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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919332/effects-of-ionizing-radiation-on-the-mammalian-brain
#1
Daniela Hladik, Soile Tapio
Epidemiological studies on the atomic-bomb survivors, cancer survivors and occupational cohorts provide strong evidence for multifaceted damage to brain after ionizing radiation. Radiation-induced late effects may manifest as brain tumors or cognitive impairment. Decreased neurogenesis and differentiation, alteration in neural structure and synaptic plasticity as well as increased oxidative stress and inflammation are suggested to contribute to adverse effects in the brain. In addition to neural stems cells, several brain-specific mature cell types including endothelial and glial cells are negatively affected by ionizing radiation...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917183/responses-of-soil-microbial-biomass-and-enzyme-activities-to-tillage-and-fertilization-systems-in-soybean-glycine-max-l-production
#2
Gholamreza Heidari, Khosro Mohammadi, Yousef Sohrabi
Tillage operation and fertilizer type play important roles in soil properties as far as soil microbial condition is concerned. Information regarding the simultaneous evaluation of the effect of long-term tillage and fertilization on the soil microbial traits of soybean farms is not available. Accordingly, it was hypothesized that, the microbial biomass and enzyme activity, more often than not, respond quickly to changes in soil tillage and fertilization. Therefore, the experiments were aimed at analyzing the responses of soil microbial traits to tillage and fertilization in a soybean field in Kurdistan University, Iran...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917178/a-comparative-nitrogen-balance-and-productivity-analysis-of-legume-and-non-legume-supported-cropping-systems-the-potential-role-of-biological-nitrogen-fixation
#3
Pietro P M Iannetta, Mark Young, Johann Bachinger, Göran Bergkvist, Jordi Doltra, Rafael J Lopez-Bellido, Michele Monti, Valentini A Pappa, Moritz Reckling, Cairistiona F E Topp, Robin L Walker, Robert M Rees, Christine A Watson, Euan K James, Geoffrey R Squire, Graham S Begg
The potential of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) to provide sufficient N for production has encouraged re-appraisal of cropping systems that deploy legumes. It has been argued that legume-derived N can maintain productivity as an alternative to the application of mineral fertilizer, although few studies have systematically evaluated the effect of optimizing the balance between legumes and non N-fixing crops to optimize production. In addition, the shortage, or even absence in some regions, of measurements of BNF in crops and forages severely limits the ability to design and evaluate new legume-based agroecosystems...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917161/the-interaction-between-plants-and-bacteria-in-the-remediation-of-petroleum-hydrocarbons-an-environmental-perspective
#4
REVIEW
Panagiotis Gkorezis, Matteo Daghio, Andrea Franzetti, Jonathan D Van Hamme, Wouter Sillen, Jaco Vangronsveld
Widespread pollution of terrestrial ecosystems with petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) has generated a need for remediation and, given that many PHCs are biodegradable, bio- and phyto-remediation are often viable approaches for active and passive remediation. This review focuses on phytoremediation with particular interest on the interactions between and use of plant-associated bacteria to restore PHC polluted sites. Plant-associated bacteria include endophytic, phyllospheric, and rhizospheric bacteria, and cooperation between these bacteria and their host plants allows for greater plant survivability and treatment outcomes in contaminated sites...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917005/distinct-respiratory-responses-of-soils-to-complex-organic-substrate-are%C3%A2-governed-predominantly-by-soil-architecture-and-its-microbial-community
#5
F C Fraser, L C Todman, R Corstanje, L K Deeks, J A Harris, M Pawlett, A P Whitmore, K Ritz
Factors governing the turnover of organic matter (OM) added to soils, including substrate quality, climate, environment and biology, are well known, but their relative importance has been difficult to ascertain due to the interconnected nature of the soil system. This has made their inclusion in mechanistic models of OM turnover or nutrient cycling difficult despite the potential power of these models to unravel complex interactions. Using high temporal-resolution respirometery (6 min measurement intervals), we monitored the respiratory response of 67 soils sampled from across England and Wales over a 5 day period following the addition of a complex organic substrate (green barley powder)...
December 2016: Soil Biology & Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916820/biological-control-beneath-the-feet-a-review-of-crop-protection-against-insect-root-herbivores
#6
REVIEW
Alan Kergunteuil, Moe Bakhtiari, Ludovico Formenti, Zhenggao Xiao, Emmanuel Defossez, Sergio Rasmann
Sustainable agriculture is certainly one of the most important challenges at present, considering both human population demography and evidence showing that crop productivity based on chemical control is plateauing. While the environmental and health threats of conventional agriculture are increasing, ecological research is offering promising solutions for crop protection against herbivore pests. While most research has focused on aboveground systems, several major crop pests are uniquely feeding on roots. We here aim at documenting the current and potential use of several biological control agents, including micro-organisms (viruses, bacteria, fungi, and nematodes) and invertebrates included among the macrofauna of soils (arthropods and annelids) that are used against root herbivores...
November 29, 2016: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916135/integrating-chemical-imaging-of-cationic-trace-metal-solutes-and-ph-into-a-single-hydrogel-layer
#7
Christoph Hoefer, Jakob Santner, Sergey M Borisov, Walter W Wenzel, Markus Puschenreiter
Gel-based, two-dimensional (2D) chemical imaging techniques are versatile methods for investigating biogeochemically active environments at high spatial resolution (sub-mm). State-of-the-art solute imaging techniques, such as diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) and planar optodes (PO), employ passive solute sampling or sensing. Combining these methods will provide powerful tools for studying the biogeochemistry of biological niches in soils and sediments. In this study we aimed at developing a combined single-layer gel for direct pH imaging using PO and sampling of anionic and cationic solutes by DGT, with subsequent analysis of the bound solutes by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS)...
January 15, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915187/dose-response-models-and-a-quantitative-microbial-risk-assessment-framework-for-the-mycobacterium-avium-complex-that-account-for-recent-developments-in-molecular-biology-taxonomy-and-epidemiology
#8
REVIEW
Kerry A Hamilton, Mark H Weir, Charles N Haas
Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is a group of environmentally-transmitted pathogens of great public health importance. This group is known to be harbored, amplified, and selected for more human-virulent characteristics by amoeba species in aquatic biofilms. However, a quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) has not been performed due to the lack of dose response models resulting from significant heterogeneity within even a single species or subspecies of MAC, as well as the range of human susceptibilities to mycobacterial disease...
November 24, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913282/proteomics-provides-insights-into-biological-pathways-altered-by-plant-growth-promoting-bacteria-and-arbuscular-mycorrhiza-in-sorghum-grown-in-marginal-soil
#9
Faten Dhawi, Rupali Datta, Wusirika Ramakrishna
Sorghum is an economically important crop, a model system for gene discovery and a biofuel source. Sorghum seedlings were subjected to three microbial treatments, plant growth promoting bacteria (B), arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi mix with two Glomus species (G. aggregatum and G. etunicatum), Funelliformis mosseae and Rhizophagus irregularis (My), and B and My combined (My+B). Proteomic analysis was conducted followed by integration with metabolite, plant biomass and nutrient data. Out of 366 differentially expressed proteins in sorghum roots, 44 upregulated proteins overlapping among three treatment groups showed positive correlation with sorghum biomass or element uptake or both...
November 29, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913018/potential-impact-of-flowback-water-from-hydraulic-fracturing-on-agricultural-soil-quality-metal-metalloid-bioaccessibility-microtox-bioassay-and-enzyme-activities
#10
Season S Chen, Yuqing Sun, Daniel C W Tsang, Nigel J D Graham, Yong Sik Ok, Yujie Feng, Xiang-Dong Li
Hydraulic fracturing has advanced the development of shale gas extraction, while inadvertent spills of flowback water may pose a risk to the surrounding environment due to its high salt content, metals/metalloids (As, Se, Fe and Sr), and organic additives. This study investigated the potential impact of flowback water on four representative soils from shale gas regions in Northeast China using synthetic flowback solutions. The compositions of the solutions were representative of flowback water arising at different stages after fracturing well establishment...
November 29, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909941/degradation-and-half-life-of-dna-present-in-biomass-from-a-genetically-modified-organism-during-land-application
#11
Mathew C Halter, James A Zahn
White biotechnology has made a positive impact on the chemical industry by providing safer, more efficient chemical manufacturing processes that have reduced the use of toxic chemicals, harsh reaction conditions, and expensive metal catalysts, which has improved alignment with the principles of Green Chemistry. The genetically-modified (GM) biocatalysts that are utilized in these processes are typically separated from high-value products and then recycled, or eliminated. Elimination routes include disposal in sanitary landfills, incineration, use as a fuel, animal feed, or reuse as an agricultural soil amendment or other value-added products...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909444/smallholder-farms-and-the-potential-for-sustainable-intensification
#12
Leah M Mungai, Sieglinde Snapp, Joseph P Messina, Regis Chikowo, Alex Smith, Erin Anders, Robert B Richardson, Guiying Li
The sustainable intensification of African agriculture is gaining momentum with the compelling need to increase food and agricultural production. In Southern Africa, smallholder farming systems are predominately maize-based and subject to erratic climatic conditions. Farmer crop and soil management decisions are influenced by a plethora of complex factors such as market access resource availability, social relations, environment, and various messages on sustainable farming practices. Such factors pose barriers to increasing sustainable intensification in Africa...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907252/residential-yards-as-designer-ecosystems-effects-of-yard%C3%A2-management-on-land-snail-species-composition
#13
Elizabeth A Bergey, Laura L Figueroa
Residential yards comprise the majority of green space in urban landscapes, yet are an understudied system because of access issues and because yards may be considered biologically depauperate. Yards are purposely created and managed and, hence, qualify as designer ecosystems, a term borrowed from restoration ecology. We investigated whether yard management (watering regime, mulching, and chemical use) or dog presence affected land snail assemblage composition and described the pattern of native vs. nonnative species among yards...
December 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904937/separation-of-cyclic-lipopeptide-puwainaphycins-from-cyanobacteria-by-countercurrent-chromatography-combined-with-polymeric-resins-and-hplc
#14
José Cheel, Petra Urajová, Jan Hájek, Pavel Hrouzek, Marek Kuzma, Elodie Bouju, Karine Faure, Jiří Kopecký
Puwainaphycins are a recently described group of β-amino fatty acid cyclic lipopeptides of cyanobacterial origin that possess interesting biological activities. Therefore, the development of an efficient method for their isolation from natural sources is necessary. Following the consecutive adsorption of the crude extract on Amberlite XAD-16 and XAD-7 resins, countercurrent chromatography (CCC) was applied to separate seven puwainaphycin variants from a soil cyanobacterium (Cylindrospermum alatosporum CCALA 988)...
November 30, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902886/lateral-gene-transfer-of-p-cresol-and-indole-producing-enzymes-from-environmental-bacteria-to-mastigamoeba-balamuthi
#15
Eva Nývltová, Robert Šuťák, Vojtěch Žárský, Karel Harant, Ivan Hrdý, Jan Tachezy
p-Cresol and indole are volatile biologically active products of the bacterial degradation of tyrosine and tryptophan, respectively. They are typically produced by bacteria in animal intestines, soil and various sediments. Here, we demonstrate that the free-living eukaryote Mastigamoeba balamuthi and its pathogenic relative Entamoeba histolytica produce significant amounts of indole via tryptophanase activity. Unexpectedly, M. balamuthi also produces p-cresol in concentrations that are bacteriostatic to non-p-cresol-producing bacteria...
November 30, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902187/spirosoma-soli-sp-nov-isolated-from-biological-soil-crusts
#16
Shan Shan Yang, Kai Tang, Jie Xiao Zhang, Xia Jian Wang, Bing Xiao Wang, Ying Fu Feng, Heng Li
A Gram-negative, aerobic, short rod-shaped, non-motile, pale-yellow bacterial strain, was isolated from biological soil crusts collected in the desert of Kupuqi, Inner Mongolia of China, designated MIMBbqt12T. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain MIMBbqt12T was 49.5%. Phylogenetic analysis using 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain MIMBbqt12T belongs to the genus Spirosoma with the highest sequence similarity of 93.5% to Spirosoma arcticum R2-35T. The major fatty acids of strain MIMBbqt12T were C16:0, iso-C15:0, iso-C17:03-OH, C16:1ɷ5c and summed feature 3 (C16:1ɷ6c and/or C16:1ɷ7c)...
October 9, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901632/methane-oxidation-in-a-landfill-cover-soil-reactor-changing-of-kinetic-parameters-and-microorganism-community-structure
#17
Zhi L Xing, Tian T Zhao, Yan H Gao, Xu Yang, Shuai Liu, Xu Y Peng
Changing of CH4 oxidation potential and biological characteristics with CH4 concentration was studied in a landfill cover soil reactor (LCSR). The maximum rate of CH4 oxidation reached 32.40 mol d(-1) m(-2) by providing sufficient O2 in the LCSR. The kinetic parameters of methane oxidation in landfill cover soil were obtained by fitting substrate diffusion and consumption model based on the concentration profile of CH4 and O2. The values of [Formula: see text] (0.93-2.29%) and [Formula: see text] (140-524 nmol kgsoil-DW(-1)·s(-1)) increased with CH4 concentration (9...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901123/hill-number-as-a-bacterial-diversity-measure-framework-with-high-throughput-sequence-data
#18
Sanghoon Kang, Jorge L M Rodrigues, Justin P Ng, Terry J Gentry
Bacterial diversity is an important parameter for measuring bacterial contributions to the global ecosystem. However, even the task of describing bacterial diversity is challenging due to biological and technological difficulties. One of the challenges in bacterial diversity estimation is the appropriate measure of rare taxa, but the uncertainty of the size of rare biosphere is yet to be experimentally determined. One approach is using the generalized diversity, Hill number (Na), to control the variability associated with rare taxa by differentially weighing them...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898802/nutrient-cycling-in-grassed-roadside-ditches-and-lawns-in-a-suburban-watershed
#19
Lauren E McPhillips, Peter M Groffman, Rebecca L Schneider, M Todd Walter
Roadside ditches are ubiquitous in developed landscapes. They are designed to route water from roads for safety, with little consideration of water quality or biogeochemical implications in ditch design and minimal data on environmental impacts. We hypothesize that periodic saturation and nutrient influxes may make roadside ditches hotspots for nitrogen (N) removal via denitrification as well as biological production of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) nitrous oxide (NO), methane (CH), and carbon dioxide (CO). Research sites included 12 grassed ditches and adjacent lawns with varying fertilization in a suburban watershed in central New York, where lawns represented a reference with similar soils as ditches but differing hydrology...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898783/production-of-biomass-crops-using-biowastes-on-low-fertility-soil-2-effect-of-biowastes-on-nitrogen-transformation-processes
#20
J Esperschuetz, S Bulman, C Anderson, O Lense, J Horswell, N Dickinson, B H Robinson
Increasing production of biowastes, particularly biosolids (sewage sludge), requires sustainable management strategies for their disposal. Biosolids can contain high concentrations of nutrients; hence, land application can have positive effects on plant growth and soil fertility, especially when applied to degraded soils. However, high rates of biosolids application may result in excessive nitrogen (N) leaching, which can be mitigated by blending biosolids with other biowastes, such as sawdust. We aimed to determine the effects of biosolids and sawdust on growth and N uptake by sorghum, rapeseed, and ryegrass as well as N losses via leaching...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
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