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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925207/acetate-metabolism-does-not-reflect-astrocytic-activity-contributes-directly-to-gaba-synthesis-and-is-increased-by-silent-information-regulator-1-activation
#1
Benjamin D Rowlands, Matthias Klugmann, Caroline D Rae
[(13) C]acetate is known to label metabolites preferentially in astrocytes rather than neurons and it has consequently been used as a marker for astrocytic activity. Recent discoveries suggest that control of acetate metabolism and its contributions to the synthesis of metabolites in brain is not as simple as first thought. Here, using a Guinea pig brain cortical tissue slice model metabolizing [1-(13) C]D-glucose and [1,2-(13) C]acetate, we investigated control of acetate metabolism and the degree to which it reflects astrocytic activity...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923665/nicotine-enhances-gabaergic-inhibition-of-oxytocin-mrna-expressing-neuron-in-the-hypothalamic-paraventricular-nucleus-in-vitro-in-rats
#2
Ke-Min Zhang, Guo-Yan Zhao, Bin-Bin Zhang, Qi Xu, Chun-Ping Chu, Hua Jin, De-Lai Qiu
We recently found that extracellular administration of nicotine indirectly excited hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA-expressing neurons. In this study, we studied the effect of nicotine on PVN oxytocin (OT) mRNA-expressing neuron in vitro in rats, by whole-cell patch-clamp recording technique, immunohistochemistry methods and single-cell reverse-transcription multiplex polymerase chain reaction (SC-RT-mPCR) methods Our results showed that 79.3% (73/92) of the 92 PVN putative magnocellular neurons co-expressed GAPDH mRNA and OT mRNA...
December 3, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922604/common-variants-on-2p16-1-6p22-1-and-10q24-32-are-associated-with-schizophrenia-in-han-chinese-population
#3
H Yu, H Yan, J Li, Z Li, X Zhang, Y Ma, L Mei, C Liu, L Cai, Q Wang, F Zhang, N Iwata, M Ikeda, L Wang, T Lu, M Li, H Xu, X Wu, B Liu, J Yang, K Li, L Lv, X Ma, C Wang, L Li, F Yang, T Jiang, Y Shi, T Li, D Zhang, W Yue
Many schizophrenia susceptibility loci have been identified through genome-wide association studies (GWASs) in European populations. However, until recently, schizophrenia GWASs in non-European populations were limited to small sample sizes and have yielded few loci associated with schizophrenia. To identify genetic risk variations for schizophrenia in the Han Chinese population, we performed a two-stage GWAS of schizophrenia comprising 4384 cases and 5770 controls, followed by independent replications of 13 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in an additional 4339 schizophrenia cases and 7043 controls of Han Chinese ancestry...
December 6, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922053/electrophysiological-properties-of-ca1-pyramidal-neurons-along-the-longitudinal-axis-of-the-mouse-hippocampus
#4
Giampaolo Milior, Maria Amalia Di Castro, Livio Pepe' Sciarria, Stefano Garofalo, Igor Branchi, Davide Ragozzino, Cristina Limatola, Laura Maggi
Evidence for different physiological properties along the hippocampal longitudinal axis is emerging. Here, we examined the electrophysiological features of neurons at different dorso-ventral sites of the mouse CA1 hippocampal region. Cell position was defined with respect to longitudinal coordinates of each slice. We measured variations in neuronal excitability, subthreshold membrane properties and neurotransmitter responses along the longitudinal axis. We found that (i) pyramidal cells of the dorsal hippocampus (DH) were less excitable than those of the ventral hippocampus (VH)...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922016/gabaergic-anxiolytic-drug-in-water-increases-migration-behaviour-in-salmon
#5
Gustav Hellström, Jonatan Klaminder, Fia Finn, Lo Persson, Anders Alanärä, Micael Jonsson, Jerker Fick, Tomas Brodin
Migration is an important life-history event in a wide range of taxa, yet many migrations are influenced by anthropogenic change. Although migration dynamics are extensively studied, the potential effects of environmental contaminants on migratory physiology are poorly understood. In this study we show that an anxiolytic drug in water can promote downward migratory behaviour of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in both laboratory setting and in a natural river tributary. Exposing salmon smolt to a dilute concentration of a GABAA receptor agonist (oxazepam) increased migration intensity compared with untreated smolt...
December 6, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920723/sex-dependent-anti-stress-effect-of-an-%C3%AE-5-subunit-containing-gabaa-receptor-positive-allosteric-modulator
#6
Sean C Piantadosi, Beverly J French, Michael M Poe, Tamara Timić, Bojan D Marković, Mohan Pabba, Marianne L Seney, Hyunjung Oh, Beverley A Orser, Miroslav M Savić, James M Cook, Etienne Sibille
Rationale: Current first-line treatments for stress-related disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD) act on monoaminergic systems and take weeks to achieve a therapeutic effect with poor response and low remission rates. Recent research has implicated the GABAergic system in the pathophysiology of depression, including deficits in interneurons targeting the dendritic compartment of cortical pyramidal cells. Objectives: The present study evaluates whether SH-053-2'F-R-CH3 (denoted "α5-PAM"), a positive allosteric modulator selective for α5-subunit containing GABAA receptors found predominantly on cortical pyramidal cell dendrites, has anti-stress effects...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919115/febrile-infection-related-epilepsy-syndrome-clinical-review-and-hypotheses-of-epileptogenesis
#7
Andreas van Baalen, Annamaria Vezzani, Martin Häusler, Gerhard Kluger
Febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES, AERRPS, or DESC) is one of the most severe, mostly irreversible, and presumably immune-mediated epileptic encephalopathies affecting healthy children. Refractory status epilepticus or a cluster of seizures start a few days after the onset of an acute febrile illness; however, encephalitis cannot be proved. Sequelae of FIRES are drug-resistant epilepsy and neuropsychological impairments occurring without latency. Clinical knowledge is limited because FIRES is sporadic and extremely rare...
December 5, 2016: Neuropediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917314/pentylenetetrazole-induced-seizures-in-developing-rats-prenatally-exposed-to-valproic-acid
#8
Angel A Puig-Lagunes, Jorge Manzo, Luis Beltrán-Parrazal, Consuelo Morgado-Valle, Rebeca Toledo-Cárdenas, Maria-Leonor López-Meraz
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence indicates epilepsy is more common in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) (20-25%) than in the general population. The aim of this project was to analyze seizure susceptibility in developing rats prenatally exposed to valproic acid (VPA) as autism model. METHODS: Pregnant females were injected with VPA during the twelfth embryonic day. Seizures were induced in fourteen-days-old rat pups using two models of convulsions: pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and lithium-pilocarpine (Li-Pilo)...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916729/enkephalin-and-neuropeptide-y-interaction-in-the-intergeniculate-leaflet-network-a-part-of-the-mammalian-biological-clock
#9
K Palus, L Chrobok, M Kepczynski, M H Lewandowski
The intergeniculate leaflet (IGL) is a flat thalamic nucleus implicated in the modulation of circadian rhythmicity. In rat, two main GABAergic subpopulations can be distinguished in the IGL: neurons synthesising neuropeptide Y (NPY), which directly innervates the suprachiasmatic nuclei, and enkephalinergic cells, which connect contralaterally located leaflets. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible effects of inner IGL neurotransmitters on the spontaneous and synaptic activity of IGL neurons. The data presented in this article provide evidence that enkephalin, and not NPY, could act upon the majority of IGL neurons...
December 1, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916406/cortical-excitability-after-pediatric-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#10
Trevor A Seeger, Adam Kirton, Michael J Esser, Clare Gallagher, Jeff Dunn, Ephrem Zewdie, Omar Damji, Patrick Ciechanski, Karen M Barlow
INTRODUCTION: Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) outcomes are variable, and 10-15% may suffer from prolonged symptoms beyond 3 months that impair the child's return to normal activities. Neurophysiological mechanisms of mTBI are incompletely understood, particularly in children, but alterations in cortical excitability have been proposed to underlie post-concussion syndrome. Improved understanding is required to advance interventions and improve outcomes. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: To determine if cortical excitability is altered in children with mTBI, and its association with clinical symptoms...
November 19, 2016: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915209/development-of-neural-population-activity-towards-self-organized-criticality
#11
Yuichiro Yada, Takeshi Mita, Akihiro Sanada, Ryuichi Yano, Ryohei Kanzaki, Douglas J Bakkum, Andreas Hierlemann, Hirokazu Takahashi
Self-organized criticality (SoC), a spontaneous dynamic state established and maintained in networks of moderate complexity, is a universal characteristic of neural systems. Such systems produce cascades of spontaneous activity that are typically characterized by power-law distributions and rich, stable spatiotemporal patterns (i.e., neuronal avalanches). Since the dynamics of the critical state confer advantages in information processing within neuronal networks, it is of great interest to determine how criticality emerges during development...
November 30, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914882/representation-of-the-body-in-the-lateral-striatum-of-the-freely-moving-rat-fast-spiking-interneurons-respond-to-stimulation-of-individual-body-parts
#12
Julianna Kulik, Anthony Pawlak, Manraj Kalkat, Kevin Coffey, Mark O West
: Numerous studies have shown that certain types of striatal interneurons play a crucial role in selection and regulation of striatal output. Striatal Fast-Spiking Interneurons (FSIs) are parvalbumin positive, GABAergic interneurons that constitute less than 1% of the total striatal population. It is becoming increasingly evident that these sparsely distributed neurons exert a strong inhibitory effect on Medium Spiny projection Neurons (MSNs). MSNs in lateral striatum receive direct synaptic input from regions of cortex representing discrete body parts, and show phasic increases in activity during touch or movement of specific body parts...
November 30, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913167/gamma-band-directional-interactions-between-basal-forebrain-and-visual-cortex-during-wake-and-sleep-states
#13
Jayakrishnan Nair, Arndt-Lukas Klaassen, Jordan Poirot, Alexei Vyssotski, Björn Rasch, Gregor Rainer
The basal forebrain (BF) is an important regulator of cortical excitability and responsivity to sensory stimuli, and plays a major role in wake-sleep regulation. While the impact of BF on cortical EEG or LFP signals has been extensively documented, surprisingly little is known about LFP activity within BF. Based on bilateral recordings from rats in their home cage, we describe endogenous LFP oscillations in the BF during quiet wakefulness, rapid eye movement (REM) and slow wave sleep (SWS) states. Using coherence and Granger causality methods, we characterize directional influences between BF and visual cortex (VC) during each of these states...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Physiology, Paris
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912882/tenuifolin-a-saponin-derived-from-radix-polygalae-exhibits-sleep-enhancing-effects-in-mice
#14
Qing Cao, Yong Jiang, Su-Ying Cui, Peng-Fei Tu, Yue-Mei Chen, Xiao-Li Ma, Xiang-Yu Cui, Yuan-Li Huang, Hui Ding, Jin-Zhi Song, Bin Yu, Zhao-Fu Sheng, Zi-Jun Wang, Ya-Ping Xu, Guang Yang, Hui Ye, Xiao Hu, Yong-He Zhang
BACKGROUND: Radix Polygalae, the dried root of Polygala tenuifolia, has been extensively used as a traditional Chinese medicine for promoting intelligence and tranquilization. Polygalasaponins extracted from the root of P. tenuifolia possess evident anxiolytic and sedative-hypnotic activities. Previous studies have reported that tenuifolin was a major constituent of polygalasaponins. PURPOSE: The currently study aims to investigate the hypnotic effect and possible mechanism of tenuifolin in freely moving mice...
December 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911754/cortical-control-of-spatial-resolution-by-vip-interneurons
#15
Inbal Ayzenshtat, Mahesh Miikael Karnani, Jesse Jackson, Rafael Yuste
: Neuronal tuning, defined by the degree of selectivity to a specific stimulus, is a hallmark of cortical computation. Understanding the role of GABAergic interneurons in shaping cortical tuning is now possible with the ability to manipulate interneuron classes selectively. Here, we show that interneurons expressing vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP(+)) regulate the spatial frequency (SF) tuning of pyramidal neurons in mouse visual cortex. Using two-photon calcium imaging and optogenetic manipulations of VIP(+) cell activity, we found that activating VIP(+) cells elicited a stronger network response to stimuli of higher SFs, whereas suppressing VIP(+) cells resulted in a network response shift toward lower SFs...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911751/the-lateral-habenula-circuitry-reward-processing-and-cognitive-control
#16
Phillip M Baker, Thomas Jhou, Bo Li, Masayuki Matsumoto, Sheri J Y Mizumori, Marcus Stephenson-Jones, Aleksandra Vicentic
There has been a growing interest in understanding the role of the lateral habenula (LHb) in reward processing, affect regulation, and goal-directed behaviors. The LHb gets major inputs from the habenula-projecting globus pallidus and the mPFC, sending its efferents to the dopaminergic VTA and SNc, serotonergic dorsal raphe nuclei, and the GABAergic rostromedial tegmental nucleus. Recent studies have made advances in our understanding of the LHb circuit organization, yet the precise mechanisms of its involvement in complex behaviors are largely unknown...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909104/loss-of-plasticity-in-the-d2-accumbens-pallidal-pathway-promotes-cocaine-seeking
#17
J A Heinsbroek, D N Neuhofer, W C Griffin, G S Siegel, A-C Bobadilla, Y M Kupchik, P W Kalivas
Distinct populations of D1- and D2-dopamine receptor expressing medium spiny neurons (D1-/D2-MSNs) comprise the nucleus accumbens, and activity in D1-MSNs promotes, while activity in D2-MSNs inhibits motivated behaviors. We used chemogenetics to extend D1-/D2-MSN cell specific regulation to cue-reinstated cocaine seeking in a mouse model of self-administration and relapse, and found that either increasing activity in D1-MSNs or decreasing activity in D2-MSNs augmented cue-induced reinstatement. Both D1- and D2-MSNs provide substantial GABAergic innervation to the ventral pallidum, and chemogenetic inhibition of ventral pallidal neurons blocked the augmented reinstatement elicited by chemogenetic regulation of either D1- or D2-MSNs...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909103/habenula-induced-inhibition-of-midbrain-dopamine-neurons-is-diminished-by-lesions-of-the-rostromedial-tegmental-nucleus
#18
P Leon Brown, Heather Palacorolla, Dana Brady, Katelyn Riegger, Greg I Elmer, Paul D Shepard
: Neurons in the lateral habenula (LHb) are transiently activated by aversive events and have been implicated in associative learning. Functional changes associated with tonic and phasic activation of the LHb are often attributed to a corresponding inhibition of midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons. Activation of GABAergic neurons in the rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg), a region that receives dense projections from the LHb and projects strongly to midbrain monoaminergic nuclei, is believed to underlie the transient inhibition of DA neurons attributed to activation of the LHb...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908749/a-new-role-for-gabaergic-transmission-in-the-control-of-male-rat-sexual-behavior-expression
#19
Gabriela Rodríguez-Manzo, Ana Canseco-Alba
GABAergic transmission in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) exerts a tonic inhibitory influence on mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons' activity. Blockade of VTA GABAA receptors increases dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Increases in NAcc dopamine levels typically accompany sexual behavior display. Copulation to satiety is characterized by the instatement of a long lasting (72h) sexual behavior inhibition and the mesolimbic system appears to be involved in this phenomenon. GABAergic transmission in the VTA might play a role in the maintenance of this long lasting sexual inhibitory state...
November 28, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908611/entorhinal-principal-neurons-mediate-brain-stimulation-treatments-for-epilepsy
#20
Zhenghao Xu, Yi Wang, Bin Chen, Cenglin Xu, Xiaohua Wu, Ying Wang, Shihong Zhang, Weiwei Hu, Shuang Wang, Yi Guo, Xiangnan Zhang, Jianhong Luo, Shumin Duan, Zhong Chen
Brain stimulation is an alternative treatment for epilepsy. However, the neuronal circuits underlying its mechanisms remain obscure. We found that optogenetic activation (1Hz) of entorhinal calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II α (CaMKIIα)-positive neurons, but not GABAergic neurons, retarded hippocampal epileptogenesis and reduced hippocampal seizure severity, similar to that of entorhinal low-frequency electrical stimulation (LFES). Optogenetic inhibition of entorhinal CaMKIIα-positive neurons blocked the antiepileptic effect of LFES...
November 23, 2016: EBioMedicine
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