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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108922/association-between-heavy-metal-and-metalloid-levels-in-topsoil-and-cancer-mortality-in-spain
#1
Olivier Núñez, Pablo Fernández-Navarro, Iván Martín-Méndez, Alejandro Bel-Lan, Juan F Locutura Rupérez, Gonzalo López-Abente
Spatio-temporal cancer mortality studies in Spain have revealed patterns for some tumours which display a distribution that is similar across the sexes and persists over time. Such characteristics would be common to tumours that shared risk factors, including the geochemical composition of the soil. The aim of this study was to assess the possible association between heavy metal and metalloid levels in topsoil (upper soil horizon) and cancer mortality in mainland Spain. Ecological cancer mortality study at a municipal level, covering 861,440 cancer deaths (27 different tumour locations) in 7917 Spanish mainland towns, from 1999 to 2008...
January 20, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107448/potential-of-endophytic-fungi-isolated-from-cotton-roots-for-biological-control-against-verticillium-wilt-disease
#2
Yuan Yuan, Hongjie Feng, Lingfei Wang, Zhifang Li, Yongqiang Shi, LiHong Zhao, Zili Feng, Heqin Zhu
Verticillium wilt is a soil-borne disease, and severely limits the development of cotton production. To investigate the role of endophytic fungi on Verticillium wilt, CEF-818 (Penicillium simplicissimum), CEF-714 (Leptosphaeria sp.), CEF-642 (Talaromyces flavus.) and CEF-193 (Acremonium sp.) isolated from cotton roots were used to assess their effects against cotton wilt disease caused by a defoliating V. dahliae strain Vd080. In the greenhouse, all treatments significantly reduced disease incidence and disease index, with the control efficacy ranging from 26% (CEF-642) to 67% (CEF-818) at 25 days (d) after inoculation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106264/role-of-microbial-inoculation-and-industrial-by-product-phosphogypsum-on-growth-and-nutrients-uptake-of-maize-zea-mays-l-grown-in-calcareous-soil
#3
Abdul-Aziz R Al-Enazy, Saud S Al-Oud, Fahad N Al-Barakah, R A Adel, Usman
BACKGROUND: Alkaline soils with high calcium carbonate and low organic matter are deficient in plant nutrients availability. Use of organic and bio-fertilizers has been suggested to improve their properties. Therefore, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the integrative role of phosphogypsum (PG; added at 0.0, 10, 30, and 50 g PG kg(-1) ), cow manure (CM; added at 50 g kg(-1) ) and mixed microbial inoculation (Incl; Azotobacter chroococcum, phosphate-solubilizing bacterium of Bacillus megaterium var...
January 20, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105488/effects-of-ceo2-nanoparticles-on-terrestrial-isopod-porcellio-scaber-comparison-of-ceo2-biological-potential-with-other-nanoparticles
#4
Olga Malev, Polonca Trebše, Małgorzata Piecha, Sara Novak, Bojan Budič, Miroslav D Dramićanin, Damjana Drobne
Nano-sized cerium dioxide (CeO2) particles are emerging as an environmental issue due to their extensive use in automobile industries as fuel additives. Limited information is available on the potential toxicity of CeO2 nanoparticles (NPs) on terrestrial invertebrates through dietary exposure. In the present study, the toxic effects of CeO2 NPs on the model soil organism Porcellio scaber were evaluated. Nanotoxicity was assessed by monitoring the lipid peroxidation (LP) level and feeding rate after 14-days exposure to food amended with nano CeO2...
January 19, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104370/unusual-reversible-elastomeric-gels-from-nostoc-commune
#5
Sol Rodriguez, Karen N Gonzales, Eduardo G Romero, Omar P Troncoso, Fernando G Torres
Nostoc commune cyanobacteria grow in extreme conditions of desiccation and nutrient-poor soils. Their colonies form spherical gelatinous bodies are composed of a variety of polysaccharides that allow them to store water and nutrients. In this paper, we study this type of biological gel that shows characteristics of both chemical and physical gels. The structure of this gel was assessed by means of scanning electron microscopy, plate-plate rheometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and absorption/desorption tests...
January 16, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104342/effects-of-waste-water-irrigation-on-soil-properties-and-soil-fauna-of-spinach-fields-in-a-west-african-urban-vegetable-production-system
#6
Kathrin Stenchly, Juliane Dao, Désiré Jean-Pascal Lompo, Andreas Buerkert
The usage of inadequately processed industrial waste water (WW) can lead to strong soil alkalinity and soil salinization of agricultural fields with negative consequences on soil properties and biota. Gypsum as a soil amendment to saline-sodic soils is widely used in agricultural fields to improve their soil physical, chemical and hence biological properties. This study aimed at analysing the effects of intensive WW irrigation on the structure and composition of soil-dwelling arthropods on spinach fields (Spinacia oleracea L...
January 16, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104330/evaluation-of-individual-and-combined-management-practices-to-reduce-the-off-site-transport-of-pesticides-from-golf-course-turf
#7
Pamela J Rice, Brian P Horgan, Jennifer L Hamlin
The detection of pesticides, associated with turfgrass management, in storm runoff and surface waters of urban watersheds has raised concerns regarding their source, potential environmental effects and a need for strategies to reduce their inputs. In previous research we discovered that hollow tine core cultivation (HTCC) was more effective than other management practices for reducing the off-site transport of pesticides with runoff from creeping bentgrass turf managed as a golf course fairway. This was primarily the result of enhanced infiltration and reduced runoff volumes associated with turf managed with hollow tines...
January 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102706/co-effect-of-phosphorus-and-cadmium-interaction-on-fraction-distribution-and-accumulation-of-phosphorus-in-mangrove-sediment-system
#8
Jingna Du, Junyi Yu
Mangrove (Kandelia obovata (S. L.)) seedlings were cultivated in rhizoboxes under different rates of phosphorus (P) and cadmium (Cd) level. The speciation distributions of P both in the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere sediments were examined using sequential extraction procedures. P contents in different Kandelia obovata (S.L.) tissues were also determined. Results showed that considerable differences existed in P speciation distribution between rhizosphere and bulk sediments. A higher proportion of iron-bound phosphate (Fe-P) was found in the rhizosphere sediments, while a relatively higher concentration of exchangeable phosphate (Ex-P) and Al-bound phosphate (Al-P) was found in the bulk sediments...
January 19, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102291/improvement-in-the-biochemical-and-chemical-properties-of-badland-soils-by-thorny-bamboo
#9
Yo-Jin Shiau, Hsueh-Ching Wang, Tsai-Huei Chen, Shih-Hau Jien, Guanglong Tian, Chih-Yu Chiu
Badland soils-which have high silt and clay contents, bulk density, and soil electric conductivity- cover a large area of Southern Taiwan. This study evaluated the amelioration of these poor soils by thorny bamboo, one of the few plant species that grows in badland soils. Soil physiochemical and biological parameters were measured from three thorny bamboo plantations and nearby bare lands. Results show that bamboo increased microbial C and N, soil acid-hydrolysable C, recalcitrant C, and soluble organic C of badland soils...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101613/estimation-of-anaerobic-debromination-rate-constants-of-pbde-pathways-using-an-anaerobic-dehalogenation-model
#10
Filiz Karakas, Ipek Imamoglu
This study aims to estimate anaerobic debromination rate constants (km) of PBDE pathways using previously reported laboratory soil data. km values of pathways are estimated by modifying a previously developed model as Anaerobic Dehalogenation Model. Debromination activities published in the literature in terms of bromine substitutions as well as specific microorganisms and their combinations are used for identification of pathways. The range of estimated km values is between 0.0003 and 0.0241 d(-1). The median and maximum of km values are found to be comparable to the few available biologically confirmed rate constants published in the literature...
January 19, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101272/isolation-and-characterization-of-agrobacterium-strains-from-soil-a-laboratory-capstone-experience
#11
Kim R Finer, Lee Fox, John J Finer
In this investigation, the students' goal was to isolate and characterize Agrobacterium strains from soil. Following selection and enrichment on 1A-t medium, putative Agrobacterium isolates were characterized by Gram stain reaction and biochemical tests. Isolates were further evaluated using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with different primer sets designed to amplify specific regions of bacterial deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Primer sets included AGRH to identify isolates that were members of the Rhizobiaceae, BIOVAR1 primers to identify members of Agrobacterium biovar group I, and a third set, VIRG, to determine presence of virG (only present in pathogenic Agrobacterium strains)...
December 2016: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100022/mycorrhizal-specificity-does-not-limit-the-distribution-of-an-endangered-orchid-species
#12
Michael Waud, Rein Brys, Wouter Van Landuyt, Bart Lievens, Hans Jacquemyn
What factors determine the distribution of a species is a central question in ecology and conservation biology. In general, the distribution of plant species is assumed to be controlled by dispersal or environmentally controlled recruitment. For plant species which are critically dependent on mycorrhizal symbionts for germination and seedling establishment, specificity in mycorrhizal associations and availability of suitable mycorrhizal fungi can be expected to have a major impact on successful colonization and establishment, and thus ultimately on a species distribution...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099772/exploring-the-symbiont-diversity-of-ancient-western-redcedars-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-of-long-lived-hosts
#13
Monika A Gorzelak, Brian J Pickles, Miranda M Hart
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are globally distributed, monophyletic root symbionts with ancient origins. Their contribution to carbon cycling and nutrient dynamics is ecologically important, given their obligate association with over 70% of vascular plant species. Current understanding of AMF species richness and community structure is based primarily on studies of grasses, herbs, and agricultural crops, typically in disturbed environments. Few studies have considered AMF interactions with long-lived woody perennial species in undisturbed ecosystems...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099457/comparing-and-evaluating-metagenome-assembly-tools-from-a-microbiologist-s-perspective-not-only-size-matters
#14
John Vollmers, Sandra Wiegand, Anne-Kristin Kaster
With the constant improvement in cost-efficiency and quality of Next Generation Sequencing technologies, shotgun-sequencing approaches -such as metagenomics- have nowadays become the methods of choice for studying and classifying microorganisms from various habitats. The production of data has dramatically increased over the past years and processing and analysis steps are becoming more and more of a bottleneck. Limiting factors are partly the availability of computational resources, but mainly the bioinformatics expertise in establishing and applying appropriate processing and analysis pipelines...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096488/novel-superspreader-bacteriophages-promote-horizontal-gene-transfer-by-transformation
#15
Eric C Keen, Valery V Bliskovsky, Francisco Malagon, James D Baker, Jeffrey S Prince, James S Klaus, Sankar L Adhya
: Bacteriophages infect an estimated 10(23) to 10(25) bacterial cells each second, many of which carry physiologically relevant plasmids (e.g., those encoding antibiotic resistance). However, even though phage-plasmid interactions occur on a massive scale and have potentially significant evolutionary, ecological, and biomedical implications, plasmid fate upon phage infection and lysis has not been investigated to date. Here we show that a subset of the natural lytic phage population, which we dub "superspreaders," releases substantial amounts of intact, transformable plasmid DNA upon lysis, thereby promoting horizontal gene transfer by transformation...
January 17, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095877/deciphering-composition-and-function-of-the-root-microbiome-of-a-legume-plant
#16
Kyle Hartman, Marcel Ga van der Heijden, Valexia Roussely-Provent, Jean-Claude Walser, Klaus Schlaeppi
BACKGROUND: Diverse assemblages of microbes colonize plant roots and collectively function as a microbiome. Earlier work has characterized the root microbiomes of numerous plant species, but little information is available for legumes despite their key role in numerous ecosystems including agricultural systems. Legumes form a root nodule symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing Rhizobia bacteria and thereby account for large, natural nitrogen inputs into soils. Here, we describe the root bacteria microbiome of the legume Trifolium pratense combining culture-dependent and independent methods...
January 17, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090647/the-multifaceted-role-of-extracellular-vesicles-in-metastasis-priming-the-soil-for-seeding
#17
REVIEW
Brunna Dos Anjos Pultz, Felipe Andrés Cordero da Luz, Sara Socorro Faria, Leandro Peixoto Ferreira de Souza, Paula Cristina Brígido Tavares, Vivian Alonso Goulart, Wagner Fontes, Luiz Ricardo Goulart, Marcelo José Barbosa Silva
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes, play a key role in inter and intracellular communication, promoting the proliferation and invasion of recipient cells to support tumor growth and metastasis. Metastasis comprises multiple steps that first include the detachment of tumor cells through epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), allowing the physical dissemination to distant organs. Thereafter, cancer-derived exosomes are still critical components for preparing the tumor microenvironment by (i) enabling tumor cells to escape from the immunological surveillance and (ii) arranging the pre-metastatic site for the engraftment of detached cancer cells...
January 16, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087942/the-mutualistic-interaction-between-plants-and-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi
#18
Luisa Lanfranco, Paola Bonfante, Andrea Genre
Mycorrhizal fungi belong to several taxa and develop mutualistic symbiotic associations with over 90% of all plant species, from liverworts to angiosperms. While descriptive approaches have dominated the initial studies of these fascinating symbioses, the advent of molecular biology, live cell imaging, and "omics" techniques have provided new and powerful tools to decipher the cellular and molecular mechanisms that rule mutualistic plant-fungus interactions. In this article we focus on the most common mycorrhizal association, arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM), which is formed by a group of soil fungi belonging to Glomeromycota...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078980/bioremediation-of-toxic-heavy-metals-a-patent-review
#19
Neelam Verma, Rajni Sharma
BACKGROUND: The global industrialization is fulfilling the demands of modern population at the cost of environmental exposure to various contaminants including heavy metals. These heavy metals affect water and soil quality. Moreover these enter into the food chain and exhibit their lethal effects on the human health even when present at slightly higher concentration than required for normal metabolism. To the worst of their part, the heavy metals may become carcinogenic. Henceforth, the efficient removal of heavy metals is the demand of sustainable development...
January 11, 2017: Recent Patents on Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078431/degradation-of-di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-by-a-novel-gordonia-alkanivorans-strain-yc-rl2
#20
Ruth Nahurira, Lei Ren, Jinlong Song, Yang Jia, Junhuan Wang, Shuanghu Fan, Haisheng Wang, Yanchun Yan
One bacterial strain, YC-RL2, isolated from petroleum-contaminated soil, could utilize environmental hormone Di(2-Ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) as a sole carbon source for growth. Strain YC-RL2 was identified as Gordonia alkanivorans by 16S rRNA gene analysis and Biolog tests. The effects of environmental factors which might affect the degrading process were optimized at 30 °C and pH 8.0. Strain YC-RL2 showed superior halotolerance and could tolerate up to 0-5% NaCl in trace element medium supplemented with DEHP, although the DEHP degradation rates slowed as NaCl concentration increased...
January 12, 2017: Current Microbiology
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