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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203533/modification-of-extraction-method-for-community-dna-isolation-from-salt-affected-compact-wasteland-soil-samples
#1
Purvi Zaveri, Rushika Patel, Meghavi Patel, Devki Sarodia, Nasreen S Munshi
To overcome the issue of interferences by salt and compactness in release of bacterial cell required for lysis, method described by Yeates et al. (1998), was optimized for isolation of genomic material (Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid, DNA) from soil microbial community by addition of Al(NH4)SO4. Very low total viable count was observed in the samples tested and hence use of higher amount of soil is required primarily for DNA isolation from wasteland soils. The method proves itself efficient where commercially available bead beating and enzymatic lysis methods could not give isolation of any amount of community genomic DNA due to compact nature and salt concentrations present in soil...
2017: MethodsX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188986/effects-of-biochar-and-wood-pellets-amendments-added-to-landfill-cover-soil-on-microbial-methane-oxidation-a-laboratory-column-study
#2
Erin N Yargicoglu, Krishna R Reddy
Alternate landfill covers designed to enhance microbial methane (CH4) oxidation and reduce the negative impacts of landfill gas emissions on global climate have recently been proposed and investigated. In this study, the use of biochar as a soil amendment is examined in order to assess the feasibility and effectiveness for enhanced CH4 removal in landfill covers when incorporated under high compaction conditions and relatively low soil moisture. Four different cover configurations were tested in large soil columns for ∼510 days and potential CH4 oxidation rates were determined following long-term incubation in small batch assays...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149182/characterization-of-spatial-variability-of-soil-physicochemical-properties-and-its-impact-on-rhodes-grass-productivity
#3
E Tola, K A Al-Gaadi, R Madugundu, A M Zeyada, A G Kayad, C M Biradar
Characterization of soil properties is a key step in understanding the source of spatial variability in the productivity across agricultural fields. A study on a 16 ha field located in the eastern region of Saudi Arabia was undertaken to investigate the spatial variability of selected soil properties, such as soil compaction 'SC', electrical conductivity 'EC', pH (acidity or alkalinity of soil) and soil texture and its impact on the productivity of Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana L.). The productivity of Rhodes grass was investigated using the Cumulative Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (CNDVI), which was determined from Landsat-8 (OLI) images...
February 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144874/tailoring-a-non-path-dependent-model-for-environmental-risk-management-and-polycentric-urban-land-use-planning
#4
Yousef Sakieh, Abdolrassoul Salmanmahiny, Seyed Hamed Mirkarimi
This study attempts to develop a non-path-dependent model for environmental risk management and polycentric urban land-use planning in Gorgan Township area, Iran. Applying three suitability layers of environmental risk (soil erosion, flood risk, fire risk, and land susceptibility), urbanization potential, and integrated surface (environmental risk plus urbanization potential layers), a non-path-dependent Cellular Automata-Markov Chain (CA-MC) model was configured to execute three scenarios of polycentric urban growth allocation...
February 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108925/soil-compaction-effects-on-soil-health-and-cropproductivity-an-overview
#5
Adnan Noor Shah, Mohsin Tanveer, Babar Shahzad, Guozheng Yang, Shah Fahad, Saif Ali, Muhammad Adnan Bukhari, Shahbaz Atta Tung, Abdul Hafeez, Biangkham Souliyanonh
Soil compaction causes substantial reduction in agriculture productivity and has always been of great distress for farmers. Intensive agriculture seems to be more crucial in causing compaction. High mechanical load, less crop diversification, intensive grazing, and irrigation methods lead to soil compaction. It is further exasperated when these factors are accompanied with low organic matter, animal trampling, engine vibrations, and tillage at high moisture contents. Soil compaction increases soil bulk density and soil strength, while decreases porosity, aggregate stability index, soil hydraulic conductivity, and nutrient availability, thus reduces soil health...
January 21, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104330/evaluation-of-individual-and-combined-management-practices-to-reduce-the-off-site-transport-of-pesticides-from-golf-course-turf
#6
Pamela J Rice, Brian P Horgan, Jennifer L Hamlin
The detection of pesticides, associated with turfgrass management, in storm runoff and surface waters of urban watersheds has raised concerns regarding their source, potential environmental effects and a need for strategies to reduce their inputs. In previous research we discovered that hollow tine core cultivation (HTCC) was more effective than other management practices for reducing the off-site transport of pesticides with runoff from creeping bentgrass turf managed as a golf course fairway. This was primarily the result of enhanced infiltration and reduced runoff volumes associated with turf managed with hollow tines...
January 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099774/drivers-of-soil-and-tree-carbon-dynamics-in-urban-residential-lawns-a-modeling-approach
#7
T L E Trammell, R V Pouyat, M M Carreiro, I Yesilonis
Soils constitute the largest sink of terrestrial carbon (C), and urban soils have the potential to provide significant soil C storage. Soils in urbanized landscapes experience a multitude of human alterations, such as compaction and management subsidies, that impact soil C dynamics. While field studies may provide data on urban soil C storage, modeling soil C dynamics under various human impact scenarios will provide a basis for identifying drivers of urban soil C dynamics and for predicting the potential for these highly altered soils to store C over time intervals not typically amenable to empirical validation...
January 18, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088548/soil-carbon-dioxide-emissions-from-a-rubber-plantation-on-tropical-peat
#8
Nur Wakhid, Takashi Hirano, Yosuke Okimoto, Siti Nurzakiah, Dedi Nursyamsi
Land-use change in tropical peatland potentially results in a large amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions owing to drainage, which lowers groundwater level (GWL) and consequently enhances oxidative peat decomposition. However, field information on carbon balance is lacking for rubber plantations, which are expanding into Indonesia's peatlands. To assess soil CO2 emissions from an eight-year-old rubber plantation established on peat after compaction, soil CO2 efflux was measured monthly using a closed chamber system from December 2014 to December 2015, in which a strong El Niño event occurred, and consequently GWL lowered deeply...
January 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987049/inter-and-intraannual-growth-patterns-of-urban-small-leaved-lime-tilia-cordata-mill-at-two-public-squares-with-contrasting-microclimatic-conditions
#9
Astrid Moser, Mohammad A Rahman, Hans Pretzsch, Stephan Pauleit, Thomas Rötzer
The effects of urban conditions on tree growth have been investigated in an increasing number of studies over the last decades, emphasizing the harsh environment of cities. Urban trees often grow in highly paved, compacted sites with consequently less soil moisture, higher soil temperatures, and greater vapor pressure deficits. However, there is still a knowledge gap regarding the impact of harsh paved environments on urban tree growth during drought years on the growth patterns of urban trees. The present study investigated the structure and growth of the common urban tree species small-leaved lime (Tilia cordata) at a highly paved public square (CPS) compared with a contrasting more open, greener square (OGS)...
December 16, 2016: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959897/impact-of-amendments-on-the-physical-properties-of-soil-under-tropical-long-term-no-till-conditions
#10
Antonio C A Carmeis Filho, Carlos A C Crusciol, Tiara M Guimarães, Juliano C Calonego, Sacha J Mooney
Tropical regions have been considered the world's primary agricultural frontier; however, some physico-chemical deficiencies, such as low soil organic matter content, poor soil structure, high erodibility, soil acidity, and aluminum toxicity, have affected their productive capacity. Lime and gypsum are commonly used to improve soil chemical fertility, but no information exists about the long-term effects of these products on the physical attributes and C protection mechanisms of highly weathered Oxisols. A field trial was conducted in a sandy clay loam (kaolinitic, thermic Typic Haplorthox) under a no-tillage system for 12 years...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956014/oil-permeability-variations-on-lagoon-sand-beaches-in-the-patos-gua%C3%A3-ba-system-in-rio-grande-do-sul-brazil
#11
Elaine Baroni Oliveira, João Luiz Nicolodi
Permeability is the ability of a sediment deposit to allow fluids to pass through it. It depends on the local types of sediments. When the fluid is oil, high permeability implies greater interaction with the site and more extensive damage, which makes recovery most difficult. Knowledge of permeability oscillations is necessary to understand oil behavior and improve cleanup techniques. The goal is to determine oil permeability variations on lagoon sand beaches. Oil permeability tests were performed at the beach face, using a Modified Phillip Dunne Permeameter and parameters were sampled...
December 9, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934905/contributions-of-rational-soil-tillage-to-compaction-stress-in-main-peanut-producing-areas-of-china
#12
Pu Shen, Zhengfeng Wu, Chunxiao Wang, Sheng Luo, Yongmei Zheng, Tianyi Yu, Xuewu Sun, Xiushan Sun, Caibin Wang, Xinhua He
Tillage intensities largely affect soil compaction dynamics in agro-ecosystems. However, the contribution of tillage intensities on compaction changes in underground peanut (Arachis hypogaea) fields has not been quantified. We thus aimed to better understand the role of soil tillage intensities in mitigation of compaction stress for peanuts. Using three field tillage experiments in major Chinese peanut producing areas, we quantified the effects of (1) no tillage, (2) shallow (20 cm) plowing, (3) deep (30 cm) plowing and (4) deep (30 cm) loosening on changes in soil bulk density at 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm and 20-30 cm depths, roots and pods growth, and nutrient accumulation...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864371/applicability-of-recycled-aggregates-in-concrete-piles-for-soft-soil-improvement
#13
Ronaldo A Medeiros-Junior, Carlos Et Balestra, Maryangela G Lima
The expressive generation of construction and demolition waste is stimulating several studies for reusing this material. The improvement of soft soils by concrete compaction piles has been widely applied for 40 years in some Brazilian cities. This technique is used to improve the bearing capacity of soft soils, allowing executing shallow foundations instead of deep foundations. The compaction piles use a high volume of material. This article explored the possibility of using recycled aggregates from construction waste to replace the natural aggregates in order to improve the bearing capacity of the soft soil, regarding its compressive strength...
November 17, 2016: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782194/effects-of-pore-scale-disorder-on-fluid-displacement-in-partially-wettable-porous-media
#14
Ran Holtzman
We present a systematic, quantitative assessment of the impact of pore size disorder and its interplay with flow rates and wettability on immiscible displacement of a viscous fluid. Pore-scale simulations and micromodel experiments show that reducing disorder increases the displacement efficiency and compactness, minimizing the fluid-fluid interfacial area, through (i) trapping at low rates and (ii) viscous fingering at high rates. Increasing the wetting angle suppresses both trapping and fingering, hence reducing the sensitivity of the displacement to the underlying disorder...
October 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769446/effect-of-different-precursors-on-generation-of-reference-spectra-for-structural-molecular-background-correction-by-solid-sampling-high-resolution-continuum-source-graphite-furnace-atomic-absorption-spectrometry-determination-of-antimony-in-cosmetics
#15
Ariane Isis Barros, Diego Victor de Babos, Edilene Cristina Ferreira, José Anchieta Gomes Neto
Different precursors were evaluated for the generation of reference spectra and correction of the background caused by SiO molecules in the determination of Sb in facial cosmetics by high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry employing direct solid sample analysis. Zeolite and mica were the most effective precursors for background correction during Sb determination using the 217.581nm and 231.147nm lines. Full 2(3) factorial design and central composite design were used to optimize the atomizer temperature program...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734606/the-ecological-role-of-the-giant-root-rat-tachyoryctes-macrocephalus-in-the-afroalpine-ecosystem
#16
Jan Šklíba, Tereza Vlasatá, Matěj Lövy, Ema Hrouzková, Yonas Meheretu, Claudio Sillero-Zubiri, Radim Šumbera
Rodents with prevailing subterranean activity usually play an important role in the ecosystems of which they are a part due to the combined effect of herbivory and soil perturbation. This is also the case of the giant root-rat Tachyoryctes macrocephalus, Rüppell 1842, endemic to the Afroalpine ecosystem of the Bale Mountains, Ethiopia. We studied the impact of root-rats on various ecosystem features within a 3.5ha study locality dominated by Alchemilla pasture, which represents an optimal habitat for this species, in two periods of a year...
October 13, 2016: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712865/artificial-macropores-attract-crop-roots-and-enhance-plant-productivity-on-compacted-soils
#17
Tino Colombi, Serge Braun, Thomas Keller, Achim Walter
The structure of compacted soils is characterised by decreased (macro-)porosity, which leads to increased mechanical impedance and decreased fluid transport rates, resulting in reduced root growth and crop productivity. Particularly in soils with high mechanical impedance, macropores can be used by roots as pathways of least resistance. This study investigated how different soil physical states relate to whole plant growth and whether roots grow towards spots with favourable soil physical conditions. Experiments were conducted under controlled and field conditions...
October 3, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692789/constant-load-and-constant-volume-response-of-municipal-solid-waste-in-simple-shear
#18
Dimitrios Zekkos, Xunchang Fei
Constant load and constant volume simple shear testing was conducted on relatively fresh municipal solid waste (MSW) from two landfills in the United States, one in Michigan and a second in Texas, at respective natural moisture content below field capacity. The results were assessed in terms of two failure strain criteria, at 10% and 30% shear strain, and two interpretations of effective friction angle. Overall, friction angle obtained assuming that the failure plane is horizontal and at 10% shear strain resulted in a conservative estimation of shear strength of MSW...
September 28, 2016: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667890/a-review-of-the-impacts-of-degradation-threats-on-soil-properties-in-the-uk
#19
A S Gregory, K Ritz, S P McGrath, J N Quinton, K W T Goulding, R J A Jones, J A Harris, R Bol, P Wallace, E S Pilgrim, A P Whitmore
National governments are becoming increasingly aware of the importance of their soil resources and are shaping strategies accordingly. Implicit in any such strategy is that degradation threats and their potential effect on important soil properties and functions are defined and understood. In this paper, we aimed to review the principal degradation threats on important soil properties in the UK, seeking quantitative data where possible. Soil erosion results in the removal of important topsoil and, with it, nutrients, C and porosity...
October 2015: Soil Use and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27612617/the-suitability-evaluation-of-dredged-soil-from-reservoirs-as-embankment-material
#20
Jaesung Park, Younghwan Son, Sookack Noh, Taeho Bong
We assessed the suitability of soil dredged from reservoirs as embankment material and investigated its physical and geochemical properties and strength parameters, as well as its environmental stability. The dredged soil samples were taken from the Ansung, Jechon, and Mulwang Reservoirs in Korea. To evaluate their environmental stability and geochemical properties, we examined their levels of heavy metal contamination, pH, and electrical conductivity. We also conducted X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction analyses...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
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