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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783718/functional-genomics-approaches-to-studying-symbioses-between-legumes-and-nitrogen-fixing-rhizobia
#1
REVIEW
Martina Lardi, Gabriella Pessi
Biological nitrogen fixation gives legumes a pronounced growth advantage in nitrogen-deprived soils and is of considerable ecological and economic interest. In exchange for reduced atmospheric nitrogen, typically given to the plant in the form of amides or ureides, the legume provides nitrogen-fixing rhizobia with nutrients and highly specialised root structures called nodules. To elucidate the molecular basis underlying physiological adaptations on a genome-wide scale, functional genomics approaches, such as transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, have been used...
May 18, 2018: High-throughput
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783117/changes-in-soil-nitrogen-dynamics-caused-by-prescribed-fires-in-dense-gorse-lands-in-sw-pyrenees
#2
Leire Múgica, Rosa M Canals, Leticia San Emeterio
Rural depopulation, abandonment of traditional land uses and decrease of extensive stockfarming is accelerating shrub encroachment in mountain areas. In NW Spain, gorse (Ulex gallii Planch.) is expanding, developing dense shrublands that accumulate high fuel-loads, ignite easily and persist during long periods as alternate stable states. Under this scenario, traditional bush-to-bush farming fires are being replaced by high fuel-load burnings performed by specialised teams to reduce fuels and promote mosaic landscapes...
May 18, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783114/geosphere-biosphere-circulation-of-chemical-elements-in-soil-and-plant-systems-from-a-100-km-transect-from-southern-central-norway
#3
Clemens Reimann, Karl Fabian, Belinda Flem, Malin Andersson, Peter Filzmoser, Peter Englmaier
Geochemical element separation is studied in 14 different sample media collected at 41 sites along an approximately 100-km long transect north of Oslo. At each site, soil C and O horizons and 12 plant materials (birch/spruce/cowberry/blueberry leaves/needles and twigs, horsetail, braken fern, pine bark and terrestrial moss) were sampled. The observed concentrations of 29 elements (K, Ca, P, Mg, Mn, S, Fe, Zn, Na, B, Cu, Mo, Co, Al, Ba, Rb, Sr, Ti, Ni, Pb, Cs, Cd, Ce, Sn, La, Tl, Y, Hg, Ag) were used to investigate soil-plant relations, and to evaluate the element differentiation between different plants, or between foliage and twigs of the same plant...
May 17, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780374/insight-into-the-variation-of-bacterial-structure-in-atrazine-contaminated-soil-regulating-by-potential-phytoremediator-pennisetum-americanum-l-k-schum
#4
Bo Cao, Ying Zhang, Ziyi Wang, Mengyuan Li, Feng Yang, Duo Jiang, Zhao Jiang
Although plants of the genus Pennisetum can accelerate the removal of atrazine from its rhizosphere, the roles played by this plant in adjusting the soil environment and soil microorganism properties that might contribute to pollutant removal are incompletely understood. We selected Pennisetum americanum (L.) K. Schum ( P. americanum ) as the test plant and investigated the interaction between P. americanum and atrazine-contaminated soil, focusing on the adjustment of the soil biochemical properties as well as bacterial functional and community diversity in the rhizosphere using Biolog EcoPlates and high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780371/comparative-metatranscriptomics-of-wheat-rhizosphere-microbiomes-in-disease-suppressive-and-non-suppressive-soils-for-rhizoctonia-solani-ag8
#5
Helen L Hayden, Keith W Savin, Jenny Wadeson, Vadakattu V S R Gupta, Pauline M Mele
The soilborne fungus Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group (AG) 8 is a major pathogen of grain crops resulting in substantial production losses. In the absence of resistant cultivars of wheat or barley, a sustainable and enduring method for disease control may lie in the enhancement of biological disease suppression. Evidence of effective biological control of R. solani AG8 through disease suppression has been well documented at our study site in Avon, South Australia. A comparative metatranscriptomic approach was applied to assess the taxonomic and functional characteristics of the rhizosphere microbiome of wheat plants grown in adjacent fields which are suppressive and non-suppressive to the plant pathogen R...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780366/biological-control-of-mango-dieback-disease-caused-by-lasiodiplodia-theobromae-using-streptomycete-and-non-streptomycete-actinobacteria-in-the-united-arab-emirates
#6
Fatima H Kamil, Esam E Saeed, Khaled A El-Tarabily, Synan F AbuQamar
Dieback caused by the fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae is an important disease on mango plantations in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). In this study, 53 actinobacterial isolates were obtained from mango rhizosphere soil in the UAE, of which 35 (66%) were classified as streptomycetes (SA) and 18 (34%) as non-streptomycetes (NSA). Among these isolates, 19 (12 SA and 7 NSA) showed antagonistic activities against L. theobromae associated with either the production of diffusible antifungal metabolites, extracellular cell-wall-degrading enzymes (CWDEs), or both...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779189/environmental-factors-determining-the-accumulation-of-metals-cu-zn-mn-and-fe-in-tissues-of-taraxacum-sp-sect-taraxacum
#7
Elżbieta Królak, Jolanta Marciniuk, Katarzyna Popijantus, Paulina Wasilczuk, Zbigniew Kasprzykowski
The genus Taraxacum is used in the assessment of soil contamination with heavy metals. There are relatively few studies using sections or species representing this genus. The presented research was conducted in Poland on two habitats, varied in terms of nutrients and metals content. The content of selected metals in leaves and roots of Taraxacum sect. Taraxacum was determined. It was found that in the conditions of increased content of metals in the soil, the analysed species representing sect. Taraxacum accumulate higher amounts of metals in their leaves and roots...
May 19, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775934/arsenic-speciation-dynamics-in-paddy-rice-soil-water-environment-sources-physico-chemical-and-biological-factors-a-review
#8
REVIEW
Prasanna Kumarathilaka, Saman Seneweera, Andrew Meharg, Jochen Bundschuh
Rice is the main staple carbohydrate source for billions of people worldwide. Natural geogenic and anthropogenic sources has led to high arsenic (As) concentrations in rice grains. This is because As is highly bioavailable to rice roots under conditions in which rice is cultivated. A multifaceted and interdisciplinary understanding, both of short-term and long-term effects, are required to identify spatial and temporal changes in As contamination levels in paddy soil-water systems. During flooding, soil pore waters are elevated in inorganic As compared to dryland cultivation systems, as anaerobism results in poorly mobile As(V), being reduced to highly mobile As(III)...
April 21, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775104/the-ability-of-silybum-marianum-to-phytoremediate-cadmium-and-or-diesel-oil-from-the-soil
#9
Hossein Hammami, Ebrahim Alaie, Seyed Mohammad Mehdi Dastgheib
Phytoremediation is a new ecological and cost-effective technology applied for cleaning heavy metals and total petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated (TPH-contaminated) soils. This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of milk thistle (Silybum marianum) to phytoremediate cadmium (Cd (II)) from contaminated soils. To this end, the investigators applied a completely randomized design with the factorial arrangement and four replications. The results indicated that all the evaluated parameters of S. Marianum, including shoot and root fresh and dry weight, as well as shoot and root Cd, were significantly influenced by Cd (II) concentration and diesel oil (DO)...
July 3, 2018: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774018/the-invasive-brazilian-pepper-tree-schinus-terebinthifolius-is-colonized-by-a-root-microbiome-enriched-with-alphaproteobacteria-and-unclassified-spartobacteria
#10
Karim Dawkins, Nwadiuto Esiobu
Little is known about the rhizosphere microbiome of the Brazilian pepper tree (BP) - a noxious category 1 invasive plant inducing an enormous economic and ecological toll in Florida. Some invasive plants have been shown to drastically change the soil microbiome compared to other native plants. The rhizobacteria community structure of BP, two Florida native plants ( Hamelia patens and Bidens alba ) and bulk soils were characterized across six geographical sites. Although all 19 well-known and 10 poorly described phyla were observed in all plant rhizospheres, BP contained the least total bacterial abundance (OTUs) with a distinct bacteria community structure and clustering patterns differing significantly (pCOA and PERMANOVA) from the natives and bulk soil...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772648/adhesion-in-physiological-benign-and-malignant-proliferative-states-of-the-endometrium-microenvironment-and-the-clinical-big-picture
#11
REVIEW
Emily J Rutherford, Arnold D K Hill, Ann M Hopkins
Although the developments in cellular and molecular biology over the last few decades have significantly advanced our understanding of the processes and players that regulate invasive disease, many areas of uncertainty remain. This review will discuss the contribution of dysregulated cell⁻cell and cell⁻matrix adhesion to the invasion in both benign and malignant contexts. Using the endometrium as an illustrative tissue that undergoes clinically significant invasion in both contexts, the adhesion considerations in the cells ("seed") and their microenvironment ("soil") will be discussed...
May 16, 2018: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771393/differential-responses-of-picea-asperata-and-betula-albosinensis-to-nitrogen-supply-imposed-by-water-availability
#12
Chunying Yin, Sari Palmroth, Xueyong Pang, Bo Tang, Qing Liu, Ram Oren
A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of nitrogen (N) addition (0, 20, 40 g N m-2 year-1, N0, N20, N40, respectively) on the growth, and biomass accumulation and allocation of coniferous and deciduous (Picea asperata Mast. and Betula albosinensis Burk.) seedlings under a range of soil moisture limitation (40%, 50%, 60%, 80% and 100% of field capacity, FC). At 100% FC, growth of shade-tolerant P. asperata increased with N supply, while that of shade-intolerant B. albosinensis reached a maximum at N20, declining somewhat thereafter...
May 16, 2018: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761061/transcriptomic-studies-reveal-a-key-metabolic-pathway-contributing-to-a-well-maintained-photosynthetic-system-under-drought-stress-in-foxtail-millet-setaria-italica-l
#13
Weiping Shi, Jingye Cheng, Xiaojie Wen, Jixiang Wang, Guanyan Shi, Jiayan Yao, Liyuan Hou, Qian Sun, Peng Xiang, Xiangyang Yuan, Shuqi Dong, Pingyi Guo, Jie Guo
Drought stress is one of the most important abiotic factors limiting crop productivity. A better understanding of the effects of drought on millet ( Setaria italica L.) production, a model crop for studying drought tolerance, and the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for drought stress responses is vital to improvement of agricultural production. In this study, we exposed the drought resistant F1 hybrid, M79, and its parental lines E1 and H1 to drought stress. Subsequent physiological analysis demonstrated that M79 showed higher photosynthetic energy conversion efficiency and drought tolerance than its parents...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760683/evaluation-of-primers-targeting-the-diazotroph-functional-gene-and-development-of-nifmap-a-bioinformatics-pipeline-for-analyzing-nifh-amplicon-data
#14
Roey Angel, Maximilian Nepel, Christopher Panhölzl, Hannes Schmidt, Craig W Herbold, Stephanie A Eichorst, Dagmar Woebken
Diazotrophic microorganisms introduce biologically available nitrogen (N) to the global N cycle through the activity of the nitrogenase enzyme. The genetically conserved dinitrogenase reductase ( nifH ) gene is phylogenetically distributed across four clusters (I-IV) and is widely used as a marker gene for N2 fixation, permitting investigators to study the genetic diversity of diazotrophs in nature and target potential participants in N2 fixation. To date there have been limited, standardized pipelines for analyzing the nifH functional gene, which is in stark contrast to the 16S rRNA gene...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758912/evaluation-of-soil-quality-along-two-revegetation-chronosequences-on-the-loess-hilly-region-of-china
#15
Shujuan Guo, Xinhui Han, Hui Li, Tao Wang, Xiaogang Tong, Guangxin Ren, Yongzhong Feng, Gaihe Yang
Vegetation restoration has been widely implemented to control soil degradation, reduce soil erosion, and improve soil quality. It is vital to understand the mechanisms affecting soil quality in soil restoration processes and to determine an appropriate recover pattern for soil restoration. Thus, a soil quality index was developed using integrated approach to assess soil quality after vegetation restoration in this study. Soil samples were collected from two restoration pathways (afforestation by Robinia pseudoacacia L...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758898/characterization-of-iron-oxide-nanoparticle-films-at-the-air-water-interface-in-arctic-tundra-waters
#16
Aaron M Jubb, Jeremy R Eskelsen, Xiangping Yin, Jianqiu Zheng, Michael J Philben, Eric M Pierce, David E Graham, Stan D Wullschleger, Baohua Gu
Massive amounts of organic carbon have accumulated in Arctic permafrost and soils due to anoxic and low temperature conditions that limit aerobic microbial respiration. Alternative electron acceptors are thus required for microbes to degrade organic carbon in these soils. Iron or iron oxides have been recognized to play an important role in carbon cycle processes in Arctic soils, although the exact form and role as an electron acceptor or donor remain poorly understood. Here, Arctic biofilms collected during the summers of 2016 and 2017 from tundra surface waters on the Seward Peninsula of western Alaska were characterized with a suite of microscopic and spectroscopic methods...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758287/pseudomonas-putida-as-a-functional-chassis-for-industrial-biocatalysis-from-native-biochemistry-to-trans-metabolism
#17
REVIEW
Pablo I Nikel, Víctor de Lorenzo
The itinerary followed by Pseudomonas putida from being a soil-dweller and plant colonizer bacterium to become a flexible and engineer-able platform for metabolic engineering stems from its natural lifestyle, which is adapted to harsh environmental conditions and all sorts of physicochemical stresses. Over the years, these properties have been capitalized biotechnologically owing to the expanding wealth of genetic tools designed for deep-editing the P. putida genome. A suite of dedicated vectors inspired in the core tenets of synthetic biology have enabled to suppress many of the naturally-occurring undesirable traits native to this species while enhancing its many appealing properties, and also to import catalytic activities and attributes from other biological systems...
May 11, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756225/pollen-wall-degradation-in-the-brassicaceae-permits-cell-emergence-after-pollination
#18
Anna F Edlund, Katrina Olsen, Christian Mendoza, Jing Wang, Trudyann Buckley, Mai Nguyen, Brooke Callahan, Heather A Owen
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Despite attempts to degrade the sporopollenin in pollen walls, this material has withstood a hundred years of experimental treatments and thousands of years of environmental attack in insects and soil. We present evidence that sporopollenin, nonetheless, locally degrades only minutes after pollination in Arabidopsis thaliana flowers, and describe here a two-part pollen germination mechanism in A. thaliana involving both chemical weakening of the exine wall and swelling of the underlying intine...
August 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755440/biodegradable-plastic-mulch-films-impacts-on-soil-microbial-communities-and-ecosystem-functions
#19
REVIEW
Sreejata Bandopadhyay, Lluis Martin-Closas, Ana M Pelacho, Jennifer M DeBruyn
Agricultural plastic mulch films are widely used in specialty crop production systems because of their agronomic benefits. Biodegradable plastic mulches (BDMs) offer an environmentally sustainable alternative to conventional polyethylene (PE) mulch. Unlike PE films, which need to be removed after use, BDMs are tilled into soil where they are expected to biodegrade. However, there remains considerable uncertainty about long-term impacts of BDM incorporation on soil ecosystems. BDMs potentially influence soil microbial communities in two ways: first, as a surface barrier prior to soil incorporation, indirectly affecting soil microclimate and atmosphere (similar to PE films) and second, after soil incorporation, as a direct input of physical fragments, which add carbon, microorganisms, additives, and adherent chemicals...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755421/fungal-biodiversity-and-their-role-in-soil-health
#20
REVIEW
Magdalena Frąc, Silja E Hannula, Marta Bełka, Małgorzata Jędryczka
Soil health, and the closely related terms of soil quality and fertility, is considered as one of the most important characteristics of soil ecosystems. The integrated approach to soil health assumes that soil is a living system and soil health results from the interaction between different processes and properties, with a strong effect on the activity of soil microbiota. All soils can be described using physical, chemical, and biological properties, but adaptation to environmental changes, driven by the processes of natural selection, are unique to the latter one...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
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