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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214898/early-development-of-parvalbumin-somatostatin-and-cholecystokinin-expressing-neurons-in-rat-brain-following-prenatal-immune-activation-and-maternal-iron-deficiency
#1
Patricia Boksa, Ying Zhang, Dominique Nouel, Alice Wong, Tak Pan Wong
Prenatal maternal infection and maternal iron deficiency during pregnancy are 2 early environmental insults associated with increased risk for schizophrenia in offspring. Substantial evidence suggests that abnormalities in inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) interneuron function, especially in the parvalbumin subtype of GABA interneuron, both developmentally and in adulthood, may contribute mechanistically to cognitive deficits and psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia. This study used a rat model to test whether prenatal immune activation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; at gestation days, GD, 15 and 16) or maternal iron deficiency (from GD2 to postnatal day P7) or the combination of both insults alters major subtypes of GABAergic interneurons (parvalbumin, somatostatin, cholecystokinin) in brain regions relevant to schizophrenia (medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex [PFC], hippocampal CA1 and dentate gyrus, ventral subiculum) in offspring at P14 or P28...
February 18, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213518/deficits-in-the-activity-of-presynaptic-%C3%AE-aminobutyric-acid-type-b-receptors-contribute-to-altered-neuronal-excitability-in-fragile-x-syndrome
#2
Ji-Yong Kang, Jayashree Chadchankar, Thuy N Vien, Michelle I Mighdoll, Thomas M Hyde, Robert J Mather, Tarek Z Deeb, Menelas N Pangalos, Nicholas J Brandon, John Dunlop, Stephen J Moss
The behavioral and anatomical deficits seen in Fragile X syndrome (FXS) are widely believed to result from imbalances in the relative strengths of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission. While modified neuronal excitability is thought to be of significance, the contribution that alterations in GABAergic inhibition play in the pathophysiology of FXS are ill-defined. Slow sustained neuronal inhibition is mediated by γ-aminobutyric acid type B (GABAB) receptors, which are heterodimeric G-protein coupled receptors constructed from R1a and R2 or R1b and R2 subunits...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213154/density-and-neurochemical-profiles-of-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-expressing-interneuron-in-the-mouse-basolateral-amygdala
#3
Xiaona Wang, Chunhua Liu, Xiaochen Wang, Fei Gao, Ren-Zhi Zhan
Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-expressing interneurons reside in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) of rodents. In the present study, we immunohistochemically analyzed nNOS-positive cells in the mouse BLA by focusing on their density, γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergicity, and co-localization with calcium-binding proteins and neuropeptides. The density of nNOS-containing neurons was analyzed with unbiased stereology. Experiments were conducted in both adult wild-type C57BL/6 and glutamic acid decarboxylase-green fluorescence protein (GAD67-GFP) knock-in mice, in which GFP is expressed in GABAergic neurons under the control of the endogenous GAD67 gene promoter...
February 14, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213105/anxiolytic-and-antidepressant-like-effects-of-an-aqueous-extract-of-tanacetum-parthenium-l-schultz-bip-asteraceae-in-mice
#4
Jorge Cárdenas, Valeria Reyes-Pérez, María Dolores Hernández-Navarro, Ana María Dorantes-Barrón, Salvador Almazán, Rosa Estrada-Reyes
AIM: Tanacetum parthenium L. Schultz-Bip (Asteraceae) is widely used worldwide in traditional medicine for the treatment of convulsions and culture-bound syndromes such as susto (fear). The aim of this work was to evaluate the anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects of an aqueous extract of T. parthenium in behavioral paradigms in mice. The effects of T. parthenium were compared with those produced by anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs. We carried out the chemical characterization of the main constituents of T...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212942/activation-of-type-4-dopaminergic-receptors-in-the-prelimbic-area-of-medial-prefrontal-cortex-is-necessary-for-the-expression-of-innate-fear-behavior
#5
Macarena D Vergara, Victor N Keller, José A Fuentealba, Katia Gysling
The prelimbic area (PL) of the medial Prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is involved in the acquisition and expression of conditioned and innate fear. Both types of fear share several neuronal pathways. It has been documented that dopamine (DA) plays an important role in the regulation of aversive memories in the mPFC. The exposure to an aversive stimulus, such as the smell of a predator odor or the exposure to footshock stress is accompanied by an increase in mPFC DA release. Evidence suggests that the type 4 dopaminergic receptor (D4R) is the molecular target through which DA modulates fear expression...
February 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211790/flpstop-a-tool-for-conditional-gene-control-in-drosophila
#6
Yvette Erica Fisher, Helen H Yang, Jesse Isaacman-Beck, Marjorie Xie, Daryl M Gohl, Thomas R Clandinin
Manipulating gene function cell type-specifically is a common experimental goal in Drosophila research and has been central to studies of neural development, circuit computation, and behavior. However, current cell type-specific gene disruption techniques in flies often reduce gene activity incompletely or rely on cell division. Here we describe FlpStop, a generalizable tool for conditional gene disruption and rescue in post-mitotic cells. In proof-of-principle experiments, we manipulated apterous, a regulator of wing development...
February 17, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211669/3-aminomethyl-derivatives-of-2-phenylimidazo-1-2-a-pyridine-as-positive-allosteric-modulators-of-gabaa-receptor-with-potential-antipsychotic-activity
#7
Monika Marcinkowska, Marcin Kolaczkowski, Krzysztof Kamiński, Adam Bucki, Maciej Henryk Pawlowski, Agata Siwek, Tadeusz Karcz, Gabriela Starowicz, Karolina Sloczynska, Elżbieta Pękala, Anna Wesołowska, Jerzy Samochowiec, Paweł Mierzejewski, Przemyslaw Bienkowski
Schizophrenia is a mental illness characterized by behavioral changes as well as anatomical and neurochemical abnormalities. There has been a remarkable progress in the drug discovery for schizophrenia; however, antipsychotics that act through molecular targets, other than monoaminergic receptors, have not been developed. One of the hypotheses of schizophrenia states that GABAergic dysfunction might be implemented in the pathophysiology of this disease. Our recent findings and previous clinical observations have suggested that modulation of GABAergic system through α1-GABAA receptors would represent an original approach for the treatment of schizophrenia...
February 17, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210214/arginine-vasopressin-alters-both-spontaneous-and-phase-locked-synaptic-inputs-to-airway-vagal-preganglionic-neuron-via-activation-of-v1a-receptor-insights-into-stress-related-airway-vagal-excitation
#8
Xianxia Yan, Xingxin Chen, Yuhong Guo, Ding He, Yonghua Chen, Chunmei Xia, Jijiang Wang
The airway vagal preganglionic neurons (AVPNs) in the external formation of the nucleus ambiguus (eNA) play a major role in the vagal control of tracheobronchial smooth muscle tone and maintenance of airway resistance. The eNA receives vasopressinergic projection from the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), the key node for the genesis of psychological stress. Since airway vagal excitation is reportedly to be associated with the psychological stress-induced/exacerbated airway hyperresponsiveness in asthmatics, arginine vasopressin (AVP) might be involved in stress-related airway vagal excitation...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205531/wnt5a-is-a-crucial-regulator-of-neurogenesis-during-cerebellum-development
#9
Chandramohan Subashini, Sivadasan Bindu Dhanesh, Chih-Ming Chen, Paul Ann Riya, Vadakkath Meera, Thulasi Sheela Divya, Rejji Kuruvilla, Kerstin Buttler, Jackson James
The role of Wnt5a has been extensively explored in various aspects of development but its role in cerebellar development remains elusive. Here, for the first time we unravel the expression pattern and functional significance of Wnt5a in cerebellar development using Wnt5a(-/-) and Nestin-Cre mediated conditional knockout mouse models. We demonstrate that loss of Wnt5a results in cerebellar hypoplasia and depletion of GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons. Besides, Purkinje cells of the mutants displayed stunted, poorly branched dendritic arbors...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203148/dopamine-d1-receptor-immunoreactivity-on-fine-processes-of-gfap-positive-astrocytes-in-the-substantia-nigra-pars-reticulata-of-adult-mouse
#10
Katsuhiro Nagatomo, Sechiko Suga, Masato Saitoh, Masahito Kogawa, Kazuto Kobayashi, Yoshio Yamamoto, Katsuya Yamada
Substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), the major output nucleus of the basal ganglia, receives dopamine from dendrites extending from dopaminergic neurons of the adjacent nucleus pars compacta (SNc), which is known for its selective degeneration in Parkinson's disease. As a recipient for dendritically released dopamine, the dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) is a primary candidate due to its very dense immunoreactivity in the SNr. However, the precise location of D1R remains unclear at the cellular level in the SNr except for that reported on axons/axon terminals of presumably striatal GABAergic neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202503/vitamin-d-and-depression-cellular-and-regulatory-mechanisms
#11
REVIEW
Michael J Berridge
Depression is caused by a change in neural activity resulting from an increase in glutamate that drives excitatory neurons and may be responsible for the decline in the activity and number of the GABAergic inhibitory neurons. This imbalance between the excitatory and inhibitory neurons may contribute to the onset of depression. At the cellular level there is an increase in the concentration of intracellular Ca(2+) within the inhibitory neurons that is driven by an increase in entry through the NMDA receptors (NMDARs) and through activation of the phosphoinositide signaling pathway that generates inositol trisphosphate (InsP3) that releases Ca(2+) from the internal stores...
April 2017: Pharmacological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202254/robust-interactions-between-the-effects-of-auditory-and-cutaneous-electrical-stimulations-on-cell-activities-in-the-thalamic-reticular-nucleus
#12
Akihisa Kimura
The thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), a cluster of GABAergic cells, is thought to regulate bottom-up and top-down streams of sensory processing in the loop circuitry between the thalamus and cortex. Provided that sensory inputs of different modalities interact in the TRN, the TRN could contribute to fast and flexible cross-modal modulation of attention and perception that incessantly takes place in our every day life. Indeed, diverse subthreshold interactions of auditory and visual inputs have been revealed in TRN cells (Kimura, 2014)...
February 12, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201982/transcriptome-profile-of-rat-genes-in-injured-spinal-cord-at-different-stages-by-rna-sequencing
#13
Ling-Ling Shi, Nan Zhang, Xiu-Mei Xie, Yue-Juan Chen, Rui Wang, Lin Shen, Jian-Sheng Zhou, Jian-Guo Hu, He-Zuo Lü
BACKGROUND: Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in fatal damage and currently has no effective treatment. The pathological mechanisms of SCI remain unclear. In this study, genome-wide transcriptional profiling of spinal cord samples from injured rats at different time points after SCI was performed by RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq). The transcriptomes were systematically characterized to identify the critical genes and pathways that are involved in SCI pathology. RESULTS: RNA-Seq results were obtained from total RNA harvested from the spinal cords of sham control rats and rats in the acute, subacute, and chronic phases of SCI (1 day, 6 days and 28 days after injury, respectively; n = 3 in every group)...
February 15, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199198/the-immunological-function-of-gabaergic-system
#14
Chenlu Wu, Xiaobin Qin, Huihui Du, Nengzhang Li, Wenkai Ren, Yuanyi Peng
As a well-known inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, gamma-aminobutyric acid also has critical roles in immune system. Immune cells (e.g., lymphocytes, macrophages) express the components of GABAergic system, including GABA receptors, GABA transporters, and GABA metabolic enzymes. The functions of immune cells are highly impacted on GABA signaling. GABAergic components negatively regulate the immune responses, particularly the T cell-mediated immunity, via their effects on production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and activation of signal pathways, like mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor-kappaB pathways...
March 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197105/investigating-the-role-of-glutamate-and-gaba-in-the-modulation-of-transthalamic-activity-a-combined-fmri-fmrs-study
#15
Nathalie Just, Sarah Sonnay
The Excitatory-Inhibitory balance (EIB) between glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons is known to regulate the function of thalamocortical neurocircuits. The thalamus is known as an important relay for glutamatergic and GABAergic signals ascending/descending to/from the somatosensory cortex in rodents. However, new investigations attribute a larger role to thalamic nuclei as modulators of information processing within the cortex. In this study, functional Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (fMRS) was used to measure glutamate (Glu) and GABA associations with BOLD responses during activation of the thalamus to barrel cortex (S1BF) pathway at 9...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196860/the-nclx-type-na-ca-2-exchanger-ncx-9-is-required-for-patterning-of-neural-circuits-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#16
Vishal Sharma, Soumitra Roy, Israel Sekler, Damien M O'Halloran
NCLX is a Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger that uses energy stored in the transmembrane sodium gradient to facilitate the exchange of sodium ions for ionic calcium. Mammals have a single NCLX, which has been shown to function primarily at the mitochondrion and is an important regulator of neuronal physiology by contributing to neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity. The role of NCLX in developmental cell patterning, for example, in neural circuits, is largely unknown. Here we describe a novel role for the Caenorhabditis elegans NCLX-type protein, NCX-9, in neural circuit formation...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196855/inactivation-of-girk-channels-weakens-the-pre-and-postsynaptic-inhibitory-activity-in-dorsal-raphe-neurons
#17
Nerea Llamosas, Luisa Ugedo, Maria Torrecilla
The serotonergic tone of the dorsal raphe (DR) is regulated by 5-HT1A receptors, which negatively control serotonergic activity via the activation of G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying K(+) (GIRK) channels. In addition, DR activity is modulated by local GABAergic transmission, which is believed to play a key role in the development of mood-related disorders. Here, we sought to characterize the role of GIRK2 subunit-containing channels on the basal electrophysiological properties of DR neurons and to investigate whether the presynaptic and postsynaptic activities of 5-HT1A, GABAB, and GABAA receptors are affected by Girk2 gene deletion...
February 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195311/reduced-local-input-to-fast-spiking-interneurons-in-the-somatosensory-cortex-in-the-gabaa-%C3%AE-2-r43q-mouse-model-of-absence-epilepsy
#18
Stephen P Currie, Liliana L Luz, Sam A Booker, David J A Wyllie, Peter C Kind, Michael I Daw
OBJECTIVE: Absence seizures in childhood absence epilepsy are initiated in the thalamocortical (TC) system. We investigated if these seizures result from altered development of the TC system before the appearance of seizures in mice containing a point mutation in γ-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA ) receptor γ2 subunits linked to childhood absence epilepsy (R43Q). Findings from conditional mutant mice indicate that expression of normal γ2 subunits during preseizure ages protect from later seizures...
February 13, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194002/somatostatin-positive-gabaergic-interneuron-new-targets-for-depression
#19
C Zhang, X Liu, T-F Yuan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 14, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193691/optogenetic-examination-of-prefrontal-amygdala-synaptic-development
#20
Maithe Arruda-Carvalho, Wan-Chen Wu, Kirstie A Cummings, Roger L Clem
A brain network comprising the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and amygdala plays important roles in developmentally-regulated cognitive and emotional processes. However, very little is known about the maturation of mPFC-amygdala circuitry. We conducted anatomical tracing of mPFC projections and optogenetic interrogation of their synaptic connections with neurons in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) at neonatal to adult developmental stages in mice. Results indicate that mPFC-BLA projections exhibit delayed emergence relative to other mPFC pathways and establish synaptic transmission with BLA excitatory and inhibitory neurons in late infancy, events which coincide with a massive increase in overall synaptic drive...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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