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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926374/reducing-urban-violence-a-contrast-of-public-health-and-criminal-justice-approaches
#1
Magdalena Cerdá, Melissa Tracy, Katherine M Keyes
BACKGROUND: Cities are investing millions in Cure Violence, a public health approach to reduce urban violence by targeting at-risk youth and redirecting conflict to non-violent responses. The impact of such a program compared to criminal justice responses is unknown because experiments directly comparing criminal justice and public health approaches to violence prevention are infeasible with observational data. We simulated experiments to test the influence of two interventions on violence: a) Cure Violence; and b) directed police patrol in violence hot spots...
September 18, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924450/comorbidities-and-correlates-of-conduct-disorder-among-male-juvenile-detainees-in-south-korea
#2
Bum-Sung Choi, Johanna Inhyang Kim, Bung-Nyun Kim, Bongseog Kim
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the rate and distribution of comorbidities, severity of childhood maltreatment, and clinical characteristics of adolescents with conduct disorder detained in a juvenile detention center in South Korea. METHODS: In total, 173 juvenile detainees were recruited. We analyzed the distribution of psychiatric disorders among the sample and compared the rate of comorbidities between groups with and without conduct disorder...
2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924305/erratum-is-colombia-a-violent-country
#3
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article on p. 9 in vol. 48, PMID: 28559640.].
June 30, 2017: Colombia Médica: CM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924060/the-dilemma-of-predicting-violent-radicalization
#4
Cécile Rousseau, B Heidi Ellis, John D Lantos
Parents, educators, law enforcement officials, and health professionals are all concerned about the violent radicalization of adolescents. Health professionals may be called on to assess teenagers regarding the risk that they will become dangerous. We present a case in which a psychiatrist is asked to do a forensic evaluation of a young adolescent who said troubling things and had some concerning posts on his Facebook page. The evaluation reveals things about both the young boy and his community.
September 18, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923026/dementia-and-cognitive-disorder-identified-at-a-forensic-psychiatric-examination-a-study-from-sweden
#5
Anette Ekström, Marianne Kristiansson, Karin Sparring Björkstén
BACKGROUND: Few studies have addressed the relationship between dementia and crime. We conducted a study of persons who got a primary or secondary diagnosis of dementia or cognitive disorder in a forensic psychiatric examination. METHODS: In Sweden, annually about 500 forensic psychiatric examinations are carried out. All cases from 2008 to 2010 with the diagnoses dementia or cognitive disorder were selected from the database of the Swedish National Board of Forensic Medicine...
September 18, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920730/accidents-and-violent-death-in-early-modern-london-1650-1750-by-craig-spence-accidents-and-violent-death-in-early-modern-london-1650-1750-craig-spence-woodbridge-boydell-press-2016-xii-273-p-115-00
#6
Jonathan Reinarz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Canadian Bulletin of Medical History, Bulletin Canadien D'histoire de la Médecine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919556/measuring-inotocin-receptor-gene-expression-in-chronological-order-in-ant-queens
#7
Sarah Chérasse, Serge Aron
In vertebrates and invertebrates, oxytocin/vasopressin-like peptides modulate a variety of behaviors. The recent discovery of the gene and receptor sequences of inotocin, the insect ortholog of oxytocin/vasopressin, opens new opportunities for understanding the role of this peptide family in regulating behaviors in the most populated class of living animals. Ants live in highly organized colonies. Once a year, they produce future queens that soon leave the nest to mate and found new colonies. During the first months of their lives, ant queens display a sequence of behaviors ranging from copulation and social interactions to violent fighting...
September 14, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918434/improved-dna-purification-with-quality-assurance-for-evaluation-of-the-microbial-genetic-content-of-constructed-wetlands
#8
Wenda Huang, Jingjing Guo, Ran Tao, Ying Man, Yunv Dai, Yang Yang
Efficient isolation of target DNA is a crucial first step of DNA-based metagenomic analyses of environmental samples. Insufficient quantity and purity of DNA isolated using commercial kits result in missing genetic information, especially for large-diameter substrates in constructed wetlands (CWs). Here, we addressed this problem by devising a cost-effective calcium chloride lysozyme-sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) method (CCLS), with key improvements in the steps of humic acid removal and cell lysis. The buffer comprising Tris, EDTA, Na2O2P7 and PVPP (TENP), and skim milk, could reduce adsorption between microorganisms and substrates, and calcium chloride precipitated and removed over 94% of humic acid...
September 16, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918358/the-role-of-central-and-medial-amygdala-in-normal-and-abnormal-aggression-a-review-of-classical-approaches
#9
REVIEW
Jozsef Haller
The involvement of the amygdala in aggression is supported by overwhelming evidence. Frequently, however, the amygdala is studied as a whole, despite its complex internal organization. To reveal the role of various subdivisions, here we review the involvement of the central and medial amygdala in male rivalry aggression, maternal aggression, predatory aggression, and models of abnormal aggression where violent behavior is associated with increased or decreased arousal. We conclude that: (1) rivalry aggression is controlled by the medial amygdala; (2) predatory aggression is controlled by the central amygdala; (3) hypoarousal-associated violent aggression recruits both nuclei, (4) a specific upregulation of the medial amygdala was observed in hyperarousal-driven aggression...
September 13, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916143/violent-behavior-by-emergency-department-patients-with-an-involuntary-hold-status
#10
Nancy L Dawson, Christian Lachner, Tyler F Vadeboncoeur, Michael J Maniaci, Veronica Bosworth, Teresa A Rummans, Archana Roy, M Caroline Burton
BACKGROUND: Violence against health care workers has been increasing. Health care workers in emergency departments (EDs) are highly vulnerable because they provide care for patients who may have mental illness, behavioral problems, or substance use disorders (alone or in combination) and who are often evaluated during an involuntary hold. Our objective was to identify factors that may be associated with violent behavior in ED patients during involuntary holds. METHODS: Retrospective review of patients evaluated during an involuntary hold at a suburban acute care hospital ED from January 2014 through November 2015...
August 18, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916132/the-association-between-elevated-blood-lead-levels-and-violent-behavior-during-late-adolescence-the-south-african-birth-to-twenty-plus-cohort
#11
Palesa Nkomo, Angela Mathee, Nisha Naicker, Jacky Galpin, Linda M Richter, Shane A Norris
Epidemiological studies have shown the adverse neuro-behavioral health effects of lead exposure among children, in particular. However, there is lack evidence in this regard from developing countries. The main aim of this study was to assess the association between blood lead levels (BLLs) during early adolescence and violent behavior in late adolescence. Our study sample from the Birth to Twenty Plus cohort in Soweto-Johannesburg, South Africa included 1332 study participants (684 females). BLLs were measured using blood samples collected at age 13years...
September 12, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914968/neighborhood-characteristics-and-adolescent-suicidal-behavior-evidence-from-a-population-based-study
#12
Kristina Allen, Sidra Goldman-Mellor
Research on the relationship between neighborhood characteristics and adolescents' risk of nonfatal suicidal behavior is scarce. We used California survey data to examine associations between measures of objective neighborhood quality (levels of violent crime, property crime, and socioeconomic disadvantage) and subjective neighborhood quality (perceptions of neighborhood safety and social cohesion) and adolescents' self-reported suicidal ideation and suicide attempt. Objective measures of neighborhood quality were unrelated to adolescents' risk of suicidal behavior...
September 15, 2017: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914326/negative-attitudes-related-to-violence-against-women-gender-and-ethnic-differences-among-youth-living-in-serbia
#13
Bosiljka Djikanovic, Željka Stamenkovic, Vesna Bjegovic Mikanovic, Dejana Vukovic, Vladimir S Gordeev, Natasa Maksimovic
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to identify to what extent negative attitudes towards intimate partner violence against women are present among young women and men living in Serbia, in Roma and non-Roma settlements. METHODS: We used the data from the 2010 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey conducted in Serbia, for the respondents who were 15-24 years old. Regression analyses were used to examine the association between judgmental attitudes, socio-demographic factors and life satisfaction...
September 15, 2017: International Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911915/risk-factors-of-compliance-with-self-harm-command-hallucinations-in-individuals-with-affective-and-non-affective-psychosis
#14
Jules R Dugré, Jean-Pierre Guay, Alexandre Dumais
Clinicians are often left with the difficult task of assessing and managing the risk of violent behaviors in individuals having command hallucinations, which may result in substantial rates of false positive or false negative. Moreover, findings on the association between command hallucinations and suicidal behaviors are limited. In an attempt to better understand compliance to this hallucinatory phenomenon, our objective was to identify the risk factors of compliance with self-harm command hallucinations. Secondary analyses from the MacArthur Study were performed on 82 participants with psychosis reporting such commands...
September 11, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905691/from-family-violence-exposure-to-violent-offending-examining-effects-of-race-and-mental-health-in-a-moderated-mediation-model-among-confined-male-juveniles
#15
Rebecca L Fix, Apryl A Alexander, Barry R Burkhart
Depression, substance use, and impulsivity have been linked to family violence exposure and to the development of violent offending during adolescence. Additionally, the indirect effects associated with these factors may not generalize across different racial/ethnic adolescent populations. The present study tested whether race/ethnicity moderated the mediated relationship between family violence exposure and violent offending, with depression, substance use, and impulsivity as mediators. A sample of 1,359 male adolescents was obtained from a juvenile correctional program...
September 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905482/energy-drink-consumption-among-new-zealand-adolescents-associations-with-mental-health-health-risk-behaviours-and-body-size
#16
Jennifer Utter, Simon Denny, Tasileta Teevale, Janie Sheridan
AIM: With the increase in popularity of energy drinks come multiple concerns about the associated health indicators of young people. The current study aims to describe the frequency of consumption of energy drinks in a nationally representative sample of adolescents and to explore the relationship between energy drink consumption and health risk behaviours, body size and mental health. METHODS: Data were collected as part of Youth'12, a nationally representative survey of high school students in New Zealand (2012)...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905048/social-determinants-of-health-violent-radicalization-and-terrorism-a-public-health-perspective
#17
REVIEW
Héctor E Alcalá, Mienah Zulfacar Sharif, Goleen Samari
Background: Terrorism-related deaths are at an all-time high as there were 32,685 and 29,376 terrorism-related deaths in 2014 and 2015, respectively. Terrorism is defined as the use of violence and intimidation in the pursuit of political aims. Terrorism is detrimental for mental health, premature mortality, and economic losses and undermines the central tenets of public health to improve the health and well-being of populations. Despite the impact terrorism has on avoidable morbidity and mortality, population health research largely overlooks social determinants of terrorism and risk factors that contribute to terrorist activities...
2017: Health Equity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904732/-type-iii-monteggia-lesion-a-rare-association-about-a-case
#18
Mohamed Amine Oukhouya, Hind Abou El Jaoud, Saad Andaloussi, Hicham Abdellaoui, Karima Atarraf, Lamia Chater, My Abderrahman Afifi
Type III Monteggia lesion is very rare, usually occurring within a context of violent trauma and often going unnoticed. We report the case of a 11-year old boy presenting to the Emergency Department with blunt trauma of the upper limb. The radiological evaluation showed olecranon fracture and radial epiphyseal separation associated with dislocation of the radial head. The patient underwent orthopedic treatment with good outcome after a mean follow-up of 3 months.
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904598/delusional-ideation-cognitive-processes-and-crime-based-reasoning
#19
Dean J Wilkinson, Laura S Caulfield
Probabilistic reasoning biases have been widely associated with levels of delusional belief ideation (Galbraith, Manktelow, & Morris, 2010; Lincoln, Ziegler, Mehl, & Rief, 2010; Speechley, Whitman, & Woodward, 2010; White & Mansell, 2009), however, little research has focused on biases occurring during every day reasoning (Galbraith, Manktelow, & Morris, 2011), and moral and crime based reasoning (Wilkinson, Caulfield, & Jones, 2014; Wilkinson, Jones, & Caulfield, 2011). 235 participants were recruited across four experiments exploring crime based reasoning through different modalities and dual processing tasks...
August 2017: Europe's journal of psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903923/violent-crime-at-gp-surgeries-is-on-the-rise-figures-show
#20
Gareth Iacobucci
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 13, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
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