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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618649/brain-large-artery-lymphocytic-inflammation-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus-related-brain-arterial-remodeling
#1
Adele Shenoy, Andrew Dwork, Mitchell S V Elkind, Randolph Marshall, Susan Morgello, Jose Gutierrez
The pathogenesis of increased stroke risk in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) remains unclear. Our study investigated the relationship between adventitial and intimal CD3+ T cells and brain arterial remodeling that potentially contributes to HIV-related vasculopathy and stroke. Large brain arteries from 84 HIV+ cases and 78 HIV- cases were analyzed to determine interadventitial and luminal diameters, intimal and wall thickness, percentage stenosis, and presence of atherosclerosis. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed to detect and visually score CD3, a pan T cell marker, in the intima and adventitia...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604976/hiv-infection-and-stroke
#2
Laura Benjamin, Saye Khoo
The landscape of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is changing with the increasing coverage of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Patients are living longer but continually exposed to a virologically suppressed HIV infection. This has resulted in a decrease in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related complications such as opportunistic infections, and an increase in non-AIDS complications such as stroke. In this era, stroke is perhaps the most important neurologic complication of HIV infection...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454181/brainstem-dysfunction-heralding-disseminated-cryptococcosis
#3
Prachaya Srivanitchapoom, Yuvadee Pitakpatapee, Panitta Sitthinamsuwan, Sith Sathornsumetee
Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis is one of the most common central nervous system infections affecting immunocompromised patients. However, brainstem involvement is extremely rare and may represent a diagnostic challenge to clinicians. We report a non-HIV infected, chronically immunosuppressed, patient with fatal disseminated cryptococcosis presented with subcutaneous masses at both thighs and progressive brainstem dysfunction. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated multiple brainstem infarcts likely derived from small vessel vasculopathy...
April 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138020/moyamoya-syndrome-in-a-pediatric-patient-with-congenital-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-infection-resulting-in-intracranial-hemorrhage
#4
Junko Yamanaka, Ikuma Nozaki, Mizue Tanaka, Hideko Uryuu, Noriko Sato, Takeji Matsushita, Hiroyuki Shichino
In the era of Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) in which human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection affected children can expect a better prognosis, the importance of careful follow up of pediatric HIV-1 cases for neurological complications has been growing. We present a case of hemorrhagic Moyamoya syndrome in a child with congenital HIV-1 infection. A 10-year-old girl was referred to our hospital for the treatment of Pneumocystis Jirovecii Pneumonia (PCP: Pneumocystis pneumonia). Her HIV-1 control was poor and Moyamoya syndrome was found during the opportunistic infection screening at admission...
March 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108855/hiv-patients-healthy-aging-and-transplant-recipients-can-reveal-the-hidden-footprints-of-cmv
#5
REVIEW
Shelley Waters, Emily Brook, Silvia Lee, Riwanti Estiasari, Ibnu Ariyanto, Patricia Price
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a β-herpesvirus. Latent infections are common in all populations. However age-associated increases in levels of CMV-reactive antibody are testament to repeated reactivations and periods of viral replication. CMV has been associated with several diseases of aging, including vasculopathy and neurocognitive impairment. These conditions occur at a younger age in persons with particularly high burdens of CMV - transplant recipients and people living with HIV. Here we define the "clinical footprints" as immunopathologies triggered by CMV that develop over many years...
February 2018: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931222/the-role-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-associated-vasculopathy-in-the-etiology-of-stroke
#6
Laura A Benjamin, Theresa J Allain, Henry Mzinganjira, Myles D Connor, Colin Smith, Sebastian Lucas, Elizabeth Joekes, Sam Kampondeni, Karen Chetcuti, Ian Turnbull, Mark Hopkins, Steve Kamiza, Elizabeth L Corbett, Robert S Heyderman, Tom Solomon
Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a recognized risk factor for stroke among young populations, but the exact mechanisms are poorly understood. We studied the clinical, radiologic, and histologic features of HIV-related ischemic stroke to gain insight into the disease mechanisms. Methods: We conducted a prospective, in-depth analysis of adult ischemic stroke patients presenting to Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi, in 2011...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893009/intracranial-aneurysms-involving-circle-of-willis-in-a-child-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-associated-vasculitis-a-rare-case-report
#7
Amol Madanlal Lahoti, Abhijit Kishor Taori, Avinash Parashuram Dhok, Jitesh Subhash Rawat, Nihar Umakant Chandak
Intracranial Arterial Aneurysms (IAAs) are relatively rare in paediatric population and they account for at least 10%-15% of haemorrhagic strokes which occur during the first two decades of life. Here we present a unique and unusual case of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infected child who presented with intracranial aneurysms with formation of collaterals and vasculopathy, demonstrating low viral count despite receiving adequate antiretroviral treatment. Intracranial vascular involvement, their complications and its incidence in these patients may become increasingly common as the management of human immunodeficiency virus infection continues to improve and afflicted patients survive for longer periods because of advancement in the antiretroviral treatment...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874783/hyperactive-tgf-%C3%AE-signaling-in-smooth-muscle-cells-exposed-to-hiv-protein-s-and-cocaine-role-in-pulmonary-vasculopathy
#8
Pranjali Dalvi, Himanshu Sharma, Tomara Konstantinova, Miles Sanderson, Amy O' Brien-Ladner, Navneet K Dhillon
We earlier demonstrated synergistic increase in the proliferation of pulmonary smooth muscle cells on exposure to HIV-proteins and/or cocaine due to severe down-modulation of bone morphogenetic protein receptor (BMPR) axis: the anti-proliferative arm of TGF-β super family of receptors. Here, now we demonstrate the effect of HIV-Tat and cocaine on the proliferative TGF-β signaling cascade. We observed a significant increase in the secretion of TGF-β1 ligand along with enhanced protein expression of TGFβ Receptor (TGFβR)-1, TGFβR-2 and phosphorylated SMAD2/3 in human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells on treatment with cocaine and Tat...
September 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803167/igg4-related-disease-a-new-etiology-underlying-diffuse-intracranial-dilating-vasculopathy
#9
Evan S Marlin, David Dornbos, Daniel S Ikeda, Norman L Lehman, Ciarán J Powers
BACKGROUND: Diffuse intracranial aneurysmal vasculopathy is a rare condition, previously described in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a recognized inflammatory disease of systemic organs, leading to fibrosis of connective tissues. It also has been linked to inflammatory dilating aortic aneurysms, coronary vascular disease, hypophysitis, orbital pseudotumor, and pachymeningitis. It has not yet been described as a cause of diffuse intracranial dilating vasculopathy...
November 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416296/hiv-infection-and-aortic-stiffness
#10
REVIEW
Luisa Helena Maia Leite, Ariel Cohen, Franck Boccara
People living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and receiving antiretroviral therapy now have the same life expectancy as the general population. However, they have a higher risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular events because of a complex and polyfactorial vasculopathy, combining the effects of antiretroviral therapy, the HIV virus itself, immune activation, chronic inflammation and metabolic disturbances. Whether people living with HIV infection experience increased vascular aging compared with the general population remains controversial...
August 2017: Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373376/teaching-neuro-images-hiv-associated-cerebral-vasculopathy-with-multiple-nodular-aneurysms
#11
Alexander Seiler, Se-Jong You, Marlies Wagner, Johannes C Klein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 4, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315199/hiv-infection-and-risk-of-cardiovascular-diseases-beyond-coronary-artery-disease
#12
REVIEW
Revery P Barnes, John Charles A Lacson, Hossein Bahrami
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) increasingly afflicts people living with HIV (PLWH) in the contemporary era of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most widely studied cardiovascular problem in PLWH; however, less is known about other clinically relevant subtypes of CVD such as heart failure (HF), cerebrovascular disease, sudden cardiac death, pericardial diseases, and pulmonary hypertension. This paper reviews evidence of other subtypes of CVD as emerging issues in the post-ART era...
May 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092979/endovascular-treatment-of-hiv-associated-spontaneous-common-carotid-artery-pseudoaneurysm-in-a-case-of-miliary-and-cns-tuberculosis
#13
Rashmi Saraf, Amrita Narang, Mahesh Kardile, Prasad Udmale
HIV and tuberculosis infections are known to be associated with vasculopathy including occlusive disease and aneurysm formation. We report a case of 43-year-old male with miliary and central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis; recently, diagnosed as HIV seropositive, on antiretroviral and antitubercular treatment presenting with painful neck swelling. He was found to have common carotid artery (CCA) pseudoaneurysm that was managed by endovascular stent grafting. HIV vasculopathy-related CCA pseudoaneurysm is a potentially life-threatening rare entity...
January 17, 2017: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974095/occlusive-vasculopathy-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-associated-vasculitis-unusual-clinical-and-imaging-course
#14
Enric Ripoll, Sergio Prieto-González, Olga Balagué, Javier Marco-Hernández, Josep M Miró, Anna Darnell, Maria C Cid, José Hernández-Rodríguez
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated vasculitis is a rare secondary systemic vasculitis involving small and medium arteries. We report a 42-year-old man with uncontrolled HIV infection presenting with long-lasting abdominal pain. An abdominal CT angiography revealed multiple microaneurysms and stenoses in intrarenal arteries, with involvement of mesenteric and hepatic arteries. HIV-associated vasculitis was diagnosed and glucocorticoids and raltegravir-based antiretroviral therapy were administered with good initial clinical and virological response...
March 2017: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787346/association-of-hiv-and-opportunistic-infections-with-incident-stroke-a-nationwide-population-based-cohort-study-in-taiwan
#15
Yung-Feng Yen, Marcelo Chen, Ian Jen, Yu-Ching Lan, Pei-Hung Chuang, Yen-Ling Liu, Yun Lee, Yi-Ming Arthur Chen
BACKGROUND: HIV-associated vasculopathy and opportunistic infections (OIs) might cause vascular atherosclerosis and aneurysmal arteriopathy, which could increase the risk of incident stroke. However, few longitudinal studies have investigated the link between HIV and incident stroke. This cohort study evaluated the association of HIV and OIs with incident stroke. METHODS: We identified adults with HIV infection in 2000-2012, using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27436174/endovascular-therapy-for-large-vessel-vasculopathy-in-hiv-infected-patients
#16
B Pillay, P K Ramdial, D P Naidoo, B Sartorius, D Singh
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate outcomes after endovascular treatment of patients with aneurysmal or occlusive vasculopathy in HIV-infected patients. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of a prospective database of treatment outcomes in patients with HIV related vasculopathies between April 2005 and September 2015. RESULTS: Sixty HIV patients presented with post-traumatic pseudoaneurysm formation (n = 7), aneurysmal disease (n = 24) or occlusive disease (n = 29 (48%))...
September 2016: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27386505/arterial-ischemic-stroke-in-hiv-defining-and-classifying-etiology-for-research-studies
#17
Laura A Benjamin, Alan Bryer, Sebastian Lucas, Alan Stanley, Theresa J Allain, Elizabeth Joekes, Hedley Emsley, Ian Turnbull, Colin Downey, Cheng-Hock Toh, Kevin Brown, David Brown, Catherine Ison, Colin Smith, Elizabeth L Corbett, Avindra Nath, Robert S Heyderman, Myles D Connor, Tom Solomon
HIV infection, and potentially its treatment, increases the risk of an arterial ischemic stroke. Multiple etiologies and lack of clear case definitions inhibit progress in this field. Several etiologies, many treatable, are relevant to HIV-related stroke. To fully understand the mechanisms and the terminology used, a robust classification algorithm to help ascribe the various etiologies is needed. This consensus paper considers the strengths and limitations of current case definitions in the context of HIV infection...
August 2016: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27072660/multiple-intracranial-aneurysms-in-hiv-infection
#18
Sumeet R Dhawan, Anju Gupta, Vivek Gupta, Pratibha D Singhi
Neurological findings in HIV are common and include cognitive impairment, microcephaly, nonspecific white matter lesions and seizures. Cerebral vasculopathy and stroke are uncommon and may be due to primary HIV vasculopathy or opportunistic infections such as tuberculosis and cryptococcal meningitis. The authors describe a 7-y-old boy who presented with severe headache and was detected to have aneurysmal bleed due to intracranial aneurysm.
August 2016: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26994951/systemic-and-cell-specific-mechanisms-of-vasculopathy-induced-by-human-immunodeficiency-virus-and-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy
#19
REVIEW
Grace C Haser, Bauer Sumpio
OBJECTIVE: Patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have higher rates of dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, and chronic inflammation that can damage the vascular system compared with the general population. This can be attributed both to HIV itself and to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) they receive. This review outlines the mechanisms by which HIV and HIV medications can cause vascular complications and identifies strategic areas of research to treat these dysfunctions...
March 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26961262/moyamoya-syndrome-in-south-african-children-with-hiv-1-infection
#20
MULTICENTER STUDY
Charles K Hammond, Alexander Shapson-Coe, Rajeshree Govender, Ronald van Toorn, Alvin Ndondo, Nicky Wieselthaler, Brian Eley, Lawrence Mubaiwa, Jo M Wilmshurst
A national multicenter study identified 17 South African children with vertically acquired HIV-1 infection and HIV-associated vasculopathy. Five of the children (all indigenous African ancestry) had progressive vascular disease, consistent with moyamoya syndrome. Median presentation age 5.8 years (range 2.2-11). The children with moyamoya syndrome presented with abnormal CD4 counts and raised viral loads. Clinical features included motor deficits, neuroregression, and intellectual disability. Neuroimaging supported progressive vascular disease with preceding clinically silent disease course...
July 2016: Journal of Child Neurology
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