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Glaucoma structure function

Snezhina S Kostianeva, Marieta I Konareva-Kostianeva, Marin A Atanassov
AIM: To assess relationships between functional changes in visual field and structural changes in advanced open-angle glaucoma (OAG) found using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). METHODS: Thirty-one eyes of 25 patients with OAG were included in this study. Besides the routine ophthalmological exam the patients underwent standard automated perimetry (SAP) (Humphrey Field Analyzer) and SD-OCT (RTVue-100) performed within 6 months. The global perimetric indices in the study group were as follows: mean deviation (MD) 12...
September 1, 2016: Folia Medica
Katharine E Stahon, Chinthasagar Bastian, Shelby Griffith, Grahame J Kidd, Sylvain Brunet, Selva Baltan
UNLABELLED: The impact of aging on CNS white matter (WM) is of general interest because the global effects of aging on myelinated nerve fibers are more complex and profound than those in cortical gray matter. It is important to distinguish between axonal changes created by normal aging and those caused by neurodegenerative diseases, including multiple sclerosis, stroke, glaucoma, Alzheimer's disease, and traumatic brain injury. Using three-dimensional electron microscopy, we show that in mouse optic nerve, which is a pure and fully myelinated WM tract, aging axons are larger, have thicker myelin, and are characterized by longer and thicker mitochondria, which are associated with altered levels of mitochondrial shaping proteins...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
J Ahn, I S Yun, H G Yoo, J-J Choi, M Lee
PurposeTo evaluate a progression-detecting algorithm for a new automated matched alternation flicker (AMAF) in glaucoma patients.MethodsOpen-angle glaucoma patients with a baseline mean deviation of visual field (VF) test>-6 dB were included in this longitudinal and retrospective study. Functional progression was detected by two VF progression criteria and structural progression by both AMAF and conventional comparison methods using optic disc and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) photography. Progression-detecting performances of AMAF and the conventional method were evaluated by an agreement between functional and structural progression criteria...
September 23, 2016: Eye
Z Zhang, J M Ma, N L Wang
The retinal ganglion cell, due to peculiar structural and energetic constraints, appears acutely susceptible to mitochondrial dysfunction. Emerging evidence suggests that changes in the mitochondrial DNA(mtDNA)and in nuclear DNA genes that encode mitochondrial proteins may influence mitochondrial structure and function and, therefore, contribute to the pathogenesis of primary open angle glaucoma. As the main glaucoma risk factors are elevated intraocular pressure and older age, we discuss their relationship with mitochondrial dysfunction...
September 11, 2016: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
Aparna Rao, Komal Agarwal, Harika Mudunuri, Debananda Padhy, Avik K Roy, Sujoy Mukherjee
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: The purpose of the study was to evaluate retinal vessel diameter in age-matched normal tension glaucoma (NTG) and primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) eyes with hemifield involvement. METHODS: Fundus photographs of patients with hemifield defect, good visibility of retinal nerve fiber layer defect, and vessels were compared with 30 controls. One eye of each patient (28 NTG and 30 POAG) was randomly chosen for analysis using Image J software by different clinicians at 2 levels...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Glaucoma
Arezoo Miraftabi, Navid Amini, Esteban Morales, Sharon Henry, Fei Yu, Abdolmonem Afifi, Anne L Coleman, Joseph Caprioli, Kouros Nouri-Mahdavi
PURPOSE: We tested the hypothesis that the macular ganglion cell layer (GCL) thickness demonstrates a stronger structure-function (SF) relationship and extends the useful range of macular measurements compared with combined macular inner layer or full thickness. METHODS: Ninety-eight glaucomatous eyes and eight normal eyes with macular spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) volume scans and 10-2 visual fields were enrolled. Inner plexiform layer (IPL), GCL, macular retinal nerve fiber layer (mRNFL), ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL), ganglion cell complex (GCC), and full thickness (FT) measurements were calculated for 8 × 8 arrays of 3° superpixels...
September 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Juan A Sepulveda, Andrew Turpin, Allison M McKendrick
PURPOSE: Recently in glaucoma, different mapping schemes to combine structural and functional information within the macula have been proposed. This paper aims to investigate whether the changes in foveal shape parameters are important in the mapping between structure and function within the macular region. METHODS: Twenty younger adults (aged 24- to 33-years old) and 10 older adults (aged 62- to 76-years old) participated. On each subject, four foveally-centered radial spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) scans with 45° of separation between each scan were acquired...
September 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Prakash Adhikari, Andrew J Zele, Ravi Thomas, Beatrix Feigl
It is difficult to detect visual function deficits in patients at risk for glaucoma (glaucoma suspects) and at early disease stages with conventional ophthalmic tests such as perimetry. To this end, we introduce a novel quadrant field measure of the melanopsin retinal ganglion cell mediated pupil light response corresponding with typical glaucomatous arcuate visual field defects. The melanopsin-mediated post-illumination pupil response (PIPR) was measured in 46 patients with different stages of glaucoma including glaucoma suspects and compared to a healthy group of 21 participants with no disease...
2016: Scientific Reports
Joshua L Warren, Jean-Claude Mwanza, Angelo P Tanna, Donald L Budenz
PURPOSE: We developed a statistical model to improve the detection of glaucomatous visual field (VF) progression as defined by the consensus of expert clinicians. METHODS: We developed new methodology in the Bayesian setting to properly model the progression status of a patient (as determined by a group of expert clinicians) as a function of changes in spatially correlated sensitivities at each VF location jointly. We used a spatial probit regression model that jointly incorporates all highly correlated VF changes in a single framework while accounting for structural similarities between neighboring VF regions...
August 2016: Translational Vision Science & Technology
Faxiang Li, Xingqiao Xie, Yingli Wang, Jianping Liu, Xiaofang Cheng, Yujiao Guo, Yukang Gong, Shichen Hu, Lifeng Pan
Optineurin is an important autophagy receptor involved in several selective autophagy processes, during which its function is regulated by TBK1. Mutations of optineurin and TBK1 are both associated with neurodegenerative diseases. However, the mechanistic basis underlying the specific interaction between optineurin and TBK1 is still elusive. Here we determine the crystal structures of optineurin/TBK1 complex and the related NAP1/TBK1 complex, uncovering the detailed molecular mechanism governing the optineurin and TBK1 interaction, and revealing a general binding mode between TBK1 and its associated adaptor proteins...
2016: Nature Communications
Pedro Gil, Joana Pires, Rita Matos, Mariana S Cardoso, Nádia Lopes, João Matias, Manuel Mariano
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: The purpose of the study was to describe and compare anterior and posterior topographic elevation maps in primary open angle glaucoma patients with functional damage staging and in healthy controls. METHODS: A total of 217 subjects were consecutively recruited, including 111 primary open angle glaucoma patients (patients), and 106 healthy individuals (controls). All patients performed Pentacam HR corneal topography. Mean anterior keratometry and anterior and posterior topographic elevation maps were compared in the central 3, 5, and 7 mm...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Glaucoma
Yvonne Ou, Rebecca E Jo, Erik M Ullian, Rachel O L Wong, Luca Della Santina
UNLABELLED: Key issues concerning ganglion cell type-specific loss and synaptic changes in animal models of experimental glaucoma remain highly debated. Importantly, changes in the structure and function of various RGC types that occur early, within 14 d after acute, transient intraocular pressure elevation, have not been previously assessed. Using biolistic transfection of individual RGCs and multielectrode array recordings to measure light responses in mice, we examined the effects of laser-induced ocular hypertension on the structure and function of a subset of RGCs...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Matthew C Murphy, Ian P Conner, Cindy Y Teng, Jesse D Lawrence, Zaid Safiullah, Bo Wang, Richard A Bilonick, Seong-Gi Kim, Gadi Wollstein, Joel S Schuman, Kevin C Chan
Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide and its pathogenesis remains unclear. In this study, we measured the structure, metabolism and function of the visual system by optical coherence tomography and multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging in healthy subjects and glaucoma patients with different degrees of vision loss. We found that inner retinal layer thinning, optic nerve cupping and reduced visual cortex activity occurred before patients showed visual field impairment. The primary visual cortex also exhibited more severe functional deficits than higher-order visual brain areas in glaucoma...
2016: Scientific Reports
Paolo Frezzotti, Antonio Giorgio, Francesca Toto, Alessandro De Leucio, Nicola De Stefano
Our aim was to assess in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), a major cause of irreversible blindness worldwide, whether diffuse brain changes recently shown in advanced stage can be detected since the early stage. We used multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 57 patients with the three POAG stages and in 29 age-matched normal controls (NC). Voxelwise statistics was performed with nonparametric permutation testing. Compared with NC, disrupted anatomical connectivity (AC) was found in the whole POAG group along the visual pathway and in nonvisual white matter tracts (P < 0...
August 9, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Milan Sonka, Michael D Abràmoff
Clinical acceptance of 3-D OCT retinal imaging brought rapid development of quantitative 3-D analysis of retinal layers, vasculature, retinal lesions as well as facilitated new research in retinal diseases. One of the cornerstones of many such analyses is segmentation and thickness quantification of retinal layers and the choroid, with an inherently 3-D simultaneous multi-layer LOGISMOS (Layered Optimal Graph Image Segmentation for Multiple Objects and Surfaces) segmentation approach being extremely well suited for the task...
October 2016: Medical Image Analysis
Kazuyuki Hirooka, Saeko Izumibata, Kaori Ukegawa, Eri Nitta, Akitaka Tsujikawa
This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between glaucoma progression and estimates of the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) obtained by combining structural and functional measurements in patients with glaucoma.In the present observational cohort study, we examined 116 eyes of 62 glaucoma patients. Using Cirrus optical coherence tomography (OCT), a minimum of 5 serial retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) measurements were performed in all eyes. There was a 3-year separation between the first and last measurements...
July 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Chieh-Li Chen, Anqi Zhang, Karine D Bojikian, Joanne C Wen, Qinqin Zhang, Chen Xin, Raghu C Mudumbai, Murray A Johnstone, Philip P Chen, Ruikang K Wang
PURPOSE: To investigate the vascular microcirculation changes in the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) in normal, glaucoma suspect, and open-angle glaucoma (OAG) groups using optical coherence tomography-based microangiography (OMAG). METHODS: One eye from each subject was scanned with a Cirrus HD-OCT 5000-based OMAG prototype system montage scanning protocol centered at the optic nerve head (ONH). Blood flow signals were extracted using OMAG algorithm. Retinal nerve fiber layer vascular microcirculation was measured by calculating the blood flux index and vessel area density within a 1...
July 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Liang Feng, Hui Chen, Ji Yi, John B Troy, Hao F Zhang, Xiaorong Liu
PURPOSE: Glaucoma, frequently associated with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), is characterized by progressive retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death and vision loss. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been studied as a candidate for neuroprotection in rodent models of experimental glaucoma, yet it remains to be determined whether BDNF exerts long-term protection for subtype RGCs and vision against chronic IOP elevation. METHODS: We induced modest and sustained IOP elevation by laser illumination and microbead injection in mice...
July 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Lukas Reznicek, Daniel Muth, Michaela Vogel, Christoph Hirneiß
PURPOSE: To evaluate the relationship between functional parameters of repeated flicker-defined form perimetry (FDF) and structural parameters of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in glaucoma suspects with normal findings in achromatic standard automated perimetry (SAP). METHODS: Patients with optic nerve heads (ONH) clinically suspicious for glaucoma and normal SAP findings were enrolled in this prospective study. Each participant underwent visual field (VF) testing with FDF perimetry, using the Heidelberg Edge Perimeter (HEP, Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany) at two consecutive visits...
July 15, 2016: Current Eye Research
Abram Akopian, Sandeep Kumar, Hariharasubramanian Ramakrishnan, Suresh Viswanathan, Stewart A Bloomfield
We determined whether the structural and functional integrity of amacrine cells (ACs), the largest cohort of neurons in the mammalian retina, are affected in glaucoma. Intraocular injection of microbeads was made in mouse eyes to elevate intraocular pressure as a model of experimental glaucoma. Specific immunocytochemical markers were used to identify AC and displaced (d)ACs subpopulations in both the inner nuclear and ganglion cell layers, respectively, and to distinguish them from retinal ganglion cells (RGCs)...
July 13, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
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