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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813440/invasive-australian-acacia-seed-banks-size-and-relationship-with-stem-diameter-in-the-presence-of-gall-forming-biological-control-agents
#1
Matthys Strydom, Ruan Veldtman, Mzabalazo Z Ngwenya, Karen J Esler
Australian Acacia are invasive in many parts of the world. Despite significant mechanical and biological efforts to control their invasion and spread, soil-stored seed banks prevent their effective and sustained removal. In response South Africa has had a strong focus on employing seed reducing biological control agents to deal with Australian Acacia invasion, a programme that is considered as being successful. To provide a predictive understanding for their management, seed banks of four invasive Australian acacia species (Acacia longifolia, A...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811145/characterization-of-methane-oxidation-in-a-simulated-landfill-cover-system-by-comparing-molecular-and-stable-isotope-mass-balances
#2
Marcel Schulte, Maik A Jochmann, Tobias Gehrke, Andrea Thom, Tim Ricken, Martin Denecke, Torsten C Schmidt
Biological methane oxidation may be regarded as a method of aftercare treatment for landfills to reduce climate relevant methane emissions. It is of social and economic interest to estimate the behavior of bacterial methane oxidation in aged landfill covers due to an adequate long-term treatment of the gas emissions. Different approaches assessing methane oxidation in laboratory column studies have been investigated by other authors recently. However, this work represents the first study in which three independent approaches, ((i) mass balance, (ii) stable isotope analysis, and (iii) stoichiometric balance of product (CO2) and reactant (CH4) by CO2/CH4-ratio) have been compared for the estimation of the biodegradation by a robust statistical validation on a rectangular, wide soil column...
August 12, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810231/cr-induced-cellular-injury-and-necrosis-in-glycine-max-l-biochemical-mechanism-of-oxidative-damage-in-chloroplast
#3
Kalimuthu Balasaraswathi, Sivalingam Jayaveni, Janardhanam Sridevi, Dhanasingh Sujatha, Kavati Phebe Aaron, Chellan Rose
Chromium-induced toxicity and mechanisms of cell death involved in plants are yet to be fully elucidated. To understand the events of these processes, the stress response of the soybean plant using trivalent and hexavalent chromium compounds, namely, basic chromium sulphate (BCS) and potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) was investigated. The leaf surface morphology for stomatal aperture, wax deposition and presence of trichomes for chromium accumulation was examined by SEM-EDAX and light microscopy. The leaf mesophyll cell integrity was identified by trypan blue staining; chlorophyll autofluorescence, ROS generation and mitochondrial function were studied by fluorescence microscopy using different dyes...
August 2, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806672/a-novel-approach-for-rapidly-and-cost-effectively-assessing-toxicity-of-toxic-metals-in-acidic-water-using-an-acidophilic-iron-oxidizing-biosensor
#4
Shih-Hung Yang, Kuo-Chih Cheng, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan Liao
Contamination by heavy metals and metalloids is a serious environmental and health concern. Acidic wastewaters are often associated with toxic metals which may enter and spread into agricultural soils. Several biological assays have been developed to detect toxic metals; however, most of them can only detect toxic metals in a neutral pH, not in an acidic environment. In this study, an acidophilic iron-oxidizing bacterium (IOB) Strain Y10 was isolated, characterized, and used to detect toxic metals toxicity in acidic water at pH 2...
August 6, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806652/applicability-of-alkaline-precipitation-for-the-recovery-of-edds-spent-solution
#5
Marco Race
This paper presents an innovative procedure for the recovery of SS-ethylenediamine-N,N'-disuccinic acid (EDDS) solution used for soil washing processes. The procedure is derived from that applied for the recovery of ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid (EDTA), modifying and optimizing the choice of the chemical agents used for the protonation of the chelant, the exchange of the metals, and the final precipitation of the unwanted compounds. To select the reagents and test the proposed approach, an experimental study was conducted on real EDDS spent solutions, obtained washing a Cu and Zn real contaminated soil...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806549/liming-impacts-on-soils-crops-and-biodiversity-in-the-uk-a-review
#6
REVIEW
J E Holland, A E Bennett, A C Newton, P J White, B M McKenzie, T S George, R J Pakeman, J S Bailey, D A Fornara, R C Hayes
Fertile soil is fundamental to our ability to achieve food security, but problems with soil degradation (such as acidification) are exacerbated by poor management. Consequently, there is a need to better understand management approaches that deliver multiple ecosystem services from agricultural land. There is global interest in sustainable soil management including the re-evaluation of existing management practices. Liming is a long established practice to ameliorate acidic soils and many liming-induced changes are well understood...
August 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805166/the-influence-of-organic-matter-content-and-media-compaction-on-the-dispersal-of-entomopathogenic-nematodes-with-different-foraging-strategies
#7
Apostolos Kapranas, Abigail M D Maher, Christine T Griffin
In laboratory experiments, we investigated how media with varying ratio of peat:sand and two levels of compaction influence dispersal success of entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) species with different foraging strategies: Steinernema carpocapsae (ambusher), Heterorhabditis downesi (cruiser) and Steinernema feltiae (intermediate). Success was measured by the numbers of nematodes moving through a 4 cm column and invading a wax moth larva. We found that both compaction and increasing peat content generally decreased EPN infective juvenile (IJ) success for all three species...
August 14, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803908/comparative-analysis-of-basidiomycete-transcriptomes-reveals-a-core-set-of-expressed-genes-encoding-plant-biomass-degrading-enzymes
#8
Mao Peng, Maria Victoria Aguilar-Pontes, Matthieu Hainaut, Bernard Henrissat, Kristiina Hildén, Miia R Mäkelä, Ronald P de Vries
Basidiomycete fungi can degrade a wide range of plant biomass, including living and dead trees, forest litter, crops, and plant matter in soils. Understanding the process of plant biomass decay by basidiomycetes could facilitate their application in various industrial sectors such as food & feed, detergent, and biofuels, and also provide new insights into their essential biological role in the global carbon cycle. The fast expansion of basidiomycete genomic and functional genomics data (e.g. transcriptomics, proteomics) has facilitated exploration of key genes and regulatory mechanisms of plant biomass degradation...
August 10, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803869/metabolic-flexibility-underpins-growth-capabilities-of-the-fastest-growing-alga
#9
Haim Treves, Omer Murik, Isaac Kedem, Doron Eisenstadt, Sagit Meir, Ilana Rogachev, Jedrzej Szymanski, Nir Keren, Isabel Orf, Antonio F Tiburcio, Rubén Alcázar, Asaph Aharoni, Joachim Kopka, Aaron Kaplan
The factors rate-limiting growth of photosynthetic organisms under optimal conditions are controversial [1-8]. Adaptation to extreme environments is usually accompanied by reduced performance under optimal conditions [9, 10]. However, the green alga Chlorella ohadii, isolated from a harsh desert biological soil crust [11-17], does not obey this rule. In addition to resistance to photodamage [17, 18], it performs the fastest growth ever reported for photosynthetic eukaryotes. A multiphasic growth pattern (very fast growth [phase I], followed by growth retardation [phase II] and additional fast growth [phase III]) observed under constant illumination and temperature indicates synchronization of the algal population...
August 3, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802993/microbial-community-structure-and-activity-in-trace-element-contaminated-soils-phytomanaged-by-gentle-remediation-options-gro
#10
M Touceda-González, Á Prieto-Fernández, G Renella, L Giagnoni, A Sessitsch, G Brader, J Kumpiene, I Dimitriou, J Eriksson, W Friesl-Hanl, R Galazka, J Janssen, M Mench, I Müller, S Neu, M Puschenreiter, G Siebielec, J Vangronsveld, P S Kidd
Gentle remediation options (GRO) are based on the combined use of plants, associated microorganisms and soil amendments, which can potentially restore soil functions and quality. We studied the effects of three GRO (aided-phytostabilisation, in situ stabilisation and phytoexclusion, and aided-phytoextraction) on the soil microbial biomass and respiration, the activities of hydrolase enzymes involved in the biogeochemical cycles of C, N, P, and S, and bacterial community structure of trace element contaminated soils (TECS) from six field trials across Europe...
August 10, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802879/quadrulella-texcalense-sp-nov-from-a-mexican-desert-an-unexpected-new-environment-for-hyalospheniid-testate-amoebae
#11
Horacio Pérez-Juárez, Angélica Serrano-Vázquez, Anush Kosakyan, Edward A D Mitchell, Víctor M Rivera Aguilar, Daniel J G Lahr, Mayra M Hernández Moreno, Humberto Macías Cuellar, Luis E Eguiarte, Enrique Lara
Quadrulella (Amoebozoa, Arcellinida, Hyalospheniidae) is a genus of testate amoebae with unmistakable morphology, which secretes characteristic square plates to reinforce the test. They are mainly known from fens and freshwater habitats and have never been documented in deserts. We describe a new species, Quadrulella texcalense, from biological soil crusts in the intertropical desert of Tehuacán (state of Puebla, Mexico). Quadrulella texcalense occurred only at altitudes between 2140 and 2221m.a.s.l., together with the bryophyte genera Pseudocrossidium, Weissia, Bryum, Didymodon, Neohyophyla and Aloina...
July 17, 2017: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802130/trends-in-the-recovery-of-phosphorus-in-bioavailable-forms-from-wastewater
#12
REVIEW
Patrick M Melia, Andrew B Cundy, Saran P Sohi, Peter S Hooda, Rosa Busquets
Addressing food security issues arising from phosphorus (P) scarcity is described as one of the greatest global challenges of the 21st Century. Dependence on inorganic phosphate fertilisers derived from limited geological sources of P creates an urgent need to recover P from wastes and treated waters, in safe forms that are also effective agriculturally - the established process of P removal by chemical precipitation using Fe or Al salts, is effective for P removal but leads to residues with limited bioavailability and contamination concerns...
July 25, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798760/striking-the-right-chord-signaling-enigma-during-root-gravitropism
#13
REVIEW
Manjul Singh, Aditi Gupta, Ashverya Laxmi
Plants being sessile can often be judged as passive acceptors of their environment. However, plants are actually even more active in responding to the factors from their surroundings. Plants do not have eyes, ears or vestibular system like animals, still they "know" which way is up and which way is down? This is facilitated by receptor molecules within plant which perceive changes in internal and external conditions such as light, touch, obstacles; and initiate signaling pathways that enable the plant to react...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798755/pearl-millet-genetic-traits-shape-rhizobacterial-diversity-and-modulate-rhizosphere-aggregation
#14
Papa M S Ndour, Mariama Gueye, Mohamed Barakat, Philippe Ortet, Marie Bertrand-Huleux, Anne-Laure Pablo, Damien Dezette, Lydie Chapuis-Lardy, Komi Assigbetsé, Ndjido Ardo Kane, Yves Vigouroux, Wafa Achouak, Ibrahima Ndoye, Thierry Heulin, Laurent Cournac
Root exudation contributes to soil carbon allocation and also to microbial C and energy supply, which subsequently impacts soil aggregation around roots. Biologically-driven soil structural formation is an important driver of soil fertility. Plant genetic determinants of exudation and more generally of factors promoting rhizosphere soil aggregation are largely unknown. Here, we characterized rhizosphere aggregation in a panel of 86 pearl millet inbred lines using a ratio of root-adhering soil dry mass per root tissue dry mass (RAS/RT)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797634/ecological-distribution-of-extremely-thermophilic-bacteria-belonging-to-the-genus-calditerricola-using-the-novel-enrichment-mpn-pcr-method
#15
Kathrina Mae Bienes, Minoru Ito, Kota Shiotsuka, Sachi Yamaguchi, Taiki Fujioka, Yukihiro Tashiro, Kenji Sakai
A unique compost called Satsuma soil is produced from sewage sludge by a hyperthermal composting process in Kagoshima City, Japan. The composting process is carried out at a controlled temperature of at least 80°C and the resulting compost might be useful for recycling sustainable agricultural products. The extremely thermophilic bacterial genus Calditerricola was initially isolated from the high-temperature compost. Likewise, the bacteria were previously isolated from material sludge. It is believed that bacteria in this genus might be involved in the hyperthermal composting process...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791504/the-effects-of-grazing-intensity-on-soil-processes-in-a-mediterranean-protected-area
#16
Evaggelia Panayiotou, Maria Dimou, Nikolaos Monokrousos
We investigated the temporal and among-site differentiation of soil functionality properties in fields under different grazing intensities (heavy and light) and compared them to those found in their adjacent hedgerows, consisting either of wooden shrubs (Rubus canescens) or of high trees (Populus sp.), during the cold and humid seasons of the year. We hypothesized that greater intensity of grazing would result in higher degradation of the soil system. The grazing factor had a significant effect on soil organic C and N, microbial biomass C, microbial biomass N, microbial activity, and β-glucosidase, while acid phosphatase and urease activity were not found to differ significantly among the management systems...
August 8, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790328/desiccation-tolerance-in-bryophytes-the-dehydration-and-rehydration-transcriptomes-in-the-desiccation-tolerant-bryophyte-bryum-argenteum
#17
Bei Gao, Xiaoshuang Li, Daoyuan Zhang, Yuqing Liang, Honglan Yang, Moxian Chen, Yuanming Zhang, Jianhua Zhang, Andrew J Wood
The desiccation tolerant bryophyte Bryum argenteum is an important component of desert biological soil crusts (BSCs) and is emerging as a model system for studying vegetative desiccation tolerance. Here we present and analyze the hydration-dehydration-rehydration transcriptomes in B. argenteum to establish a desiccation-tolerance transcriptomic atlas. B. argenteum gametophores representing five different hydration stages (hydrated (H0), dehydrated for 2 h (D2), 24 h (D24), then rehydrated for 2 h (R2) and 48 h (R48)), were sampled for transcriptome analyses...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783074/in-field-habitat-management-to-optimize-pest-control-of-novel-soil-communities-in-agroecosystems
#18
REVIEW
Kirsten A Pearsons, John F Tooker
The challenge of managing agroecosystems on a landscape scale and the novel structure of soil communities in agroecosystems both provide reason to focus on in-field management practices, including cover crop adoption, reduced tillage, and judicial pesticide use, to promote soil community diversity. Belowground and epigeal arthropods, especially exotic generalist predators, play a significant role in controlling insect pests, weeds, and pathogens in agroecosystems. However, the preventative pest management tactics that dominate field-crop production in the United States do not promote biological control...
August 5, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780106/economic-effect-of-reducing-nitrogen-and-phosphorus-mass-balance-on-wisconsin-and-qu%C3%A3-bec-dairy-farms
#19
D Pellerin, E Charbonneau, L Fadul-Pacheco, O Soucy, M A Wattiaux
Our objective was to explore the trade-offs between economic performance (farm net income, FNI) and environmental outcomes (whole-farm P and N balances) of dairy farms in Wisconsin (WI; United States) and Québec (QC; Canada). An Excel-based linear program model (N-CyCLES; nutrient cycling: crops, livestock, environment, and soil) was developed to optimize feeding, cropping, and manure management as a single unit of management. In addition to FNI, P and N balances model outputs included (1) the mix of up to 9 home-grown and 17 purchased feeds for up to 5 animal groups, (2) the mix of up to 5 crop rotations in up to 5 land units and c) the mix of up to 7 fertilizers (solid and liquid manure and 5 commercial fertilizers) to allocate in each land unit...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778006/nitrogen-mineralisation-and-greenhouse-gas-emission-from-the-soil-application-of-sludge-from-reed-bed-mineralisation-systems
#20
B Gómez-Muñoz, J D Larsen, G Bekiaris, C Scheutz, S Bruun, S Nielsen, L S Jensen
A sludge treatment reed bed system (STRB) is a technology used for dewatering and stabilising sewage sludge via assisted biological mineralisation, which creates a sludge residue suitable for use as fertiliser on agricultural land. We evaluated the effect of sludge residue storage time (stabilisation time) for three STRBs on soil N mineralisation and CO2 and N2O emissions in soil. The experiment revealed that the N mineralisation rate and emissions of CO2 and N2O decreased as a function of treatment time in the STRBs...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
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