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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332141/cultivable-fungi-present-in-antarctic-soils-taxonomy-phylogeny-diversity-and-bioprospecting-of-antiparasitic-and-herbicidal-metabolites
#1
Eldon C Q Gomes, Valéria M Godinho, Débora A S Silva, Maria T R de Paula, Gislaine A Vitoreli, Carlos L Zani, Tânia M A Alves, Policarpo A S Junior, Silvane M F Murta, Emerson C Barbosa, Jaquelline G Oliveira, Fabio S Oliveira, Camila R Carvalho, Mariana C Ferreira, Carlos A Rosa, Luiz H Rosa
Molecular biology techniques were used to identify 218 fungi from soil samples collected from four islands of Antarctica. These consisted of 22 taxa of 15 different genera belonging to the Zygomycota, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota. Mortierella, Antarctomyces, Pseudogymnoascus, and Penicillium were the most frequently isolated genera and Penicillium tardochrysogenum, Penicillium verrucosus, Goffeauzyma gilvescens, and Mortierella sp. 2 the most abundant taxa. All fungal isolates were cultivated using solid-state fermentation to obtain their crude extracts...
January 13, 2018: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331853/mobility-of-heavy-metals-in-sandy-soil-after-application-of-composts-produced-from-maize-straw-sewage-sludge-and-biochar
#2
K Gondek, M Mierzwa-Hersztek, M Kopeć
Studies on the availability of heavy metals in composted organic materials and in soil amended with these materials are of practical significance. They are used in the assessment of the purity of the soil environment and of the biological value of plants intended for human and animal consumption. Composting of organic materials has a significant effect on changes in mobile forms of heavy metals. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of the addition of biochar and sewage sludge on (i) the contents of water soluble forms of Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn in composts; and (ii) the contents of mobile forms of these elements in sandy soil after the addition of composts...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327260/lifetime-study-in-mice-after-acute-low-dose-ionizing-radiation-a-multifactorial-study-with-special-focus-on-cataract-risk
#3
Claudia Dalke, Frauke Neff, Savneet Kaur Bains, Scott Bright, Deborah Lord, Peter Reitmeir, Ute Rößler, Daniel Samaga, Kristian Unger, Herbert Braselmann, Florian Wagner, Matthias Greiter, Maria Gomolka, Sabine Hornhardt, Sarah Kunze, Stefan J Kempf, Lillian Garrett, Sabine M Hölter, Wolfgang Wurst, Michael Rosemann, Omid Azimzadeh, Soile Tapio, Michaela Aubele, Fabian Theis, Christoph Hoeschen, Predrag Slijepcevic, Munira Kadhim, Michael Atkinson, Horst Zitzelsberger, Ulrike Kulka, Jochen Graw
Because of the increasing application of ionizing radiation in medicine, quantitative data on effects of low-dose radiation are needed to optimize radiation protection, particularly with respect to cataract development. Using mice as mammalian animal model, we applied a single dose of 0, 0.063, 0.125 and 0.5 Gy at 10 weeks of age, determined lens opacities for up to 2 years and compared it with overall survival, cytogenetic alterations and cancer development. The highest dose was significantly associated with increased body weight and reduced survival rate...
January 11, 2018: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324285/lithium-as-an-emerging-environmental-contaminant-mobility-in-the-soil-plant-system
#4
Brett H Robinson, Rohith Yalamanchali, René Reiser, Nicholas M Dickinson
Contamination of soil with lithium (Li) is likely to increase due to its wider dispersal in the environment, associated in particular, with the disposal of the now ubiquitous Li-ion batteries. There is, however, a paucity of information on the behaviour of Li in the soil-plant system. We measured the sorption of added Li to soil, and uptake of Li by food and fodder species. Around New Zealand, soil concentrations were shown to range from 0.08 mg/kg to 92 mg/kg, and to be positively correlated with clay content...
January 5, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323781/soil-phosphorus-does-not-keep-pace-with-soil-carbon-and-nitrogen-accumulation-following-woody-encroachment
#5
Yong Zhou, Thomas W Boutton, X Ben Wu
Soil carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus cycles are strongly interlinked and controlled through biological processes, and the phosphorus cycle is further controlled through geochemical processes. In dryland ecosystems, woody encroachment often modifies soil carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus stores, although it remains unknown if these three elements change proportionally in response to this vegetation change. We evaluated proportional changes and spatial patterns of soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations following woody encroachment by taking spatially-explicit soil cores to a depth of 1...
January 11, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322917/identification-of-natural-antimicrobial-peptides-from-bacteria-through-metagenomic-and-metatranscriptomic-analysis-of-high-throughput-transcriptome-data-of-taiwanese-oolong-teas
#6
Kai-Yao Huang, Tzu-Hao Chang, Jhih-Hua Jhong, Yu-Hsiang Chi, Wen-Chi Li, Chien-Lung Chan, K Robert Lai, Tzong-Yi Lee
BACKGROUND: Anti-microbial peptides (AMPs), naturally encoded by genes and generally containing 12-100 amino acids, are crucial components of the innate immune system and can protect the host from various pathogenic bacteria and viruses. In recent years, the widespread use of antibiotics has resulted in the rapid growth of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms that often induce critical infection and pathogenesis. Recently, the advent of high-throughput technologies has led molecular biology into a data surge in both the amount and scope of data...
December 21, 2017: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321898/sap-flow-characteristics-and-responses-to-summer-rainfall-for-pinus-tabulaeformis-and-hippophae-rhamnoides-in-the-loess-hilly-region-of-china
#7
Xu Wu, Yakun Tang, Yunming Chen, Jie Wen, Yuli Xie, Senbao Lu
As a major driving element of the structure and function of arid and semiarid ecosystems, rainfall is the essential factor limiting plant biological processes. To clarify the characteristics of transpiration and responses to summer rainfall, sap flow density (Fd) of Pinus tabulaeformis and Hippophae rhamnoides was monitored using thermal dissipation probes. In addition, midday leaf water potential (ψm) and leaf stomatal conductance (Gs) were also analyzed to determine water use strategies. The results indicated that the diurnal variation in the normalized Fd values exhibited a single-peak curve for P...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316464/comparison-of-tolerance-and-biosorption-of-three-trace-metals-cd-cu-pb-by-the-soil-fungus-absidia-cylindrospora
#8
Quentin Albert, Lydia Leleyter, Mélanie Lemoine, Natacha Heutte, Jean-Philippe Rioult, Lucile Sage, Fabienne Baraud, David Garon
Trace metals cause deterioration of the soil and constitute a major concern for the environment and human health. Bioremediation could be an effective solution for the rectification of contaminated soils. Fungi could play an important role in biodegradation because of the morphology of their mycelium (highly reactive and extensive biological surface) and its physiology (high tolerance to many stresses, production of enzymes and secondary metabolites). Fungi can effectively biosequestrate, or biotransform many organic and inorganic contaminants into a non-bioavailable form...
December 28, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315530/ecological-drivers-of-soil-microbial-diversity-and-soil-biological-networks-in-the-southern-hemisphere
#9
Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo, Frank Reith, Paul G Dennis, Kelly Hamonts, Jeff R Powell, Andrew Young, Brajesh K Singh, Andrew Bissett
The ecological drivers of soil biodiversity in the Southern Hemisphere remain underexplored. Here, in a continental survey comprising 647 sites, across 58 degrees of latitude between tropical Australia and Antarctica, we evaluated the major ecological patterns in soil biodiversity and relative abundance of ecological clusters within a co-occurrence network of soil bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes. Six major ecological clusters (modules) of co-occurring soil taxa were identified. These clusters exhibited strong shifts in their relative abundances with increasing distance from the equator...
January 9, 2018: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315515/observed-trends-of-soil-fauna-in-the-antarctic-dry-valleys-early-signs-of-shifts-predicted-under-climate-change
#10
W S Andriuzzi, B J Adams, J E Barrett, R A Virginia, D H Wall
Long-term observations of ecological communities are necessary for generating and testing predictions of ecosystem responses to climate change. We investigated temporal trends and spatial patterns of soil fauna along similar environmental gradients in three sites of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, spanning two distinct climatic phases: a decadal cooling trend from the early 1990s through the austral summer of February 2001, followed by a shift to the current trend of warming summers and more frequent discrete warming events...
January 5, 2018: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314604/unravelling-the-identity-metabolic-potential-and-global-biogeography-of-the-atmospheric-methane-oxidising-upland-soil-cluster-%C3%AE
#11
Jennifer Pratscher, John Vollmers, Sandra Wiegand, Marc G Dumont, Anne-Kristin Kaster
Understanding of global methane sources and sinks is a prerequisite for the design of strategies to counteract global warming. Microbial methane oxidation in soils represents the largest biological sink for atmospheric methane. However, still very little is known about the identity, metabolic properties, and distribution of the microbial group proposed to be responsible for most of this uptake, the uncultivated upland soil cluster α (USCα). Here, we reconstructed a draft genome of USCα from a combination of targeted cell sorting and metagenomes from forest soil, providing the first insights into its metabolic potential and environmental adaptation strategies...
January 3, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314232/the-influence-of-microbial-communities-for-triadimefon-enantiomerization-in-soils-with-different-ph-values
#12
Khaled Mohamed Ahmed Talab, Zhong-Hua Yang, Jian-Hong Li, Yue Zhao, Sara Alrasheed Mohamed Omer, Ya-Bing Xiong
Enantiomers of chiral molecules can undergo interconversion leading to markedly different toxicities, which can introduce significant uncertainty when evaluating biological and environmental fates. However, enantiomerization (the reversible conversion of one enantiomer into the other) related to soil microorganism is rarely understood. For better understanding, S-triadimefon and R-triadimefon enantiopure were incubated in different soils with different pH value. Both high-performance liquid chromatography and high-throughput sequencing technology were used to explore target analytes quantitatively and microbial taxa related to the conversion process...
January 3, 2018: Chirality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311719/transcriptome-changes-induced-by-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-in-sunflower-helianthus-annuus-l-roots
#13
Alberto Vangelisti, Lucia Natali, Rodolfo Bernardi, Cristiana Sbrana, Alessandra Turrini, Keywan Hassani-Pak, David Hughes, Andrea Cavallini, Manuela Giovannetti, Tommaso Giordani
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are essential elements of soil fertility, plant nutrition and productivity, facilitating soil mineral nutrient uptake. Helianthus annuus is a non-model, widely cultivated species. Here we used an RNA-seq approach for evaluating gene expression variation at early and late stages of mycorrhizal establishment in sunflower roots colonized by the arbuscular fungus Rhizoglomus irregulare. mRNA was isolated from roots of plantlets at 4 and 16 days after inoculation with the fungus...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306554/the-neglected-soil-virome-potential-role-and-impact
#14
REVIEW
Akbar Adjie Pratama, Jan Dirk van Elsas
Bacteriophages are among the most abundant and diverse biological units in the biosphere. They have contributed to our understanding of the central dogma of biology and have been instrumental in the evolutionary success of bacterial pathogens. In contrast to our current understanding of marine viral communities, the soil virome and its function in terrestrial ecosystems has remained relatively understudied. Here, we examine, in a comparative fashion, the knowledge gathered from studies performed in soil versus marine settings...
January 3, 2018: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306340/review-nutritional-ecology-of-heavy-metals
#15
M Hejna, D Gottardo, A Baldi, V Dell'Orto, F Cheli, M Zaninelli, L Rossi
The aim of this review is to focus the attention on the nutrition ecology of the heavy metals and on the major criticisms related to the heavy metals content in animal feeds, manure, soil and animal-origin products. Heavy metals are metallic elements that have a high density that have progressively accumulated in the food chain with negative effects for human health. Some metals are essential (Fe, I, Co, Zn, Cu, Mn, Mo, Se) to maintain various physiological functions and are usually added as nutritional additives in animal feed...
January 8, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306123/improving-biodegradability-of-soil-washing-effluents-using-anodic-oxidation
#16
María Belén Carboneras, Pablo Cañizares, Manuel Andrés Rodrigo, José Villaseñor, Francisco Jesus Fernandez-Morales
In this work, a combination of electrochemical and biological technologies is proposed to remove clopyralid from Soil Washing Effluents (SWE). Firstly, soil washing was carried out to extract clopyralid from soil. After that, four different anodes-Ir-MMO, Ru-MMO, pSi-BDD and Carbon Felt (CF)-were evaluated in order to increase the biodegradability of the SWE. CF was selected because was the only one able to transform the pesticide to a more biodegradable compounds without completely mineralizing it. Finally, biological oxidation tests were performed to determine the aerobic biodegradability of the SWE generated...
December 21, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302994/environmental-impact-and-bioremediation-of-seleniferous-soils-and-sediments
#17
Shrutika L Wadgaonkar, Yarlagadda V Nancharaiah, Giovanni Esposito, Piet N L Lens
Selenium concentrations in the soil environment are directly linked to its transfer in the food chain, eventually causing either deficiency or toxicity associated with several physiological dysfunctions in animals and humans. Selenium bioavailability depends on its speciation in the soil environment, which is mainly influenced by the prevailing pH, redox potential, and organic matter content of the soil. The selenium cycle in the environment is primarily mediated through chemical and biological selenium transformations...
January 5, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302839/in-vitro-exposure-of-nasal-epithelial-cells-to-atmospheric-dust
#18
David Elad, Uri Zaretsky, Sharon Avraham, Ruthie Gotlieb, Michael Wolf, Itzhak Katra, Shlomo Sarig, Eli Zaady
Dust storms are common phenomena in many parts of the world, and significantly increase the level of atmospheric particulate matter (PM). The soil-derived dust is a mixture of organic and inorganic particles and even remnants of pesticides from agricultural areas nearby. The risk of human exposure to atmospheric dust is well documented, but very little is known on the impact of inhaled PM on the biological lining of the nasal cavity, which is the natural filter between the external environment and the respiratory tract...
January 4, 2018: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302664/iodine-soil-dynamics-and-methods-of-measurement-a-review
#19
REVIEW
O S Humphrey, S D Young, E H Bailey, N M J Crout, E L Ander, M J Watts
Iodine is an essential micronutrient for human health: insufficient intake can have multiple effects on development and growth, affecting approximately 1.9 billion people worldwide. Previous reviews have focussed on iodine analysis in environmental and biological samples, however, no such review exists for the determination of iodine fractionation and speciation in soils. This article reviews the geodynamics of both stable 127I and the long-lived isotope 129I (t1/2 = 15.7 million years), alongside the analytical methods for determining iodine concentrations in soils, including consideration of sample preparation...
January 5, 2018: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299803/initial-data-on-biological-activity-of-taiga-steppe-soils-in-the-lower-reaches-of-the-kolyma-river
#20
M V Schelchkova, S P Davydov, D G Fyodorov-Davydov, A I Davydova, G G Boeskorov, N G Solomonov
Microbiological and enzyme activities of extrazonal taiga-steppe soils in the lower reaches of the Kolyma River have been studied for the first time. Contrary to north-taiga cryometamorphic soils, predominating in the area, microbial cenoses under herb-sedge petrophytic and grass-sagebrush-herb thermophytic steppes are characterized by features typical for arid soils. The saturation of the soil profile with microorganisms is greater, and the development of actinomycetes is more intensive. The enzyme complex is characterized by high activity of dehydrogenases...
November 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
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