, Quanlin Ma, Jianhui Zhang, Xiaojuan Zhang, Weixing Zhang, Juan Du, Qiushi Yu, Changming Zhao
Calligonum mongolicum is a successful pioneer shrub to combat desertification, which is widely used for vegetation restoration in the desert regions of northwest China. In order to reveal the limitations to natural regeneration of C. mongolicum by asexual and sexual reproduction, following the process of sand dune stabilization, we assessed clonal shoots, seedling emergence, soil seed bank density, and soil physical characteristics in mobile and stabilized sand dunes. Controlled field and pot experiments were also conducted to assess germination and seedling emergence in different dune soil types and seed burial depths...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Franziska Stoessel, Thomas Sonderegger, Peter Bayer, Stefanie Hellweg
Maintaining biotic capacity is of key importance with regard to global food and biomass provision. One reason for productivity loss is soil compaction. In this paper, we use a statistical empirical model to assess long-term yield losses through soil compaction in a regionalized manner, with global coverage and for different agricultural production systems. To facilitate the application of the model, we provide an extensive dataset including crop production data (with 81 crops and corresponding production systems), related machinery application, as well as regionalized soil texture and soil moisture data...
February 27, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Amin Gheibi, Ahmadreza Hedayat
Ultrasonic wave propagation measurement has been used as a suitable technique for studying the granular materials and investigating the soil fabric structure, the grain contact stiffness, frictional strength, and inter-particle contact area. Previous studies have focused on the variations of shear and compressional wave velocities with effective stress and void ratio, and lesser effort has been made in understanding the variation of amplitude and dominant frequency of transmitted compressional waves with deformation of soil packing...
February 14, 2018: Ultrasonics
Robert S McCann, John E Gimnig, M Nabie Bayoh, Maurice Ombok, Edward D Walker
Impoundments formed by microdams in rural areas of Africa are important sources of water for people, but they provide potential larval habitats for Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes that are vectors of malaria. To study this association, the perimeters of 31 microdam impoundments in western Kenya were sampled for Anopheles larvae in three zones (patches of floating and emergent vegetation, shorelines of open water, and aggregations of cattle hoofprints) across dry and rainy seasons. Of 3,169 larvae collected, most (86...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Benjamin Zuckerberg, Jonathan N Pauli
The climate is changing rapidly, and this is especially true during the winter months of the Northern Hemisphere. Because of warming winters, we are witnessing reductions in the depth, duration, and extent of snowpack in regions where snowfall was historically a defining seasonal characteristic of the landscape. These changes have not gone undocumented, yet most management and conservation has focused on how aboveground wildlife will be affected by altered snow conditions, even though the majority of species that persist through the winter do so underneath the snowpack in a thermally stable refugium: the subnivium...
February 8, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Qiang Fu, Renjie Hou, Tianxiao Li, Ruiqi Jiang, Peiru Yan, Ziao Ma, Zhaoqiang Zhou
In this study, the spatial variations of soil water and heat under bare land (BL), natural snow (NS), compacted snow (CS) and thick snow (TS) treatments were analyzed. The relationship curve between soil temperature and water content conforms to the exponential filtering model, by means of the functional form of the model, it was defined as soil water and heat relation function model. On this basis, soil water and heat function models of 10, 20, 40, 60, 100, and 140 cm were established. Finally, a spatial variation law of the relationship effect was described based on analysising of the differences between the predicted and measured results...
January 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sebastian Parra-Londono, Mareike Kavka, Birgit Samans, Rod Snowdon, Silke Wieckhorst, Ralf Uptmoor
Background and Aims: Roots facilitate acquisition of macro- and micronutrients, which are crucial for plant productivity and anchorage in the soil. Phosphorus (P) is rapidly immobilized in the soil and hardly available for plants. Adaptation to P scarcity relies on changes in root morphology towards rooting systems well suited for topsoil foraging. Root-system architecture (RSA) defines the spatial organization of the network comprising primary, lateral and stem-derived roots and is important for adaptation to stress conditions...
January 17, 2018: Annals of Botany
Yuxin Qiao, Xiaoyan Zhao, Jun Zhu, Ran Tu, Libing Dong, Li Wang, Zhiyang Dong, Qinhong Wang, Wenbin Du
Lipases are ubiquitous enzymes of great physiological significance that have been used extensively in multiple industries. Environmental microorganisms are a major source for the discovery of novel lipases with high catalytic efficiency and selectivity. However, current plate-based screening of lipase-producing strains is time consuming, labour intensive and inefficient. In this study, we developed an ultra-high throughput screening pipeline for lipase-producing strains based on fluorescence-activated droplet sorting (FADS) using a compact optical system that could be easily set up in an alignment-free manner...
December 19, 2017: Lab on a Chip
Sujay S Kaushal, Arthur J Gold, Paul M Mayer
Land use and climate change can accelerate the depletion of freshwater resources that support humans and ecosystem services on a global scale. Here, we briefly review studies from around the world, and highlight those in this special issue. We identify stages that characterize increasing interaction between land use and climate change. During the first stage, hydrologic modifications and the built environment amplify overland flow via processes associated with runoff-dominated ecosystems (e.g., soil compaction, impervious surface cover, drainage, and channelization)...
October 24, 2017: Water
James Tsz Fung Wong, Zhongkui Chen, Annie Yan Yan Wong, Charles Wang Wai Ng, Ming Hung Wong
Compacted clay is widely used as capillary barriers in landfill final cover system. Recently, biochar amended clay (BAC) has been proposed as a sustainable alternative cover material. However, the effects of biochar on saturated hydraulic conductivity (ksat ) of clay with high degree of compaction is not yet understood. The present study aims to investigate the effects of biochar on ksat of compacted kaolin clay. Soil specimens were prepared by amending kaolin clay with biochar derived from peanut-shell at 0, 5 and 20% (w/w)...
March 2018: Environmental Pollution
Mahmoud F Seleiman, Ahmed M S Kheir
Soil salinity and atmosphere temperature change have negative impacts on crop productivity and its quality and can pose a significant risk to soil properties in semi-arid regions. We conducted two field experiments in North (first zone) and South (second zone) of Egypt to investigate the effects of soil bagasse ash (10 ton ha(-1)), foliar thiourea (240 g ha(-1)) and their combination in comparison to the control treatment on saline soil properties and productivity and quality traits of wheat. All studied treatments were received the recommended rate of N, P and K fertilizations...
November 14, 2017: Chemosphere
Fujun Ma, Bin Wu, Qian Zhang, Deshan Cui, Qingbing Liu, Changsheng Peng, Fasheng Li, Qingbao Gu
Stabilization/solidification (S/S) has been successfully employed in many superfund sites contaminated with organic materials. However, this method's long-term effectiveness has not been fully evaluated and the increase in soil volume following treatment is unfavorable to follow-up disposal. The present study developed a novel method for the S/S of PAHs-contaminated soil with the facilitation of sulfonated oil (SO). Adding SO significantly improved the unconfined compressive strength (UCS) values of Portland cement and activated carbon (PC-AC) treated soil samples, and the UCS values of the soil sample treated with 0...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Fatima Meite, Pablo Alvarez-Zaldívar, Alexandre Crochet, Charline Wiegert, Sylvain Payraudeau, Gwenaël Imfeld
The combined influence of soil characteristics, pollutant aging and rainfall patterns on the export of pollutants from topsoils is poorly understood. We used laboratory experiments and parsimonious modeling to evaluate the impact of rainfall characteristics on the ponding and the leaching of a pollutant mixture from topsoils. The mixture included the fungicide metalaxyl, the herbicide S-metolachlor, as well as copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn). Four rainfall patterns, which differed in their durations and intensities, were applied twice successively with a 7days interval on each soil type...
November 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Lur Epelde, Anders Lanzén, Iker Mijangos, Estibaliz Sarrionandia, Mikel Anza, Carlos Garbisu
Mountain grasslands in the Iberian Peninsula are the result of extensive grazing. However, a progressive abandonment of grazing activity is currently observed in the study region. The objective of this work was to evaluate the short-term (2 years) effects of non-grazing on the diversity and composition of plants, soil microorganisms (prokaryotes, fungi, arbuscular mycorrhiza), mesofauna, macrofauna and aboveground-belowground links, through the study of 16 grazed vs. non-grazed areas in Atlantic grasslands located in the Basque Country (Spain)...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
S D Keyes, L Cooper, S Duncan, N Koebernick, D M McKay Fletcher, C P Scotson, A van Veelen, I Sinclair, T Roose
This study applied time lapse (four-dimensional) synchrotron X-ray computed tomography to observe micro-scale interactions between plant roots and soil. Functionally contrasting maize root tips were repeatedly imaged during ingress into soil columns of varying water content and compaction. This yielded sequences of three-dimensional densiometric data, representing time-resolved geometric soil and root configurations at the micronmetre scale. These data were used as inputs for two full-field kinematic quantification methods, which enabled the analysis of three-dimensional soil deformation around elongating roots...
November 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Gregory R Waetzig, Junsang Cho, Max Lacroix, Sarbajit Banerjee
The marshy water-saturated soil typical of the sub-Arctic represents a considerable impediment to the construction of roads, thereby greatly hindering human habitation and geological excavation. Muskeg, the native water-laden topsoil characteristic of the North American sub-Arctic, represents a particularly vexing challenge for road construction. Muskeg must either be entirely excavated, or for direct construction on muskeg, a mix of partial excavation and gradual compaction with the strategic placement of filling materials must be performed...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
Wanpen Khongpet, Somkid Pencharee, Chanida Puangpila, Supaporn Kradtap Hartwell, Somchai Lapanantnoppakhun, Jaroon Jakmunee
A microfluidic hydrodynamic sequential injection (μHSI) spectrophotometric system was designed and fabricated. The system was built by laser engraving a manifold pattern on an acrylic block and sealing with another flat acrylic plate to form a microfluidic channel platform. The platform was incorporated with small solenoid valves to obtain a portable setup for programmable control of the liquid flow into the channel according to the HSI principle. The system was demonstrated for the determination of phosphate using a molybdenum blue method...
January 15, 2018: Talanta
Concetta Eliana Gattullo, Caterina D'Alessandro, Ignazio Allegretta, Carlo Porfido, Matteo Spagnuolo, Roberto Terzano
Hexavalent chromium was stabilized in soil by using a mixture of glass and aluminum recovered from municipal solid wastes under alkaline hydrothermal conditions. Cr(VI) concentration was reduced by 94-98% already after 7days of treatment. After the same period, more than 90% of total Cr was stabilized in highly recalcitrant and scarcely mobile chemical forms, with 50% in the residual fraction (when the samples were treated at 1/10w/w mixture/soil ratio). Longer treatments increased Cr stabilization. X-ray microanalyses revealed that Cr was stabilized in geopolymeric structures within large aluminosilicate mineral aggregates (containing both amorphous and crystalline phases)...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Zhu Xiong, Haibo Lin, Fu Liu, Peng Xiao, Ziyang Wu, Tiantian Li, Dehong Li
Instability of superwetting surface is the stumbling block of flexible polymeric membranes for continuous separation of water-in-oil or oil-in-water emulsions. Manipulation of rigid superwetting nano-TiO2 on hierarchical poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membrane by mimicking the plant roots holding soil behaviour enabled the generation of robust superwetting surface withstanding the harshly physical and chemical torture. The unique interface combination, which fabricated by a compacted nano-layer with the thickness of ~20 μm, was disclosed by systematic structure characterization...
October 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
Debao You, Ping Tian, Pengxiang Sui, Wenke Zhang, Bin Yang, Hua Qi
In recent years, yield instability of spring maize becomes increasingly pronounced under the traditional cropping system. In 2014 and 2015, short-term effects of tillage (plow-till, rotary-till and no-till) and residue (removal and incorporation) on soil properties, maize growth and yield were investigated in a brown soil region. Our results indicated that short-term reduced tillage (rotary-till and no-till) and residue incorporation promoted soil properties and maize growth. Compared with plow-till, rotary-till and no-till decreased soil bulk density and compaction below the plough layer (~30 cm)...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
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