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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550016/genomic-analysis-of-genotype-by-social-environment-interaction-for-drosophila-aggressive-behavior
#1
Palle Duun Rohde, Bryn Gaertner, Kirsty Wards, Peter Sørensen, Trudy F C Mackay
Human psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and attention-deficit/hyper-activity disorder often include adverse behaviors including increased aggressiveness. Individuals with psychiatric disorders often exhibit social withdrawal, which can further increase the probability of conducting a violent act. Here, we used the inbred, sequenced lines of the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) to investigate the genetic basis of variation in male aggressive behavior for flies reared in a socialized and socially isolated environment...
May 26, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548821/turning-nonspecific-interference-into-signal-amplification-covalent-biosensing-nanoassembly-enabled-by-metal-catalyzed-cross-coupling
#2
Hao Li, Fang Wang, Shenguang Ge, Haiyun Liu, Mei Yan, Jinghua Yu
In this work, a new method of protein detection in complicated samples is proposed. This method employs probe-target recognition to induce cross-linking among the probe, the target, and the nonspecific proteins in the complicated sample as a means to convert interference into effective signal amplification. This also eliminates the necessity of multistep signal amplification in a separate solution system. On the basis of this strategy, a simple and robust assay for the activity of serum cathepsin B is established...
May 26, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548555/transforming-students-attitudes-and-anxieties-toward-death-and-loss
#3
Cara L Wallace, Harriet L Cohen, David A Jenkins
This study examines the impact of a death and dying course on 39 undergraduate students' attitudes and anxieties about death. Authors outline key aspects of the curriculum used in the course and discuss how the approach lends itself to a transformative learning experience related to death and loss, preparing students who will face clients with a variety of needs in these areas across practice settings. The majority of students ( n = 34) experienced a decrease in death avoidance, fear of death, and overall death anxiety...
January 1, 2017: Omega
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547524/nurturing-environments-for-boys-and-men-of-color-with-trauma-exposure
#4
REVIEW
Phillip W Graham, Anna Yaros, Ashley Lowe, Mark S McDaniel
Boys and men of color are exposed to traumatic experiences at significantly higher rates than are other demographic groups. To understand and address the mental and behavioral health effects of trauma, including violent incidents, on this population, we review the literature showing the context for, outcomes of, and potential responses to trauma exposure. We present the existing research about the unique challenges and associated negative outcomes for boys and men of color, as well as identify the gaps in the literature...
May 25, 2017: Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545754/autism-and-convictions-for-violent-crimes-population-based-cohort-study-in-sweden
#5
Ragini Heeramun, Cecilia Magnusson, Clara Hellner Gumpert, Sven Granath, Michael Lundberg, Christina Dalman, Dheeraj Rai
OBJECTIVE: Recent systematic reviews have highlighted that the relationship between autism and violent offending is still unclear, but some cases have received extensive media scrutiny. We investigated whether autism is associated with convictions for violent crimes, and studied the associated risk and protective factors. METHOD: We analyzed data from the Stockholm Youth Cohort, a total population-based record-linkage cohort in Stockholm County comprising 295,734 individuals followed up between 15 and 27 years of age...
June 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544617/defect-laden-mose2-quantum-dots-made-by-turbulent-shear-mixing-as-enhanced-electrocatalysts
#6
Chongyang Zhu, Yuan Huang, Feng Xu, Peng Gao, Binghui Ge, Jing Chen, Haibo Zeng, Eli Sutter, Peter Sutter, Litao Sun
A high density of edge sites and other defects can significantly improve the catalytic activity of layered 2D materials. Herein, this study demonstrates a novel top-down strategy to maximize catalytic edge sites of MoSe2 by breaking up bulk MoSe2 into quantum dots (QDs) via "turbulent shear mixing" (TSM). The ultrasmall size of the MoSe2 QDs provides a high fraction of atoms in reactive edge sites, thus significantly improving the catalytic activities. The violent TSM further introduces abundant defects as additional active sites for electrocatalytic reactions...
May 24, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543914/the-effectiveness-of-an-intervention-to-reduce-alcohol-related-violence-in-premises-licensed-for-the-sale-and-on-site-and-consumption-of-alcohol-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#7
Simon C Moore, M Fasihul Alam, Marjukka Heikkinen, Kerenza Hood, Chao Huang, Laurence Moore, Simon Murphy, Rebecca Playle, Jonathan Shepherd, Claire Shovelton, Vaseekaran Sivarajasingam, Anne Williams
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Premises licensed for the sale and consumption of alcohol can contribute to levels of assault-related injury through poor operational practices that, if addressed, could reduce violence. We tested the real-world effectiveness of an intervention designed to change premises operation, whether any intervention effect changed over time, the effect of intervention dose and cost effectiveness of the intervention. DESIGN: A parallel randomised controlled trial with the unit of allocation and outcomes measured at the level of individual premises...
May 21, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542491/the-face-of-war-trauma-analysis-of-a-mass-grave-from-the-battle-of-l%C3%A3-tzen-1632
#8
Nicole Nicklisch, Frank Ramsthaler, Harald Meller, Susanne Friederich, Kurt W Alt
Contemporary accounts of battles are often incomplete or even erroneous because they reflect the-often biased-viewpoints of the authors. Battlefield archaeology faces the task of compiling an historical analysis of a battle and of gathering all the available facts. Besides cultural historical evidence and artefacts, the human remains of those who have fallen in battle also provide invaluable information. In studying mass graves from a military context, the injury types and patterns are significant. They allow us to reconstruct the circumstances surrounding the soldiers' deaths and provide information on the hostilities that occurred on the battlefield...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540038/effectiveness-of-paliperidone-depot-injection-in-seriously-violent-men-with-comorbid-schizophrenia-and-dissocial-personality-disorder-in-a-uk-high-security-hospital
#9
Anna-Marie Mortlock, Fintan Larkin, Callum C Ross, Nitin Gupta, Samrat Sengupta, Mrigendra Das
BACKGROUND: High-security hospital patients are often complex in presentation and are characterized by treatment resistance, medication nonadherence and history of violence. Paliperidone is licensed both as an oral and depot antipsychotic medication in the treatment of schizophrenia. Clinical trials have shown that paliperidone depot is well tolerated with similar efficacy to risperidone depot but with additional practical advantages. Whilst data exist for the effectiveness of paliperidone palmitate (PP), there are no studies involving patients in forensic settings or those with comorbid personality disorder...
May 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538637/factors-associated-with-intimate-partner-homicide-in-illinois-2005-2010-findings-from-the-illinois-violent-death-reporting-system
#10
Sana Yousuf, Suzanne McLone, Maryann Mason, Lisa Snow, Carol Gall, Karen Sheehan
BACKGROUND: Critical elements in intimate partner homicides (IPH) often go undocumented. Previous studies have highlighted precipitating causes, but few have examined the place of injury that led to the victim's death. We sought to describe IPH cases in Illinois, and in particular to examine factors surrounding the location of injury that led to the victim's death. METHODS: We analyzed data collected in the Illinois Violent Death Reporting System (IVDRS) to assess victim demographics, perpetrator characteristics, the victim/perpetrator relationship, and circumstances surrounding the location of injury that led to the victim's death...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538635/suicide-guns-and-buyback-programs-an-epidemiologic-analysis-of-firearm-related-deaths-in-connecticut
#11
Laura Baumann, Heather Clinton, Rob Berntsson, Susan Williams, James C Rovella, David Shapiro, Shefali Thaker, Kevin Borrup, Garry Lapidus, Brendan T Campbell
OBJECTIVE: Gun buyback programs aim to remove unwanted firearms from the community with the goal of preventing firearm injury and death. Buyback programs are held in many communities, but evidence demonstrating their effectiveness is lacking. The purpose of this study is to compare firearms collected at buyback events to crime guns and firearms used in homicides and suicides. METHODS: Detailed firearm and case data was obtained from the Hartford Police Department and the CDC's National Violent Death Reporting System from January through December of 2015...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537757/schizophrenia-in-the-news-the-role-of-news-frames-in-shaping-online-reader-dialogue-about-mental-illness
#12
Anna Rae Gwarjanski, Scott Parrott
A quantitative content analysis examined the portrayal of schizophrenia in eight of the most read online news publications in the United States. The analysis documented the prevalence of stigma frames, which communicate stereotypes concerning schizophrenia, and stigma-challenge frames, which contradict stereotypes, in 558 articles related to schizophrenia. The study also examined the relationship between media framing and reader commentary, including the likelihood of readers posting stigmatizing comments, stigma-challenging comments, and comments in which they disclosed personal experience with mental illness...
May 24, 2017: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536553/succumbing-to-the-call-of-violence-sex-linked-development-of-appetitive-aggression-in-relation-to-familial-and-organized-violence
#13
Mareike Augsburger, Danie Meyer-Parlapanis, Thomas Elbert, Corina Nandi, Manassé Bambonye, Anselm Crombach
Appetitive aggression is the attraction to violent behavior, which can peak in the experience of a combat high. In various war and conflict scenarios, members of armed groups have reported developing a desire to hunt and even kill humans. More recently, we reported that the phenomenon has also been observed in female ex-combatants with varying participation in warfare. Despite recent investigations on risk factors for appetitive aggression, sex-specific pathways in the development of appetitive aggression have not yet been delineated...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535945/the-inventory-of-callous-unemotional-traits-psychometric-properties-among-referred-and-non-referred-portuguese-female-juveniles
#14
Pedro Pechorro, James V Ray, Rui Abrunhosa Gonçalves, Saul Neves Jesus
The presence of callous-unemotional (CU) traits delineates a subgroup of male youth with severe conduct disorder and antisocial behavior, but little research has been done among female youth. Drawing on 377 female adolescents (103 selected from forensic settings and 274 selected from school settings) from Portugal, the current study is the first to simultaneously examine the psychometric properties of the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits (ICU) in incarcerated female youth and community youth. The results support the use of the ICU in terms of its factor structure, and internal consistency despite the fact an item had to be removed from the Callousness dimension...
May 20, 2017: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535861/elo-rating-for-tracking-rank-fluctuations-after-demographic-changes-involving-semi-free-ranging-rhesus-macaques-macaca-mulatta
#15
Lauren J Wooddell, Stefano Sk Kaburu, Stephen J Suomi, Amanda M Dettmer
Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) are gregarious primates that form despotic societies characterized by frequent and intense aggression. Within long-term social groups, demographic changes may influence hierarchical stability, potentially resulting in conflict and violently abrupt hierarchical changes. This conflict can result in serious implications for animal welfare, and thus, predictive tools would be invaluable to captive managers in determining social instabilities. Using the method Elo-rating to track rank changes and dominance stability, we predicted that demographic changes to a population of semi-free ranging rhesus macaques would result in changes in hierarchical stability...
May 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535284/cumulative-effects-of-neighborhood-social-adversity-and-personal-crime-victimization-on-adolescent-psychotic-experiences
#16
Joanne Newbury, Louise Arseneault, Avshalom Caspi, Terrie E Moffitt, Candice L Odgers, Helen L Fisher
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the impact of urbanicity, adverse neighborhood conditions and violent crime victimization on the emergence of adolescent psychotic experiences. METHODS: Participants were from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally-representative cohort of 2232 British twins who were interviewed about adolescent psychotic experiences at age 18. Urbanicity, neighborhood characteristics, and personal victimization by violent crime were measured during childhood and adolescence via geocoded census data, surveys of over 5000 immediate neighbors of the E-Risk participants, and interviews with participants themselves...
May 22, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534150/examining-the-contemporaneous-short-term-and-long-term-effects-of-secondary-exposure-to-violence-on-adolescent-substance-use
#17
Gregory M Zimmerman, Mackenzie Kushner
The relationship between secondary exposure to violence-defined as witnessing violence in the home, community, or school-and adolescent substance use is well-documented. Yet, multi-wave empirical studies examining this relationship are sparse. In addition, studies have only begun to examine whether this relationship varies by the situational components of the violent event. Using data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN), this study examines the contemporaneous, short-term, and long-term effects of secondary exposure to violence on substance use, and whether witnessing violence in which a weapon is present has a different impact on adolescent substance use than does witnessing violence without a weapon...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529389/effects-of-greening-and-community-reuse-of-vacant-lots-on-crime
#18
Michelle Kondo, Bernadette Hohl, SeungHoon Han, Charles Branas
The Youngstown Neighborhood Development Corporation initiated a 'Lots of Green' programme to reuse vacant land in 2010. We performed a difference-in-differences analysis of the effects of this programme on crime in and around newly treated lots, in comparison to crimes in and around randomly selected and matched, untreated vacant lot controls. The effects of two types of vacant lot treatments on crime were tested: a cleaning and greening 'stabilisation' treatment and a 'community reuse' treatment mostly involving community gardens...
November 2016: Urban Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528742/patterns-of-gun-deaths-across-us-counties-1999-2013
#19
Bindu Kalesan, Sandro Galea
PURPOSE: We examined the socio-demographic distribution of gun deaths across 3143 counties in 50 United States' states to understand the spatial patterns and correlates of high and low gun deaths. METHODS: We used aggregate counts of gun deaths and population in all counties from 1999 to 2013 from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (WONDER). We characterized four levels of gun violence, as distinct levels of gun death rates of relatively safe, unsafe, violent, and extremely violent counties, based on quartiles of 15-year county-specific gun death rates per 100,000 and used negative binomial regression models allowing clustering by state to calculate incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs)...
April 27, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527328/living-in-violence-neighborhood-domestic-violence-and-small-for-gestational-age-births
#20
Erica Felker-Kantor, Maeve Wallace, Katherine Theall
OBJECTIVES: To determine the association between neighborhood domestic violence and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth and to examine if there is a differential impact of neighborhood domestic violence on SGA births by race in a high crime community. METHODS: This analysis includes all birth records issued in New Orleans, Louisiana from 2011 to 2012 geocoded by census tract (N=177 census tracts, N=8322 women). Hierarchical modeling and ecologic spatial analysis were used to examine the area-effect of neighborhood domestic violence on SGA births, independent of individual-level predictors and accounting for the propensity to live in high domestic violence neighborhoods...
May 17, 2017: Health & Place
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