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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926149/speciation-below-ground-tempo-and-mode-of-diversification-in-a-radiation-of-endogean-ground-beetles
#1
Carmelo Andújar, Sergio Pérez-González, Paula Arribas, Juan P Zaballos, Alfried P Vogler, Ignacio Ribera
Dispersal is a critical factor determining the spatial scale of speciation, which is constrained by the ecological characteristics and distribution of a species' habitat and the intrinsic traits of species. Endogean taxa are strongly affected by the unique qualities of the below-ground environment and its effect on dispersal, and contrasting reports indicate either high dispersal capabilities favoured by small body size and mediated by passive mechanisms, or low dispersal due to restricted movement and confinement inside the soil...
September 19, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923606/actinomycetes-benefaction-role-in-soil-and-plant-health
#2
REVIEW
Asma Absar Bhatti, Shamsul Haq, Rouf Ahmad Bhat
Actinomycetes are aerobic, spore forming gram-positive bacteria, belonging to the order actinomycetales characterized with substrate and aerial mycelium growth. They are the most abundant organisms that form thread-like filaments in the soil and are responsible for characteristically "earthy" smell of freshly turned healthy soil. They play major roles in the cycling of organic matter; inhibit the growth of several plant pathogens in the rhizosphere and decompose complex mixtures of polymer in dead plant, animal and fungal material results in production of many extracellular enzymes which are conductive to crop production...
September 16, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922165/the-gastrointestinal-brain-axis-in-humans-as-an-evolutionary-advance-of-the-root-leaf-axis-in-plants-a-hypothesis-linking-quantum-effects-of-light-on-serotonin-and-auxin
#3
Lucio Tonello, Bekim Gashi, Alessandro Scuotto, Glenda Capello, Massimo Cocchi, Fabio Gabrielli, Jack A Tuszynski
Living organisms tend to find viable strategies under ambient conditions that optimize their search for, and utilization of, life-sustaining resources. For plants, a leading role in this process is performed by auxin, a plant hormone that drives morphological development, dynamics, and movement to optimize the absorption of light (through branches and leaves) and chemical "food" (through roots). Similarly to auxin in plants, serotonin seems to play an important role in higher animals, especially humans. Here, it is proposed that morphological and functional similarities between (i) plant leaves and the animal/human brain and (ii) plant roots and the animal/human gastro-intestinal tract have general features in common...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921887/chemical-components-biological-activities-and-toxicological-evaluation-of-the-fruit-aril-of-two-precious-plant-species-from-genus-taxus
#4
Na Li, Zheng Pan, Dan Zhang, Huaxing Wang, Bao Yu, Shengping Zhao, Jiajia Guo, Jianwei Wang, Ling Yao, Weiguo Cao
The fruit (aril) of the endangered genus Taxus plants is an abandoned herbal resource. Traditionally, people enthusiasticly focus on its bark, its renewable, tremendous arils fall into the soil with seeds after they are mature. The present research investigated the fruit of two species from the genus Taxus, Taxus chinensis var. mairei and Taxus media, with regards to their antioxidant and antihyperglycaemic activities, safety, and bioactive constituents. Results showed that T. chinensis var. mairei and T. media both had certain biological activities with T...
September 18, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921808/long-term-agricultural-management-does-not-alter-the-evolution-of-a-soybean-rhizobium-mutualism
#5
Jennifer E Schmidt, Dylan J Weese, Jennifer A Lau
Leguminous crops, like soybeans, often rely on biologically fixed nitrogen via their symbiosis with rhizobia rather than synthetic nitrogen inputs. However, agricultural management practices may influence the effectiveness of biological nitrogen fixation. While the ecological effects of agricultural management on rhizobia have received some attention, the evolutionary effects have been neglected in comparison. Resource mutualism theory predicts that evolutionary effects are likely, however. Both fertilization and tillage are predicted to cause the evolution of rhizobia that provide fewer growth benefits to plant hosts and fix less nitrogen...
September 16, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921475/legacy-effects-of-continuous-chloropicrin-fumigation-for-3-years-on-soil-microbial-community-composition-and-metabolic-activity
#6
Shuting Zhang, Xiaojiao Liu, Qipeng Jiang, Guihua Shen, Wei Ding
Chloropicrin is widely used to control ginger wilt in China, which have an enormous impact on soil microbial diversity. However, little is known on the possible legacy effects on soil microbial community composition with continuous fumigation over different years. In this report, we used high throughput Illumina sequencing and Biolog ECO microplates to determine the bacterial community and microbial metabolic activity in ginger harvest fields of non-fumigation (NF), chloropicrin-fumigation for 1 year (F_1) and continuous chloropicrin-fumigation for 3 years (F_3)...
September 18, 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920403/comparison-of-bacterial-communities-in-leachate-from-decomposing-bovine-carcasses
#7
Seung-Hak Yang, Hee Kwon Ahn, Bong Soo Kim, Sun Sik Chang, Ki Yong Chung, Eun Mi Lee, Kwang Seok Ki, Eung Gi Kwon
Objective: Burial is associated with environmental effects such as the contamination of ground or surface water with biological materials generated during the decomposition process. Therefore, bacterial communities in leachates originating from the decomposing bovine carcasses were investigated. Methods: To understand the process of bovine (Hanwoo) carcass decomposition, we simulated burial using a lab-scale reactor with a volume of 5.15 m3. Leachate samples from 3 carcasses were collected using a peristaltic pump once a month for a period of 5 months, and bacterial communities in samples were identified by pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene...
September 18, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919903/the-role-of-soil-solarization-in-india-how-an-unnoticed-practice-could-support-pest-control
#8
REVIEW
Harsimran K Gill, Iqbal S Aujla, Luigi De Bellis, Andrea Luvisi
Plant protection represents one of the strategies to fill the yield gap and to achieve food security, a key topic for India development. Analysis of climate risks for crops indicates that South Asia is one of the regions most exposed to the adverse impact on many plants that are relevant to inhabitants exposed to food safety risks. Furthermore, accumulation of pesticide residues in the aquatic and other ecosystems is becoming a significant threat in India. These perspectives require to develop programs of crop protection that can be feasible according to Indian rural development and pollution policy...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919898/chitosan-increases-tomato-root-colonization-by-pochonia-chlamydosporia-and-their-combination-reduces-root-knot-nematode-damage
#9
Nuria Escudero, Federico Lopez-Moya, Zahra Ghahremani, Ernesto A Zavala-Gonzalez, Aurora Alaguero-Cordovilla, Caridad Ros-Ibañez, Alfredo Lacasa, Francisco J Sorribas, Luis V Lopez-Llorca
The use of biological control agents could be a non-chemical alternative for management of Meloidogyne spp. [root-knot nematodes (RKN)], the most damaging plant-parasitic nematodes for horticultural crops worldwide. Pochonia chlamydosporia is a fungal parasite of RKN eggs that can colonize endophytically roots of several cultivated plant species, but in field applications the fungus shows a low persistence and efficiency in RKN management. The combined use of P. chlamydosporia with an enhancer could help its ability to develop in soil and colonize roots, thereby increasing its efficiency against nematodes...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919651/land-use-change-impacts-on-floods-at-the-catchment-scale-challenges-and-opportunities-for-future-research
#10
M Rogger, M Agnoletti, A Alaoui, J C Bathurst, G Bodner, M Borga, V Chaplot, F Gallart, G Glatzel, J Hall, J Holden, L Holko, R Horn, A Kiss, S Kohnová, G Leitinger, B Lennartz, J Parajka, R Perdigão, S Peth, L Plavcová, J N Quinton, M Robinson, J L Salinas, A Santoro, J Szolgay, S Tron, J J H van den Akker, A Viglione, G Blöschl
Research gaps in understanding flood changes at the catchment scale caused by changes in forest management, agricultural practices, artificial drainage, and terracing are identified. Potential strategies in addressing these gaps are proposed, such as complex systems approaches to link processes across time scales, long-term experiments on physical-chemical-biological process interactions, and a focus on connectivity and patterns across spatial scales. It is suggested that these strategies will stimulate new research that coherently addresses the issues across hydrology, soil and agricultural sciences, forest engineering, forest ecology, and geomorphology...
July 2017: Water Resources Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916828/invasive-andropogon-gayanus-gamba-grass-alters-litter-decomposition-and-nitrogen-fluxes-in-an-australian-tropical-savanna
#11
N A Rossiter-Rachor, S A Setterfield, L B Hutley, D McMaster, S Schmidt, M M Douglas
The African grass Andropogon gayanus Kunth. is invading Australian savannas, altering their ecological and biogeochemical function. To assess impacts on nitrogen (N) cycling, we quantified litter decomposition and N dynamics of grass litter in native grass and A. gayanus invaded savanna using destructive in situ grass litter harvests and litterbag incubations (soil surface and aerial position). Only 30% of the A. gayanus in situ litter decomposed, compared to 61% of the native grass litter, due to the former being largely comprised of highly resistant A...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916561/succinate-transport-is-not-essential-for-symbiotic-nitrogen-fixation-by-sinorhizobium-meliloti-nor-rhizobium-leguminosarum
#12
Michael J Mitsch, George C diCenzo, Alison Cowie, Turlough M Finan
Symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) is an energetically expensive process performed by bacteria during endosymbiotic relationships with plants. The bacteria require the plant to provide a carbon source for generation of reductant to power SNF. While C4-dicarboxylates (succinate, fumarate, malate) appear to be the primary, if not sole, carbon source provided to the bacteria, the contribution of each C4-dicarboxylate is not known. We address this issue using a genetic and systems-level analyses. Expression of a malate specific transporter (MaeP) in Sinorhizobium meliloti Rm1021 dct mutants unable to transport C4-dicarboxylates resulted in malate import rates up to 30% that of wild type...
September 15, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914414/novel-insights-in-biopurification-system-for-dissipation-of-a-pesticide-mixture-in-repeated-applications
#13
Maria Cristina Diez, Bárbara Leiva, Felipe Gallardo
A biopurification system based on the adsorption and degradation capacity of a biomixture to degrade a mixture of pesticides (atrazine, chlorpyrifos, iprodione; 50 mg kg(-1) each) in repeated applications (0, 30, and 60 days) was evaluated. Tanks of 1 m(3) packed with a biomixture (ρ 0.29 g mL(-1)) with and without vegetal cover were used. The biomixture contained soil, peat, and wheat straw in a proportion 1:1:2 by volume, respectively. Pesticide concentrations, biological activities (urease, phenoloxidase, and dehydrogenase), and microbial community changes (DGGE and qPCR) were evaluated periodically...
September 15, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913719/green-garden-snail-cantareus-apertus-as-biomonitor-and-sentinel-for-integrative-metal-pollution-assessment-in-roadside-soils
#14
Anwar Mleiki, Ionan Marigómez, Najoua Trigui El Menif
The present investigation was conceived to study, in a small scale field study, the potential of the green garden snail, Cantareus apertus, as biomonitor and sentinel for integrative metal pollution assessment in soils. For this purpose, we investigated the association between the trace metal (Cd, Pb, As, Fe, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn) concentrations in soil, plants (Trifolium repens), and C. apertus depending on the distance (20, 150, and 700 m) from a main roadside in Tunisia as well as between metal concentrations and biomarkers of oxidative stress, oxidative damage, and neurotoxicity in C...
September 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910694/an-epidemiologic-perspective-on-the-stem-cell-hypothesis-in-human-carcinogenesis
#15
REVIEW
David Schottenfeld
BACKGROUND: Tomasetti and Vogelstein have hypothesized that the patterns of cancer incidence in various cells and tissues are highly correlated with the estimated lifetime number of stem cell divisions. The authors reviewed the risks in tissues of 17 types of cancer from the United States and 69 additional countries. Positive correlations were observed consistently between the tissue - specific cancer incidence and the estimated lifetime number of stem cell divisions. The authors concluded that approximately two-thirds of global cancer incidence may be attributed to random DNA replication errors...
September 11, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902284/retrieving-ascarid-and-taeniid-eggs-from-the-biological-remains-of-a-neolithic-dog-from-the-late-9th-millennium-bc-in-western-iran
#16
Niloofar Paknezhad, Farbod Haji Mazdarani, Morteza Hessari, Iraj Mobedi, Faezeh Najafi, Negar Bizhani, Mahsasadat Makki, Gholamreza Hassanpour, Gholamreza Mowlavi
BACKGROUND: Paleoparasitology reveals the status of parasitic infections in humans and animals in ancient times based on parasitic particles found in biological remains from archaeological excavations. This line of research emerged in Iran in 2013. OBJECTIVE: The identification of parasites from Neolithic times is an attractive subject that shows the oldest origins of parasitic infections in a given geographical region. From an archaeological point of view, this archaeological site is well-known for animal domestication and agriculture in ancient Iran...
September 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899504/horizontal-natural-product-transfer-a-potential-source-of-alkaloidal-contaminants-in-phytopharmaceuticals
#17
Mahdi Yahyazadeh, Melanie Nowak, Heiko Kima, Dirk Selmar
BACKGROUND: It was recently shown that nicotine and pyrrolizidine alkaloids that leach out from decomposing plant material (donor plants) are subsequently taken up by the roots of acceptor plants and translocated into their leaves. Furthermore, it is well established that plant roots take up xenobiotics, generally by simple diffusion, and that this passive import depends on the physico-chemical properties of the substances. HYPOTHESIS: Based on the well-known uptake of xenobiotics, we assumed that in analogy, the uptake of alkaloids, which are leached out from plant material (donor plants) represents a quite general feature of plant biology...
October 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894273/impacts-of-aquaculture-wastewater-irrigation-on-soil-microbial-functional-diversity-and-community-structure-in-arid-regions
#18
Lijuan Chen, Qi Feng, Changsheng Li, Yongping Wei, Yan Zhao, Yongjiu Feng, Hang Zheng, Fengrui Li, Huiya Li
Aquaculture wastewater is one of the most important alternative water resources in arid regions where scarcity of fresh water is common. Irrigation with this kind of water may affect soil microbial functional diversity and community structure as changes of soil environment would be significant. Here, we conducted a field sampling to investigate these effects using Biolog and metagenomic methods. The results demonstrated that irrigation with aquaculture wastewater could dramatically reduce soil microbial functional diversity...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890580/the-role-of-compost-in-stabilizing-the-microbiological-and-biochemical-properties-of-zinc-stressed-soil
#19
Rafał Strachel, Jadwiga Wyszkowska, Małgorzata Baćmaga
The progressive development of civilization and intensive industrialization has contributed to the global pollution of the natural environment by heavy metals, especially the soil. Degraded soils generally contain less organic matter, and thus, their homeostasis is more often disturbed, which in turn manifests in changes in biological and physicochemical properties of the soil. Therefore, new possibilities and solutions for possible neutralization of these contaminations are sought, inter alia, through reclamation of degraded land...
2017: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887580/removal-of-two-high-molecular-weight-pahs-from-soils-with-different-water-content
#20
Lilia Corona, Luc Dendooven, Anaí Chicken, Omar Hernández, Rosario Iturbe
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as benz[a]anthracene (BA) and dibenz[a,h]anthracene (DBA), which are considered toxic, are frequently found in contaminated soils in Mexico. A laboratory-scale study monitored the degradation of the mixture of these two PAHs in three soils from different Mexican states (Tabasco, Morelos and Veracruz), each with different organic matter content, particle size distribution and incubated under different water content conditions. The hydrocarbons were extracted using microwave digestion and quantified by GC/MS...
September 8, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
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