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Andrew T Trout, Rachel M Sheridan, Suraj D Serai, Stavra A Xanthakos, Weizhe Su, Bin Zhang, Daniel B Wallihan
Purpose To assess the diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance (MR) elastography-derived liver stiffness to detect liver fibrosis in a pediatric and young adult population with a spectrum of liver diseases. Materials and Methods This retrospective study included patients younger than 21 years of age who underwent MR elastography and liver biopsy within 3 months of one another between January 2012 and September 2016 for indications other than liver transplantation or Fontan palliation of congenital heart disease...
February 22, 2018: Radiology
Colin R Gregson, Gregory P Horne, Robin M Orr, Simon M Pimblott, Howard E Sims, Robin J Taylor, Kevin J Webb
The yield of molecular hydrogen, as a function of nitric acid concentration, from the α-radiolysis of aerated nitric acid and its mixtures with sulfuric acid containing plutonium or americium has been investigated. Comparison of experimental measurements with predictions of a Monte Carlo radiation track chemistry model shows that, in addition to scavenging of the hydrated electron, its precursor, and the hydrogen atom, the quenching of excited state water is important in controlling the yield of molecular hydrogen...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Moi Lin Ling, Patricia Ching, Ammar Widitaputra, Alison Stewart, Nanthipha Sirijindadirat, Le Thi Anh Thu
Background: The Asia Pacific Society of Infection Control launched its revised Guidelines for Disinfection and Sterilization of Instruments in Health Care Facilities in February 2017. This document describes the guidelines and recommendations for the reprocessing of instruments in healthcare setting. It aims to highlight practical recommendations in a concise format designed to assist healthcare facilities at Asia Pacific region in achieving high standards in sterilization and disinfection...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Fernando Vidal, Huina Lin, Cecilia Morales, Frieder Jäkle
The use of thermo-reversible Lewis Pair (LP) interactions in the formation of transient polymer networks is still greatly underexplored. In this work, we describe the synthesis and characterization of polydimethylsiloxane/polystyrene (PDMS/PS) blends that form dynamic Lewis acid-Lewis base adducts resulting in reversible crosslinks. Linear PS containing 10 mol % of di-2-thienylboryl pendant groups randomly distributed was obtained in a two-step one-pot functionalization reaction from silyl-functionalized PS, while ditelechelic PDMS with pyridyl groups at the chain-termini was directly obtained via thiol-ene "click" chemistry from commercially available vinyl-terminated PDMS...
February 13, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
David van den Berg, Paul A J M de Bont, Berber M van der Vleugel, Carlijn de Roos, Ad de Jongh, Agnes van Minnen, Mark van der Gaag
We present 12-month follow-up results for a randomised controlled trial of prolonged exposure and eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy in 85 (78.8%) participants with psychotic disorder and comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Positive effects on clinician-rated PTSD, self-rated PTSD, depression, paranoid-referential thinking and remission from schizophrenia were maintained up to 12-month follow-up. Negative post-traumatic cognitions declined in prolonged exposure and were stable in EMDR...
February 7, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Lea Höfel, Bruno Eppler, Magdalena Storf, Elizabeth Schnöbel-Müller, Johannes-Peter Haas, Boris Hügle
BACKGROUND: Methotrexate (MTX), commonly used in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), frequently has to be discontinued due to intolerance with anticipatory and associative gastrointestinal adverse effects. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) is a psychological method where dysfunctional experiences and memories are reprocessed by recall combined with bilateral eye movements. The objective of this study was to assess efficacy of EMDR for treatment of MTX intolerance in JIA patients...
February 13, 2018: Pediatric Rheumatology Online Journal
Hamza Al-Qasmi, Gareth T W Law, L Keith Fifield, John A Howe, Tim Brand, Gregory L Cowie, Kathleen A Law, Francis R Livens
The nuclear fuel reprocessing plants on the Sellafield site (UK) have released low-level effluents into the Irish Sea under authorisation since 1952. This has led to the labelling of nearby offshore sediments with a range of artificial radionuclides. In turn, these sediments act as a long-term secondary source of both soluble and particle-associated radionuclides to coastal areas. These radionuclides are of interest both in assessing possible environmental impacts and as tracers for marine processes. Here we present results from a study of the geochemistry of natural (234, 238U) and artificial (137Cs, 241Am, 238Pu, 239+240Pu, and 236U) radionuclides and their accumulation in sediments from Loch Etive, Scotland...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Connie O'Driscoll, Jerome Sheahan, Florence Renou-Wilson, Peter Croot, Francesco Pilla, Bruce Misstear, Liwen Xiao
Ireland reported the highest non-compliance with respect to total trihalomethanes (TTHMs) in drinking water across the 27 European Union Member States for the year 2010. We carried out a GIS-based investigation of the links between geographical parameters and catchment land-uses with TTHMs concentrations in Irish drinking water. A high risk catchment map was created using peat presence, rainfall (>1400 mm) and slope (<5%) and overlain with a map comprising the national dataset of routinely monitored TTHM concentrations...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Monique T Barakat, Mohit Girotra, Robert J Huang, Subhas Banerjee
BACKGROUND: Outbreaks of transmission of infection related to endoscopy despite reported adherence to reprocessing guidelines, warrant scrutiny of all potential contributing factors. Recent reports from ambulatory surgery centers indicated widespread significant occult damage within endoscope working channels, raising concerns regarding the potential detrimental impact of this damage on the adequacy of endoscope reprocessing. METHODS: We inspected working channels of all 68 endoscopes at our academic institution using a novel flexible inspection endoscope...
February 6, 2018: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
Gilbert L Nelson, Amanda M Lines, Amanda J Casella, Job M Bello, Samuel A Bryan
To simplify and improve the safety of reprocessing used nuclear fuel, an initial assessment was made of Raman microscopy applied to microfluidic volumes with a view toward the on-line spectroscopic measurement of highly radioactive solutions. This study compares a microscopic Raman probe (excitation focal point diameter 70 μm) to a larger, well studied probe (excitation focal point diameter 125 μm) used in prior investigations. This was done by chemometrically modeling and predicting concentrations of HNO3 solutions (0 M to 8 M) as they flowed through microfluidic cells based upon spectra from each probe...
February 8, 2018: Analyst
S Cao, A M Maiden, J M Rodenburg
Electron ptychography can in principle convert a conventional scanning electron microscope (SEM) into a good quality transmission electron microscope (TEM). An improvement in resolution of about a factor of 5 over the lens-defined resolution of an SEM was first demonstrated by Humphry et al. (2012). However, the results from that work showed some delocalization in the atomic fringes of the gold particles used as a test specimen for the technique. Here we explore factors that result in the delocalization effect when a defocused probe is used for the ptychographic data collection: source incoherence, the effects of detector faults, data truncation and a poorly calibrated illumination step size (or camera length)...
January 31, 2018: Ultramicroscopy
Petra Decristoforo, Josef Kaltseis, Andreas Fritz, Michael Edlinger, Wilfried Posch, Doris Wilflingseder, Cornelia Lass-Flörl, Dorothea Orth-Höller
OBJECTIVES: Several outbreaks of severe infections due to contamination of gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopes, mainly duodenoscopes have been described previously. The rate of microbial endoscope contamination is varying dramatically in literature. Thus, the aim of this multicentre prospective study was to evaluate the hygiene quality of endoscopes and automated endoscope reprocessors (AERs) in Tyrol/Austria. METHODS: In 2015 and 2016, a total of 463 GI endoscopes and 105 AERs from 29 endoscopy centres were analysed by a routine (R) and a combined routine and advanced (CRA) sampling procedure and investigated for microbial contamination by culture- and molecular-based analyses...
February 2, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Chi Lv, Kaifeng Zhao, Junping Zheng
It is a challenge to synthesize materials that possess the properties of high stretchability and self-healability. Herein a new poly(dimethylsiloxane) elastomer with high stretchability, room-temperature self-healability, repeatable reprocessability, and controlled degradability is reported by incorporating an aromatic disulfide bond and imine bond. The as-prepared elastomer can be stretched to over 2200% of its original length. Without external stimuli, a damaged sheet can completely heal in 4 h. In addition, the elastomer can be reprocessed multiple times without obvious performance degradation and degraded controllably by three ways...
February 5, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Lovisa B Olafsdottir, Julia Whelan, Graham M Snyder
BACKGROUND: Bacterial culture is the accepted standard to measure the adequacy of high-level disinfection (HLD) of duodenoscopes. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence assays have been suggested as an alternative method of evaluating the quality of reprocessing. We systematically reviewed published research describing the correlation between ATP and bacterial cultures. METHODS: The primary outcome was the correlation or concordance between concomitantly sampled ATP and bacterial contamination obtained from the instrument channel and/or elevator mechanism of the duodenoscope...
January 30, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Jay F Piccirillo, Spencer C Payne, Richard M Rosenfeld, Fuad M Baroody, Pete S Batra, John M DelGaudio, David R Edelstein, Andrew P Lane, Amber U Luong, R Peter Manes, Edward D McCoul, Michael P Platt, Douglas D Reh, Maureen D Corrigan
Objective To develop a clinical consensus statement on the use of sinus ostial dilation (SOD) of the paranasal sinuses. Methods An expert panel of otolaryngologists was assembled to represent general otolaryngology and relevant subspecialty societies. The target population is adults 18 years or older with chronic or recurrent rhinosinusitis (with or without nasal polyps, with or without prior sinus surgery) for whom SOD is being recommended, defined as endoscopic use of a balloon device to enlarge or open the outflow tracts of the maxillary, frontal, or sphenoid sinuses, as a standalone procedure or with endoscopic surgery...
February 2018: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Tailai Wen, Jia Yan, Daoyu Huang, Kun Lu, Changjian Deng, Tanyue Zeng, Song Yu, Zhiyi He
The aim of this research was to enhance the classification accuracy of an electronic nose (E-nose) in different detecting applications. During the learning process of the E-nose to predict the types of different odors, the prediction accuracy was not quite satisfying because the raw features extracted from sensors' responses were regarded as the input of a classifier without any feature extraction processing. Therefore, in order to obtain more useful information and improve the E-nose's classification accuracy, in this paper, a Weighted Kernels Fisher Discriminant Analysis (WKFDA) combined with Quantum-behaved Particle Swarm Optimization (QPSO), i...
January 29, 2018: Sensors
Yeon Hye Kwon, Byunghyun Min, Shaowei Yang, Dong-Yeun Koh, Ramesh R Bhave, Sankar Nair
Separation of radioisotope 85Kr from 136Xe is of importance in used nuclear fuel reprocessing. Membrane separation based on zeolite molecular sieves such as chabazite SAPO-34 is an attractive alternative to energy-intensive cryogenic distillation. We report the synthesis of SAPO-34 membranes with considerably enhanced performance, via thickness reduction based upon control of a steam-assisted vapor-solid conversion technique followed by ion exchange with alkali metal cations. The reduction of membrane thickness leads to a large increase in Kr permeance from 7...
January 29, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Katlin I Mallette, Peter Pieroni, Sonny S Dhalla
AIM: To correlate the length of endoscope hang time and number of bacteria cultured prior to use. METHODS: Prospectively, we cultured specimens from 19 gastroscopes, 24 colonoscopes and 5 side viewing duodenoscopes during the period of 2011 to 2015. A total of 164 results had complete data denoting date of cleansing, number of days stored and culture results. All scopes underwent initial cleaning in the endoscopy suite utilizing tap water, and then manually cleaned and flushed...
January 16, 2018: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
R Mager, M Kurosch, T Höfner, S Frees, A Haferkamp, A Neisius
The purpose of this study is to analyze clinical outcomes and costs of single-use flexible ureterorenoscopes in comparison with reusable flexible ureterorenoscopes in a tertiary referral center. Prospectively, 68 flexible ureterorenoscopies utilizing reusable (Flex-X2S, Flex-XC, Karl Storz) and 68 applying single-use flexible ureterorenoscopes (LithoVue, Boston Scientific) were collected. Clinical outcome parameters such as overall success rate, complication rates according to Clavien-Dindo, operation time and radiation exposure time were measured...
January 22, 2018: Urolithiasis
R Periáñez, Kyung-Suk Suh, Byung-Il Min, M Villa-Alfageme
A numerical model, previously validated with other radionuclides, was applied to simulate the dispersion of 236U released from European nuclear fuel reprocessing plants in the North Atlantic and Shelf Seas using a published reconstruction of Sellafield and La Hague releases. Model results are in better agreement with observations if the lowest estimation of such releases are used. This implies that approximately 40kg of 236U has been discharged from Sellafield. It was found that adsorption of 236U on bed sediments of the shallow European Shelf Seas plays an essential role in its dispersion patterns...
January 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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