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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645783/maerua-angolensis-stem-bark-extract-reverses-anxiety-and-related-behaviours-in-zebrafish-involvement-of-gabaergic-and-5-ht-systems
#1
Charles Kwaku Benneh, Robert Peter Biney, Priscilla Kolibea Mante, Augustine Tandoh, Donatus Wewura Adongo, Eric Woode
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Maerua angolensis DC (Capparaceae) has been employed in the management of several central nervous system (CNS) disorders including anxiety. This study evaluated the anxiolytic effects of the petroleum ether/ethyl acetate fraction stem bark extract and its possible mechanism(s) using zebrafish anxiety models. METHODS: Adult zebrafish, tested in the novel tank and light dark tests, have shown by previous authors to be sensitive to the anxiolytic effects of known anxiolytic drugs...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643105/differential-role-of-gabaa-receptors-and-neuroligin-2-for-perisomatic-gabaergic-synapse-formation-in-the-hippocampus
#2
Patrizia Panzanelli, Simon Früh, Jean-Marc Fritschy
Perisomatic GABAergic synapses onto hippocampal pyramidal cells arise from two populations of basket cells with different neurochemical and functional properties. The presence of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex in their postsynaptic density (PSD) distinguishes perisomatic synapses from GABAergic synapses on dendrites and the axon-initial segment. Targeted deletion of neuroligin 2 (NL2), a transmembrane protein interacting with presynaptic neurexin, has been reported to disrupt postsynaptic clustering of GABAA receptors (GABAAR) and their anchoring protein, gephyrin, at perisomatic synapses...
June 22, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642284/excitation-of-gabaergic-neurons-in-the-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-triggers-immediate-transition-from-non-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-to-wakefulness-in-mice
#3
Shota Kodani, Shingo Soya, Takeshi Sakurai
Emotionally salient situations usually trigger arousal along with autonomic and neuroendocrine reactions. To examine whether the extended amygdala plays a role in sleep/wakefulness regulation, we examined the effects of optogenetic and pharmacogenetic excitation of GABAergic neurons in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (GABA(BNST) neurons). Acute optogenetic excitation of these cells during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep resulted in immediate state transition to wakefulness, while stimulation during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep showed no effect on sleep/wakefulness states in male mice...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640508/intraglomerular-gap-junctions-enhance-interglomerular-synchrony-in-a-sparsely-connected-olfactory-bulb-network
#4
Frederic Pouille, Thomas S McTavish, Lawrence E Hunter, Diego Restrepo, Nathan E Schoppa
A dominant feature of the olfactory bulb response to odour is fast synchronized oscillations at beta (15-40 Hz) or gamma (40-90 Hz) frequencies, thought to be involved in integration of olfactory signals. Mechanistically, the bulb presents an interesting case study for understanding how beta/gamma oscillations arise. Fast oscillatory synchrony in the activity of output mitral cells (MCs) appears to result from interactions with GABAergic granule cells (GCs), yet the incidence of MC-GC connections is very low, around 4%...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639210/-oxytocin-and-the-mechanisms-of-alcohol-dependence
#5
REVIEW
Till Faehrmann, Gerald Zernig, Sergei Mechtcheriakov
One of the crucial purposes of treating alcohol-dependent patients is to enhance their ability to stay abstinent after detoxification therapy. Anxiety and stress vulnerability are the main factors provoking alcohol craving and relapse. In the first months of abstinence, alcohol-dependent patients frequently show sleep disturbances, irritability and depression, indicating chronic activation of stress pathways. In addition, the loss of confidence in interpersonal interactions results in social withdrawal and reduced willingness to participate in therapeutic programs...
June 21, 2017: Neuropsychiatrie: Klinik, Diagnostik, Therapie und Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637045/effects-of-injection-of-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-agonists-into-the-nucleus-accumbens-on-naloxone-induced-morphine-withdrawal
#6
Betilay Topkara, Hasan R Yananli, Eren Sakallı, Mehluge Caferova
AIMS: This study was to investigate the effects of local administration of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonists into the nucleus accumbens (NAc) on naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal symptoms. METHODS: Bilateral guide cannulas were stereotaxically implanted in the shell or core regions of the NAc of Sprague-Dawley rats. After a recovery period, 3 morphine pellets, each consisting of 75 mg morphine base, were placed subcutaneously on the first and third days of the study with the rats under mild ether anaesthesia...
June 22, 2017: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636662/differential-regulation-of-polarized-synaptic-vesicle-trafficking-and-synapse-stability-in-neural-circuit-rewiring-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#7
Naina Kurup, Dong Yan, Karina Kono, Yishi Jin
Neural circuits are dynamic, with activity-dependent changes in synapse density and connectivity peaking during different phases of animal development. In C. elegans, young larvae form mature motor circuits through a dramatic switch in GABAergic neuron connectivity, by concomitant elimination of existing synapses and formation of new synapses that are maintained throughout adulthood. We have previously shown that an increase in microtubule dynamics during motor circuit rewiring facilitates new synapse formation...
June 21, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635080/neuroadaptations-of-presynaptic-and-postsynaptic-gabab-receptor-function-in-the-paraventricular-nucleus-in-response-to-chronic-unpredictable-stress
#8
Yonggang Gao, Jing-Jing Zhou, Yun Zhu, Li Wang, Therese A Kosten, Xiangjian Zhang, De-Pei Li
BACKGROUND: Chronic stress induces an impaired GABAA (γ-aminobutyric acid type A) receptor-mediated inhibition in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). It is not clear whether GABAB receptor function is altered in chronic stress. We hypothesize that chronic stress alters GABAB receptor function in PVN corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons to control hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Whole cell patch-clamp recording was performed on PVN-CRH neurons expressing eGFP driven by CRH promoter in brain slices from unstressed rats and rats that had been subjected to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)...
June 20, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634442/mild-traumatic-brain-injury-evokes-pyramidal-neuron-axon-initial-segment-plasticity-and-diffuse-presynaptic-inhibitory-terminal-loss
#9
Michal Vascak, Jianli Sun, Matthew Baer, Kimberle M Jacobs, John T Povlishock
The axon initial segment (AIS) is the site of action potential (AP) initiation, thus a crucial regulator of neuronal activity. In excitatory pyramidal neurons, the high density of voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV1.6) at the distal AIS regulates AP initiation. A surrogate AIS marker, ankyrin-G (ankG) is a structural protein regulating neuronal functional via clustering voltage-gated ion channels. In neuronal circuits, changes in presynaptic input can alter postsynaptic output via AIS structural-functional plasticity...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631579/opening-of-katp-channel-regulates-tonic-currents-from-pyramidal-neurons-in-rat-brain
#10
Zhongxia Li, Jiangping Wang, Huimin Yu, Kewen Jiang
BACKGROUND: ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels couple metabolic state to cellular excitability. Activation of neuronal and astrocytic mitochondrial KATP (mitoKATP) channels regulates a variety of neuronal functions. However, less is known about the impact of mitoKATP on tonic γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) inhibition. Tonic GABA inhibition is mediated by the binding of ambient GABA on extrasynaptic GABA A-type receptors (GABAARs) and is involved in regulating neuronal excitability. METHODS: We determined the impact of activation of KATP channels with diazoxide (DIZ) on tonic inhibition and recorded tonic current from rat cortical layer 5 pyramidal cells by patch-clamp recordings...
June 20, 2017: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628625/neural-progenitor-cell-proliferation-in-the-hypothalamus-is-involved-in-acquired-heat-tolerance-in-long-term-heat-acclimated-rats
#11
Kentaro Matsuzaki, Masanori Katakura, Naotoshi Sugimoto, Toshiko Hara, Michio Hashimoto, Osamu Shido
Constant exposure to moderate heat facilitates progenitor cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation in the hypothalamus of heat-acclimated (HA) rats. In this study, we investigated neural phenotype and responsiveness to heat in HA rats' hypothalamic newborn cells. Additionally, the effect of hypothalamic neurogenesis on heat acclimation in rats was evaluated. Male Wistar rats (5 weeks old) were housed at an ambient temperature (Ta) of 32°C for 6 days (STHA) or 40 days (LTHA), while control (CN) rats were kept at a Ta of 24°C for 6 days (STCN) or 40 days (LTCN)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628196/molecular-mechanisms-of-experience-dependent-maturation-in-cortical-gabaergic-inhibition
#12
REVIEW
M Ridzwana Begum, Judy C G Sng
Critical periods (CP) in early postnatal life are periods of plasticity during which the neuronal circuitry is most receptive to environmental stimuli. These early experiences translate to a more permanent and sophisticated neuronal connection in the adult brain systems. Multiple studies have pointed to the development of inhibitory circuitry as one of the central factors for the onset of critical periods. We discuss several molecular mechanisms regulating inhibitory circuit maturation and CP, from gene transcription level to protein signaling level...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627419/arx-polyalanine-expansion-mutations-lead-to-migration-impediment-in-the-rostral-cortex-coupled-with-a-developmental-deficit-of-calbindin-positive-cortical-gabaergic-interneurons
#13
K Lee, K Ireland, M Bleeze, C Shoubridge
The Aristaless-related homeobox gene (ARX) is indispensable for interneuron development. Patients with ARX polyalanine expansion mutations of the first two tracts (namely PA1 and PA2) suffer from intellectual disability of varying severity, with seizures a frequent comorbidity. The impact of PA1 and PA2 mutations on the brain development is unknown, hindering the search for therapeutic interventions. Here, we characterized the disturbances to cortical interneuron development in mice modeling the two most common ARX polyalanine expansion mutations in human...
June 13, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626390/profiles-of-vgf-peptides-in-the-rat-brain-and-their-modulations-after-phencyclidine-treatment
#14
Barbara Noli, Fabrizio Sanna, Carla Brancia, Filomena D'Amato, Barbara Manconi, Federica Vincenzoni, Irene Messana, Maria R Melis, Antonio Argiolas, Gian-Luca Ferri, Cristina Cocco
From the VGF precursor protein originate several low molecular weight peptides, whose distribution in the brain and blood circulation is not entirely known. Among the VGF peptides, those containing the N-terminus portion were altered in the cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) and hypothalamus of schizophrenia patients. "Hence, we aimed to better investigate the involvement of the VGF peptides in schizophrenia by studying their localization in the brain regions relevant for the disease, and revealing their possible modulations in response to certain neuronal alterations occurring in schizophrenia"...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625609/oxidative-stress-induced-by-cumene-hydroperoxide-produces-synaptic-depression-and-transient-hyperexcitability-in-rat-primary-motor-cortex-neurons
#15
R Pardillo-Diaz, L Carrascal, G Barrionuevo, P Nunez-Abades
Pyramidal neurons of the motor cortex are selectively degenerated in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). The mechanisms underlying neuronal death in ALS are not well established. In the absence of useful biomarkers, the early increased neuronal excitability seems to be the unique characteristic of ALS. Lipid peroxidation caused by oxidative stress has been postulated as one of the possible mechanisms involved in degeneration motor cortex pyramidal neurons. This paper examines the effect of lipid peroxidation on layer V pyramidal neurons induced by cumene hydroperoxide (CH) in brain slices from wild type rats...
June 15, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624616/age-related-plasticity-of-the-axon-initial-segment-of-cortical-pyramidal-cells-in-marmoset-monkeys
#16
Nafiseh Atapour, Marcello G P Rosa
Structural plasticity of the axon initial segment (AIS), the site of action potential initiation, is observed as part of the normal early development of the cortex, as well as in association with injury and disease. Here, we show that structural AIS plasticity also occurs with normal aging in adult marmosets. Immunohistochemical techniques were used to reveal the extent of the AIS of layer 2/3A pyramidal cells in 8 neocortical areas. We found that the AIS length varied significantly between areas in young adult (2-3 years old) marmosets, with neurons in frontal area 14C having the longest AIS, and those in the primary visual cortex the shortest...
May 22, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623920/ketamine-induced-apoptosis-in-the-mouse-cerebral-cortex-follows-similar-characteristic-of-physiological-apoptosis-and-can-be-regulated-by-neuronal-activity
#17
Qi Wang, Feng-Yan Shen, Rong Zou, Jing-Jing Zheng, Xiang Yu, Ying-Wei Wang
The effects of general anesthetics on inducing neuronal apoptosis during early brain development are well-documented. However, since physiological apoptosis also occurs during this developmental window, it is important to determine whether anesthesia-induced apoptosis targets the same cell population as physiological apoptosis or different cell types altogether. To provide an adequate plane of surgery, ketamine was co-administered with dexmedetomidine. The apoptotic neurons in the mouse primary somatosensory cortex (S1) were quantitated by immunohistochemistry...
June 17, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619359/postpartum-estrogen-withdrawal-impairs-gabaergic-inhibition-and-ltd-induction-in-basolateral-amygdala-complex-via-down-regulation-of-gpr30
#18
Rong Yang, Baofeng Zhang, Tingting Chen, Suyun Zhang, Ling Chen
Postpartum estrogen (E2) withdrawal is known to be a particularly vulnerable time for depressive symptoms. In this study, ovariectomized (OVX) mice were treated with co-administration of estradiol benzoate and progesterone (E2/P4) followed by administration of E2 alone (E2) and a subsequent E2 withdrawal (EW) to mimic the hormonal changes during pregnancy and postpartum. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of E2 withdrawal after hormone-simulated pregnancy on synaptic function and plasticity in basolateral amygdala complex (BLA)...
June 13, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617565/psychotropic-medications-in-swedish-homicide-victims-and-offenders-a-forensic-toxicological-case-control-study-of-adherence-and-recreational-use
#19
Jonatan Hedlund, Jonas Forsman, Joakim Sturup, Thomas Masterman
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the extent to which adherence to, and recreational use of, psychotropic medications influence the risk of homicide offending and victimization. METHODS: We conducted a population-based case-control study by way of linking a nationwide registry of dispensed prescriptions with a forensic-toxicological database. Homicide victims (n = 200) and offenders (n = 105) were identified for the years 2007-2009 and vehicle-accident controls (n = 1,643) for the years 2006-2013...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617379/-immunohistochemical-characteristics-of-the-substantia-nigra-neurons-of-the-human
#20
D E Korzhevskii, I P Grigor'ev, E G Sukhorukova, V V Gusel'nikova
AIM: To determine the cytochemical characteristics of unchanged neurons of the human substantia nigra using a wide range of immunocytochemical markers some of which (glutamate decarboxylase-65, PGP 9.5, non-phosphorylated neurofilament proteins, alpa-tubulin) have never been used for study of human dopaminergic neurons. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fragments of human midbrain (17 men and women, aged from 28 to 78 years) from the archives of the Department of General and Specific Morphology of the Institute of Experimental Medicine were used...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
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