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Aortic stiffness

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129735/arterial-stiffness-and-cerebral-hemodynamic-pulsatility-during-cognitive-engagement-in-younger-and-older-adults
#1
Kevin S Heffernan, Jacqueline A Augustine, Wesley K Lefferts, Nicole L Spartano, William E Hughes, Randall S Jorgensen, Brooks B Gump
This study examined central artery stiffness and hemodynamic pulsatility during cognitive engagement in younger and older adults. METHODS: Vascular-hemodynamic measures were completed in 19 younger (age 35±1yrs) and 20 older (age 69±2yrs) adults at rest and during a Stroop task. Aortic stiffness (carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, PWV) and carotid pulse pressure (PP) were assessed using applanation tonometry. Carotid stiffness was assessed as a single-point PWV using Doppler Ultrasound...
November 9, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129234/whole-grain-consumption-is-negatively-correlated-with-obesity-associated-aortic-stiffness-a-hypothesis
#2
Marilyn S Campbell, Bradley S Fleenor
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease that increases aortic stiffness, which predicts future cardiovascular events. Additionally, obesity is associated with overconsumption, which contributes to aortic stiffening. Recent work has highlighted the role of various foods and nutrients on aortic stiffness among the general population. The objective of the present study was to explore the influence of dietary factors on obesity-associated aortic stiffness, as food choices might be a potential explanation for accelerated aortic stiffening in obesity rather than overconsumption alone...
January 2018: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124551/mechanical-characterization-and-material-modeling-of-diabetic-aortas-in-a-rabbit-model
#3
Jianhua Tong, F Yang, X Li, X Xu, G X Wang
Diabetes has been recognized as a major risk factor to cause macrovascular diseases and plays a key role in aortic wall remodeling. However, the effects of diabetes on elastic properties of aortas remain largely unknown and quantitative mechanical data are lacking. Thirty adult rabbits (1.6-2.2 kg) were collected and the type 1 diabetic rabbit model was induced by injection of alloxan. A total of 15 control and 15 diabetic rabbit (abdominal) aortas were harvested. Uniaxial and biaxial tensile tests were performed to measure ultimate tensile strength and to characterize biaxial mechanical behaviors of the aortas...
November 9, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120452/vascular-aging-and-cardiac-maladaptation-in-growth-restricted-preterm-infants
#4
A Sehgal, B J Allison, S M Gwini, S Menahem, S L Miller, G R Polglase
OBJECTIVE: To assess arterial morphology and mechanics in preterm infants with fetal growth restriction (FGR) compared with those appropriate for gestational age (AGA) in the early neonatal period. STUDY DESIGN: This observational study involved 20 preterm FGR infants (28 to 32 weeks) of gestational age (GA) and birth weight (BW) <10th centile and 20 preterm AGA infants. Vascular ultrasound was performed to measure aortic properties. RESULTS: GA and BW of FGR and AGA infants were 29...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119519/brief-report-physical-activity-body-mass-index-and-arterial-stiffness-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-preliminary-findings
#5
Kevin S Heffernan, Luis Columna, Natalie Russo, Beth A Myers, Christine E Ashby, Michael L Norris, Tiago V Barreira
We examined the association between physical activity (PA), body mass index (BMI) and novel measures of subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) in 15 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (mean age 7 ± 2 years, 2 girls). PA was objectively assessed using accelerometry as time spent in moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Arterial stiffness was measured via aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) and taken as a marker of subclinical CVD risk. MVPA was inversely associated with aortic PWV (r = - 0...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118329/aortic-stiffness-improves-the-prediction-of-both-diagnosis-and-severity-of-coronary-artery-disease
#6
Alexandra Yannoutsos, Mathieu Ahouah, Céline Dreyfuss Tubiana, Jirar Topouchian, Michel E Safar, Jacques Blacher
Elective coronography has low diagnostic yield for obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). We aim to determine whether non-invasive aortic stiffness assessment improves diagnostic accuracy of CAD screening by reducing the number of false-positive results from the cardiac stress test. A cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2013 to September 2014 in our medical center. Electrocardiogram (ECG) stress test coupled with nuclear imaging was performed in 367 consecutive patients routinely followed for myocardial ischemia screening...
November 9, 2017: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118111/differential-cell-matrix-mechanoadaptations-and-inflammation-drive-regional-propensities-to-aortic-fibrosis-aneurysm-or-dissection-in-hypertension
#7
M R Bersi, R Khosravi, A J Wujciak, D G Harrison, J D Humphrey
The embryonic lineage of intramural cells, microstructural organization of the extracellular matrix, local luminal and wall geometry, and haemodynamic loads vary along the length of the aorta. Yet, it remains unclear why certain diseases manifest differentially along the aorta. Toward this end, myriad animal models provide insight into diverse disease conditions-including fibrosis, aneurysm and dissection-but inherent differences across models impede general interpretations. We examined region-specific cellular, matrix, and biomechanical changes in a single experimental model of hypertension and atherosclerosis, which commonly coexist...
November 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114001/impaired-central-pulsatile-hemodynamics-in-children-and-adolescents-with-marfan-syndrome
#8
Andrea Grillo, Paolo Salvi, Susan Marelli, Lan Gao, Lucia Salvi, Andrea Faini, Giuliana Trifirò, Renzo Carretta, Alessandro Pini, Gianfranco Parati
BACKGROUND: Marfan syndrome is characterized by aortic root dilation, beginning in childhood. Data about aortic pulsatile hemodynamics and stiffness in pediatric age are currently lacking. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 51 young patients with Marfan syndrome (12.0±3.3 years), carotid tonometry was performed for the measurement of central pulse pressure, pulse pressure amplification, and aortic stiffness (carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity). Patients underwent an echocardiogram at baseline and at 1 year follow-up and a genetic evaluation...
November 7, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110750/aortic-elasticity-and-carotid-intima-media-thickness-in-children-with-mitral-valve-prolapse
#9
Elif Erolu, Figen Akalın, Nilüfer Çetiner, Berna Şaylan Çevik
Aim We aimed to study the dimensions, systolic and diastolic functions of the left ventricle; dimensions and elasticity of the aorta; and carotid intima-media thickness and flow-mediated dilatation of the brachial artery in mitral valve prolapse. METHODS: The study group consisted of 43 patients (mean age=13.3±3.9) and 42 healthy children (mean age=12.9±3.4). Left ventricular end-diastolic, end-systolic, left atrial diameters, interventricular septum, and left ventricular posterior wall thickness were measured...
November 7, 2017: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097631/chronic-exposure-to-electronic-cigarette-e-cig-results-in-impaired-cardiovascular-function-in-mice
#10
I Mark Olfert, Evan DeVallance, Hannah Hoskinson, Kayla W Branyan, Stuart Clayton, Christopher R Pitzer, David Patrick Sullivan, Matthew J Breit, Zhong-Xin Wu, Powsiri Klinkhachorn, W Kyle Mandler, Brett H Erdreich, Barbara S Ducatman, Randy W Bryner, Piyali Dasgupta, Paul D Chantler
Proponents for electronic cigarettes(E-cigs) claim they are a safe alternative to smoking tobacco-based cigarettes,however little is known about the long-term effects of E-cig vapor exposure on vascular function.The purpose of this study was to determine the cardiovascular consequences of chronic E-cig exposure. Female mice (C57Bl/6 background strain)were randomly assigned to chronic daily exposure of E-cig vapor, standard cigarette smoke(using 3R4F-reference-cigarette), or filtered-air(N=15/group). Respective whole-body exposures consisted of 4 x 1-hour exposure blocks, separated by 30-minute intervals of fresh air breaks, resulting in intermittent daily exposure for a total of 4h/day, 5days/week for 8-months...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097625/autoantibodies-against-at1-and-%C3%AE-1-adrenergic-receptors-predict-arterial-stiffness-progression-in-normotensive-subjects-over-a-5-year-period
#11
Gang Li, Zhe Cao, Xiao-Wei Wu, Hui-Kun Wu, Yi Ma, Bin Wu, Wei-Qing Wang, Jian Cheng, Zi-Hua Zhou, Yuan-Chao Tu
Objective: Arterial stiffness is an independent indicator of cardiovascular risk. Autoantibodies (AAs) against angiotensin AT1 receptor (AT1-AAs) and α1-Adrenergic receptor (α1-AAs) are important in the pathogenesis of hypertension. We identified the types of AT1-AAs and α1-AAs in normotensive subjects, with the aim of determining whether these antibodies predict aortic stiffness progression. Methods: Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV) was used to measure aortic stiffness. Overall, 816 subjects (71% of those invited) underwent a medical examination and evaluation of aortic stiffness...
November 2, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089345/loss-of-female-sex-hormones-exacerbates-cerebrovascular-and-cognitive-dysfunction-in-aortic-banded-miniswine-through-a-neuropeptide-y-ca-2-activated-potassium-channel-nitric-oxide-mediated-mechanism
#12
T Dylan Olver, Jessica A Hiemstra, Jenna C Edwards, Todd R Schachtman, Cheryl M Heesch, Paul J Fadel, M Harold Laughlin, Craig A Emter
BACKGROUND: Postmenopausal women represent the largest cohort of patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, and vascular dementia represents the most common form of dementia in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Therefore, we tested the hypotheses that the combination of cardiac pressure overload (aortic banding [AB]) and the loss of female sex hormones (ovariectomy [OVX]) impairs cerebrovascular control and spatial memory. METHODS AND RESULTS: Female Yucatan miniswine were separated into 4 groups (n=7 per group): (1) control, (2) AB, (3) OVX, and (4) AB-OVX...
October 31, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089251/longitudinal-study-to-assess-changes-in-arterial-stiffness-and-cardiac-output-parameters-among-low-risk-pregnant-women
#13
Mohamed Waseem Osman, Mintu Nath, Asma Khalil, David R Webb, Thompson G Robinson, Hatem A Mousa
AIM: A single-centre, prospective longitudinal study to assess changes in maternal arterial stiffness and cardiac output parameters among low-risk healthy pregnant women. METHODOLOGY: Thirty low-risk, healthy, pregnant women attending their routine antenatal dating ultrasound scan were recruited. Non-invasive assessment of arterial stiffness and cardiac output was undertaken at five gestational windows from 11 to 40 weeks of pregnancy. Data were analysed using a linear mixed model incorporating time and other relevant predictors as fixed effects, and patient as a random effect...
October 16, 2017: Pregnancy Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083326/aortic-propagation-velocity-does-not-correlate-with-classical-aortic-stiffness-parameters-in-healthy-individuals
#14
Hatem Arı, Fatih Kahraman, Yasin Türker, Serdar Güler, Hasan Aydın Baş, Doğan Erdoğan
OBJECTIVE: Aortic stiffness is an important cardiovascular risk marker, which can be determined using different noninvasive techniques. Aortic propagation velocity (APV) has recently been established as a novel echocardiographic parameter of aortic stiffness. This study aimed to investigate the association between APV and the classical echocardiography-derived aortic stiffness parameters, aortic distensibility (AD) and aortic strain (AS), in a group of otherwise healthy individuals. METHODS: In total, 97 consecutive healthy subjects were recruited in this observational study...
October 30, 2017: Anatolian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076519/arterial-stiffness-alone-does-not-explain-arteriovenous-fistula-outcomes
#15
Damian G McGrogan, Stephanie Stringer, Paul Cockwell, Mark Jesky, Charlie Ferro, Alexander P Maxwell, Nicholas G Inston
INTRODUCTION: Marked arterial adaptation is critical in permitting and sustaining the increased blood flow within an arteriovenous fistula (AVF). The aim of this investigation was to evaluate markers of arterial disease and their association with the early post-operative AVF outcomes. METHODS: We included all patients in whom an AVF had been performed after enrolment to the Renal Impairment In Secondary Care (RIISC) study. Primary AVF failure (PFL) was defined as thrombosis at six-week review...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Vascular Access
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074712/mitochondria-targeted-antioxidant-therapy-with-mitoq-ameliorates-aortic-stiffening-in-old-mice
#16
Rachel A Gioscia-Ryan, Micah L Battson, Lauren M Cuevas, Jason S Eng, Michael P Murphy, Douglas R Seals
Aortic stiffening is a major independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, cognitive dysfunction and other chronic disorders of aging. Mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species are a key source of arterial oxidative stress which may contribute to arterial stiffening by promoting adverse structural changes-including collagen overabundance and elastin degradation-and enhancing inflammation, but the potential for mitochondria-targeted therapeutic strategies to ameliorate aortic stiffening with primary aging is unknown...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073803/the-usefulness-of-a-single-arm-cuff-oscillometric-method-arteriograph-to-assess-changes-in-central-aortic-blood-pressure-and-arterial-stiffness-by-antihypertensive-treatment-results-from-the-doxazosin-ramipril-study
#17
Andreas Jekell, Thomas Kahan
PURPOSE: Inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system may have effects on vascular structure and function beyond the effects on blood pressure (BP) reduction. We studied the ability of a single arm cuff oscillometric method (Arteriograph, TensioMed, Hungary) to assess effects of antihypertensive treatment on BP and arterial stiffness. Furthermore, this technique was compared to pulse wave analysis and applanation tonometry (SphygmoCor, AtCor Medical, Australia). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Brachial and aortic BP, augmentation index (AIx), and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) was simultaneously assessed by both techniques in 71 untreated hypertensive patients...
October 26, 2017: Blood Pressure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070829/hemoglobin-a1c-and-c-reactive-protein-are-independently-associated-with-blunted-nocturnal-blood-pressure-dipping-in-obesity-related-prediabetes
#18
Abbi D Lane-Cordova, Graziela Z Kalil, Christopher J Wagner, Amy L Sindler, Jess G Fiedorowicz, Tiwaloluwa Ajibewa, William G Haynes, Gary L Pierce
Blunted nocturnal dipping in blood pressure (BP) is associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in middle-aged/older adults. The prevalence of blunted nocturnal BP dipping is higher in persons with obesity and diabetes, conditions that are also associated with elevated aortic stiffness and inflammation. Therefore, we hypothesized that elevated glycemia, inflammation and aortic stiffness would be inversely associated with the magnitude of nocturnal systolic BP dipping among middle-aged/older adults with obesity at high CVD risk...
October 26, 2017: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068132/ostial-right-coronary-chronic-total-occlusion-transesophageal-echocardiographic-guidance-for-retrograde-aortic-re-entry
#19
Frank E Corrigan, Dimitrios Karmpaliotis, Habib Samady, Stamatios Lerakis
As antegrade options are limited, intervention upon the ostial right coronary artery (RCA) chronic total occlusion (CTO) warrants a retrograde approach. Landmarks for an aggressive approach are concerning as passage of stiff guidewires or electrocautery near the RCA ostium may result in wire passage into structures other than the aorta. We report the first use of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) to assist retrograde passage of a guidewire into the aorta. For the ostial RCA CTO, TEE guidance may be considered to assist retrograde passage of aggressive guidewires into the aorta...
October 25, 2017: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064094/cardiac-amyloidosis-is-associated-with-increased-aortic-stiffness
#20
Attila Nemes, Dóra Földeák, Péter Domsik, Anita Kalapos, Árpád Kormányos, Zita Borbényi, Tamás Forster
OBJECTIVE: Cardiac amyloidosis (CA) is as an infiltrative disorder primarily caused by extracellular tissue deposition of amyloid fibrils in the myocardial interstitium. The current study was designed to test whether alterations in ascending aortic elastic properties could be detected by echocardiography in CA patients, and to compare their results to controls. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We included 19 CA patients from which CA proved to be AL amyloidosis in 17 cases and transthyretin (TTR) amyloidosis in 2 cases...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical Ultrasound: JCU
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