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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737978/risk-of-violence-among-patients-in-psychiatric-treatment-results-from-a-national-census
#1
Solveig Osborg Ose, Solfrid Lilleeng, Ivar Pettersen, Torleif Ruud, Jaap van Weeghel
BACKGROUND: Adverse media coverage of isolated incidents affects the public perception of the risk of violent behavior among people with mental illness. However, the risk of violence is studied most frequently among inpatients, which falsely exaggerates the prevalence of people with mental illness because the majority of individuals receive treatment as outpatients. AIM: To estimate the prevalence of the risk of violence among inpatients and outpatients in psychiatric treatment, as well as the associations with gender, age, socio-economic status and co-morbid substance use disorders in all major diagnostic categories...
July 24, 2017: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736814/interactions-between-empathy-and-resting-heart-rate-in-early-adolescence-predict-violent-behavior-in-late-adolescence-and-early-adulthood
#2
Chardée A Galán, Daniel Ewon Choe, Erika E Forbes, Daniel S Shaw
BACKGROUND: Although resting heart rate (RHR) and empathy are independently and negatively associated with violent behavior, relatively little is known about the interplay between these psychophysiological and temperament-related risk factors. METHODS: Using a sample of 160 low-income, racially diverse men followed prospectively from infancy through early adulthood, this study examined whether RHR and empathy during early adolescence independently and interactively predict violent behavior and related correlates in late adolescence and early adulthood...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736797/victimization-mediates-the-longitudinal-association-between-depressive-symptoms-and-violent-behaviors-in-adolescence
#3
Rongqin Yu, Susan Branje, Wim Meeus, Hans M Koot, Pol van Lier, Seena Fazel
Despite evidence of a positive link between depressive symptoms and violent behaviors, the pathways underlying this longitudinal association remain unknown. Depressive symptoms might drive and reinforce victimization which in turn could increase risk of individuals becoming violent towards others. Thus, we tested whether victimization mediated the link between depressive symptoms and violent behaviors using a 6-year longitudinal study of a community sample of adolescents. The sample included 682 Dutch adolescents (54% boys) from an ongoing longitudinal study RADAR (Research on Adolescent Development and Relationships)...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736760/self-harm-and-violent-criminality-among-young-people-who-experienced-trauma-related-hospital-admission-during-childhood-a-danish-national-cohort-study
#4
Roger T Webb, Sussie Antonsen, Matthew J Carr, Louis Appleby, Carsten B Pedersen, Pearl L H Mok
BACKGROUND: Development of a better understanding of subsequent pathways for individuals who experienced trauma during childhood might usefully inform clinicians and public health professionals regarding the causes of self-harm and interpersonal violence. We aimed to examine these risks during late adolescence and early adulthood among people admitted to hospital following injuries or poisonings during their childhood. METHODS: This national cohort study included Danish people born between Jan 1, 1977, and Dec 31, 1997, and was linked to the National Patient Register and Psychiatric Central Research Register to identify all people exposed to hospital admissions for injuries or poisonings due to self-harm, interpersonal violence, or accidents before their 15th birthday...
July 2017: Lancet. Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735694/depression-and-violence-in-adolescence-and-young-adults-findings-from-three-longitudinal-cohorts
#5
Rongqin Yu, Mikko Aaltonen, Susan Branje, Tiina Ristikari, Wim Meeus, Katariina Salmela-Aro, Guy M Goodwin, Seena Fazel
OBJECTIVE: Despite recent research demonstrating associations between violence and depression in adults, links in adolescents are uncertain. This study aims to assess the longitudinal associations between young people's depression and later violent outcomes. METHOD: We used data from three cohorts with different measurements of depression exposures and subsequent violent outcomes. In a Dutch community cohort Research on Adolescent Development And Relationships (RADAR; N = 623) and a population-based British birth cohort Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; N = 4,030), we examined the longitudinal links between adolescent depressive symptoms and violent behaviors from age 13 to 17 years...
August 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730221/usefulness-of-ultrastructure-studies-for-the-estimation-of-the-postmortem-interval-a-systematic-review
#6
Sorin Hostiuc, Mugurel Constantin Rusu, Vasile Sorin Mănoiu, Alexandra Diana Vrapciu, IonuŢ Negoi, Maria Viorela Popescu
Establishing the postmortem interval (PMI) is vital in legal medicine as it allows to retrospectively estimate the hour of death, which is essential for the police as a starting point for their inquiries (especially in violent deaths). Ultrastructure studies aimed specifically to detect autolytic changes are scarcely identified in the scientific literature. Moreover, they are performed in a variety of conditions (different temperatures, species, in vitro ÷ in situ, and so on), making the results difficult to interpret for legal medicine purposes...
2017: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729199/violent-firearm-related-conflicts-among-high-risk-youth-an-event-level-and-daily-calendar-analysis
#7
Patrick M Carter, Maureen A Walton, Jason Goldstick, Quyen M Epstein-Ngo, Marc A Zimmerman, Melissa C Mercado, Amanda Garcia Williams, Rebecca M Cunningham
Firearm homicide is the leading cause of violence-related youth mortality. To inform prevention efforts, we analyzed event-level data to identify unique precursors to firearm conflicts. Youth (ages:14-24) seeking Emergency Department (ED) treatment for assault or for other reasons and reporting past 6-month drug use were enrolled in a 2-year longitudinal study. Time-line follow-back substance use/aggression modules were administered at baseline and each 6-month follow-up. Violent non-partner conflicts were combined across time-points...
July 17, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729022/boldness-psychopathic-traits-predict-reduced-gaze-toward-fearful-eyes-in-men-with-a-history-of-violence
#8
Steven M Gillespie, Pia Rotshtein, Anthony R Beech, Ian J Mitchell
Research with developmental and adult samples has shown a relationship of psychopathic traits with reduced eye gaze. However, these relationships remained to be investigated among forensic samples. Here we examined the eye movements of male violent offenders during an emotion recognition task. Violent offenders performed similar to non-offending controls, and their eye movements varied with the emotion and intensity of the facial expression. In the violent offender group Boldness psychopathic traits, but not Meanness or Disinhibition, were associated with reduced dwell time and fixation counts, and slower first fixation latencies, on the eyes compared with the mouth...
July 17, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727682/racial-and-ethnic-differences-in-homicides-of-adult-women-and-the-role-of-intimate-partner-violence-united-states-2003-2014
#9
Emiko Petrosky, Janet M Blair, Carter J Betz, Katherine A Fowler, Shane P D Jack, Bridget H Lyons
Homicide is one of the leading causes of death for women aged ≤44 years.* In 2015, homicide caused the death of 3,519 girls and women in the United States. Rates of female homicide vary by race/ethnicity (1), and nearly half of victims are killed by a current or former male intimate partner (2). To inform homicide and intimate partner violence (IPV) prevention efforts, CDC analyzed homicide data from the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) among 10,018 women aged ≥18 years in 18 states during 2003-2014...
July 21, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724668/mortality-rates-and-cause-of-death-among-former-prison-inmates-in-north-carolina
#10
Mark Jones, Gregory D Kearney, Xiaohui Xu, Tammy Norwood, Scott K Proescholdbell
BACKGROUND Inmates face challenges upon release from prison, including increased risk of death. We examine mortality among former inmates in North Carolina, including both violent and nonviolent deaths.METHODS A retrospective cohort study among former North Carolina inmates released between 2008 and 2010 were linked with North Carolina mortality data to determine cause of death. Inmates were followed through December 31, 2012. Mortality rates among former inmates were compared with deaths among North Carolina residents using standardized mortality ratios (SMRs)...
July 2017: North Carolina Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721604/a-space-of-one-s-own-barbosa-du-bocage-the-foundation-of-the-national-museum-of-lisbon-and-the-construction-of-a-career-in-zoology-1851-1907
#11
Daniel Gamito-Marques
This paper discusses the life and scientific work of José Vicente Barbosa du Bocage (1823-1907), a nineteenth-century Portuguese naturalist who carved a new place for zoological research in Portugal and built up a prestigious scientific career by securing appropriate physical and institutional spaces to the discipline. Although he was appointed professor of zoology at the Lisbon Polytechnic School, an institution mainly devoted to the preparatory training of military officers and engineers, he succeeded in creating the conditions that allowed him to develop consistent research in zoology at this institution...
July 18, 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721577/characterization-of-motor-events-in-rem-sleep-behavior-disorder
#12
Paulo Bugalho, Tânia Lampreia, Rita Miguel, Marcelo Mendonça, André Caetano, Raquel Barbosa
We used video-polysomnography to characterize motor events (ME) in 14 Parkinson's disease (PD-RBD) and 18 idiopathic (iRBD) REM sleep behavior disorder cases. ME occurred predominantly in the upper limbs and were mostly simple, non-emotional, distal and focal. There were no significant differences in ME features between PD-RBD and iRBD groups. Our data suggests that RBD ME are mostly non violent. Similarity between PD-RBD and iRBD groups suggests that motor dysfunction does not affect ME features.
July 18, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720011/facial-emotion-recognition-and-empathy-in-employees-at-a-juvenile-detention-center
#13
Luz Anyela Morales Quintero, Jairo Muñoz-Delgado, José Carlos Sánchez-Ferrer, Ana Fresán, Martin Brüne, Iván Arango de Montis
Numerous studies have shown that emotion recognition is impaired in individuals with a history of violent offenses, especially in those diagnosed with psychopathy. However, in criminological contexts, there is insufficient research regarding the role of empathy and facial emotion recognition abilities of personnel employed in correction centers. Accordingly, we sought to explore facial emotion recognition abilities and empathy in administrative officers and security guards at a center for institutionalized juvenile offenders...
July 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716395/-it-ruined-my-life-the-effects-of-the-war-on-drugs-on-people-who-inject-drugs-pwid-in-rural-puerto-rico
#14
R Abadie, C Gelpi-Acosta, C Davila, A Rivera, M Welch-Lazoritz, K Dombrowski
BACKGROUND: The War on Drugs has raised the incarceration rates of racial minorities for non-violent drug-related crimes, profoundly stigmatized drug users, and redirected resources from drug prevention and treatment to militarizing federal and local law enforcement. Yet, while some states consider shifting their punitive approach to drug use, to one based on drug treatment and rehabilitation, nothing suggests that these policy shifts are being replicated in Puerto Rico. METHODS: This paper utilizes data from 360 PWID residing in four rural towns in the mountainous area of central Puerto Rico...
July 14, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715985/mental-disorders-among-criminal-offenders-a-review-of-the-literature
#15
Emily D Gottfried, Sheresa C Christopher
This article examines mental illness among adult, juvenile, male, female, jail, and prison inmates. It also explores the way in which mental health diagnoses impact offending and violent behavior. A review of literature pertaining to differences between the genders and age of offenders suggests that psychiatric disorders are more common among criminal offenders than the population at large. Furthermore, it appears that many mentally ill offenders do not receive sufficient treatment during their incarcerations and that barriers inherent to incarceration prevent adequate treatment of mental illnesses...
July 2017: Journal of Correctional Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709385/recurrent-childhood-animal-cruelty-and-its-link-to-recurrent-adult-interpersonal-violence
#16
Caleb E Trentham, Christopher Hensley, Christina Policastro
In the early 1960s, researchers began to examine the potential link between childhood animal cruelty and future interpersonal violence. Findings since then have been inconsistent in establishing a relationship between the two. This may be due to researchers failing to measure the recurrency of childhood animal abuse and the recurrency of later violent acts committed in adulthood. The current study, using data from 257 inmates at a medium-security prison in a Southern state, is a replication of research conducted by Tallichet and Hensley, and Hensley, Tallichet, and Dutkiewicz, which examined this recurrency issue...
July 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706233/dome-like-behaviour-at-mt-etna-the-case-of-the-28-december-2014-south-east-crater-paroxysm
#17
C Ferlito, V Bruno, G Salerno, T Caltabiano, D Scandura, M Mattia, M Coltorti
On the 28 December 2014, a violent and short paroxysmal eruption occurred at the South East Crater (SEC) of Mount Etna that led to the formation of huge niches on the SW and NE flanks of the SEC edifice from which a volume of ~3 × 10(6) m(3) of lava was erupted. Two basaltic lava flows discharged at a rate of ~370 m(3)/s, reaching a maximum distance of ~5 km. The seismicity during the event was scarce and the eruption was not preceded by any notable ground deformation, which instead was dramatic during and immediately after the event...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705652/measuring-resilience-in-the-adolescent-population-a-succinct-tool-for-outpatient-adolescent-health
#18
Jordan Barger, Patty Vitale, John P Gaughan, Lori Feldman-Winter
OBJECTIVE: To create a valid tool to measure adolescent resilience, and to determine if this tool correlates with current participation in risk behaviors and prior adverse childhood events. STUDY DESIGN: One hundred adolescents were recruited from primary care clinics in New Jersey for this cross-sectional study. A "7Cs tool" was developed to measure resilience using the 7Cs model of resilience. All participants completed the 7Cs tool, the Adverse Childhood Events Survey, and the Health Survey for Adolescents to identify current risk behaviors...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705259/-just-not-all-ice-users-do-that-investigating-perceptions-and-potential-harms-of-australia-s-ice-destroys-lives-campaign-in-two-studies
#19
Caitlin H Douglass, Elizabeth C Early, Cassandra J C Wright, Anna Palmer, Peter Higgs, Brendan Quinn, Paul M Dietze, Megan S C Lim
BACKGROUND: In 2015, the Australian government launched the media campaign Ice Destroys Lives targeting crystal methamphetamine use. Previous research indicates mass media campaigns may have harmful effects for people engaged in drug use. This study investigated perceptions and harms of Ice Destroys Lives among adults with a history of injecting drugs and young people. METHODS: This analysis includes data from two studies: an online questionnaire with young people and in-depth interviews with adults who use crystal methamphetamine...
July 14, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704109/heterogeneity-in-drinking-practices-in-england-and-wales-and-its-association-with-violent-behavior-a-latent-class-analysis
#20
Carly Lightowlers
BACKGROUND: Crude single-item consumption metrics, such as "binge drinking" measures, mask the complexity and heterogeneity in young people's drinking; thus limiting our understanding of young people's drinking patterns as well as how alcohol drinking is associated with violent outcomes. OBJECTIVES: The current study employed a range of consumption and contextual indicators to explore heterogeneity in young people's (16-29 years) drinking practices, giving due consideration to their social nature...
July 13, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
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