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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627273/nanoparticle-interactions-with-co-existing-contaminants-joint-toxicity-bioaccumulation-and-risk
#1
Rui Deng, Daohui Lin, Lizhong Zhu, Sanghamitra Majumdar, Jason C White, Jorge L Gardea-Torresdey, Baoshan Xing
With their growing production and application, engineered nanoparticles (NPs) are increasingly discharged into the environment. The released NPs can potentially interact with pre-existing contaminants, leading to biological effects (bioaccumulation and/or toxicity) that are poorly understood. Most studies on NPs focus on single analyte exposure; the existing literature on joint toxicity of NPs and co-existing contaminants is rather limited but beginning to develop rapidly. This is the first review paper evaluating the current state of knowledge regarding the joint effects of NPs and co-contaminants...
June 19, 2017: Nanotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617152/impact-of-immunoablation-and-autologous-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-on-gray-and-white-matter-atrophy-in-multiple-sclerosis
#2
Hyunwoo Lee, Kunio Nakamura, Sridar Narayanan, Robert Brown, Jacqueline Chen, Harold L Atkins, Mark S Freedman, Douglas L Arnold
BACKGROUND: Immunoablation and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (IA/aHSCT) halts relapses, white matter (WM) lesion formation, and pathological whole-brain (WB) atrophy in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Whether the latter was due to effects on gray matter (GM) or WM warranted further exploration. OBJECTIVE: To model GM and WM volume changes after IA/aHSCT to further understand the effects seen on WB atrophy. METHODS: GM and WM volume changes were calculated from serial baseline and follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) ranging from 1...
June 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586011/microglia-activation-triggers-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-apoptosis-via-hsp60
#3
Yunhong Li, Rui Zhang, Xiaolin Hou, Yumei Zhang, Feijia Ding, Fan Li, Yao Yao, Yin Wang
Reactive microglia are present in lesions of myelin‑associated white matter disorders resulting in injuries to oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs). Therefore, protection of OPCs from injury due to excessive activation of microglia is important in treating these diseases. Heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) has been demonstrated to be released extracellularly in the failing heart upon stress or injury. However, the role of HSP60 in the central nervous system and whether it participates in the toxic effects of microglia on OPCs remains unclear...
July 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543541/human-schwann-cells-exhibit-long-term-cell-survival-are-not-tumorigenic-and-promote-repair-when-transplanted-into-the-contused-spinal-cord
#4
Johana Bastidas, Gagani Athauda, Gabriela De La Cruz, Wai-Man Chan, Roozbeh Golshani, Yerko Berrocal, Martha Henao, Anil Lalwani, Chikato Mannoji, Mazen Assi, P Anthony Otero, Aisha Khan, Alexander E Marcillo, Michael Norenberg, Allan D Levi, Patrick M Wood, James D Guest, W Dalton Dietrich, Mary Bartlett Bunge, Damien D Pearse
The transplantation of rodent Schwann cells (SCs) provides anatomical and functional restitution in a variety of spinal cord injury (SCI) models, supporting the recent translation of SCs to phase 1 clinical trials for human SCI. Whereas human (Hu)SCs have been examined experimentally in a complete SCI transection paradigm, to date the reported behavior of SCs when transplanted after a clinically relevant contusive SCI has been restricted to the use of rodent SCs. Here, in a xenotransplant, contusive SCI paradigm, the survival, biodistribution, proliferation and tumorgenicity as well as host responses to HuSCs, cultured according to a protocol analogous to that developed for clinical application, were investigated...
August 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534662/neuroprotection-of-brain-permeable-iron-chelator-vk-28-against-intracerebral-hemorrhage-in-mice
#5
Qian Li, Jieru Wan, Xi Lan, Xiaoning Han, Zhongyu Wang, Jian Wang
Iron overload plays a key role in the secondary brain damage that develops after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). The significant increase in iron deposition is associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which leads to oxidative brain damage. In this study, we examined the protective effects of VK-28, a brain-permeable iron chelator, against hemoglobin toxicity in an ex vivo organotypic hippocampal slice culture (OHSC) model and in middle-aged mice subjected to an in vivo, collagenase-induced ICH model...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506192/the-expanding-prominence-of-toxic-leukoencephalopathy
#6
Christopher M Filley, Brice V McConnell, C Alan Anderson
Toxic leukoencephalopathy (TL) is a disorder of brain white matter caused by exposure to leukotoxic agents. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can readily identify this syndrome, and, together with diffusion tensor imaging, MRI continues to offer important insights into its nature. Since the first formal description of TL in 2001, many new leukotoxic disorders have been recognized, and the range of leukotoxins has expanded to include more therapeutic drugs, drugs of abuse, and environmental insults. While the understanding of pathophysiology remains incomplete, TL is increasingly common in clinical practice, and the potential long-term cognitive sequelae of toxic white matter injury merit attention...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487252/capecitabine-induced-acute-toxic-leukoencephalopathy
#7
M Obadia, D Leclercq, Johanna Wasserman, D Galanaud, D Dormont, M Sahli-Amor, Dimitri Psimaras, N Pyatigorskaya, B Law-Ye
A 45-year-old woman was treated by Capecitabine (Xeloda(®)) during 6days for breast cancer with metastatic bone lesions when she presented with nausea, headaches, muscle cramps, dysarthria and swallowing disorders. A stroke was first suspected. Brain CT was normal. MRI showed bilateral and symmetric high signal intensities of deep white matter, corpus callosum and corticospinal tracts on diffusion-weighted imaging and T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequence, similar to 5-FU acute leukoencephalopathy...
May 6, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486224/long-term-neuropathological-changes-associated-with-cerebral-palsy-in-a-nonhuman-primate-model-of-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#8
Ryan M McAdams, Bobbi Fleiss, Christopher Traudt, Leslie Schwendimann, Jessica M Snyder, Robin L Haynes, Niranjana Natarajan, Pierre Gressens, Sandra E Juul
BACKGROUND: Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common motor disability in childhood, with a worldwide prevalence of 1.5-4/1,000 live births. Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) contributes to the burden of CP, but the long-term neuropathological findings of this association remain limited. METHODOLOGY: Thirty-four term Macaca nemestrina macaques were included in this long-term neuropathological study: 9 control animals delivered by cesarean section and 25 animals with perinatal asphyxia delivered by cesarean section after 15-18 min of umbilical cord occlusion (UCO)...
May 10, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474276/sphingosine-toxicity-in-eae-and-ms-evidence-for-ceramide-generation-via-serine-palmitoyltransferase-activation
#9
Lawrence G Miller, Jennifer A Young, Swapan K Ray, Guanghu Wang, Sharad Purohit, Naren L Banik, Somsankar Dasgupta
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disorder characterized by massive neurodegeneration and profound axonal loss. Since myelin is enriched with sphingolipids and some of them display toxicity, biological function of sphingolipids in demyelination has been investigated in MS brain tissues. An elevation of sphingosine with a decrease in monoglycosylceramide and psychosine (myelin markers) was observed in MS white matter and plaque compared to normal brain tissue. This indicated that sphingosine toxicity might mediate oligodendrocyte degeneration...
May 5, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438402/effects-of-ultrasonic-and-hydrodynamic-cavitation-on-the-treatment-of-cork-wastewater-by-flocculation-and-fenton-processes
#10
Zhilin Wu, Francisco J Yuste-Córdoba, Pedro Cintas, Zhansheng Wu, Luisa Boffa, Stefano Mantegna, Giancarlo Cravotto
This paper reports that ultrasonic (US) and hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) are efficient strategies for the environmental remediation of cork wastewater (CW). It is necessary to remove toxic, inhibitory or refractory organic matter from CW using physical and chemical techniques (pre-treatment) prior to performing conventional biological treatment. After this biological treatment, it is also critical to further decontaminate (post-treatment) in order to meet the discharge limitation. The pre-treatment of diluted CW using Fenton oxidation (FE) alone led to COD and polyphenol (PP) removal values of 30% and 61%, respectively, while HC and US resulted in 83-90% increases in COD reduction and 26-33% increases in PP reduction...
April 13, 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433979/lethal-high-acute-disseminated-encephalomyelitis-adem-triggered-by-toxic-effect-of-synthetic-cannabinoid-black-mamba
#11
Kiran Samra, Ian S Boon, Gregory Packer, Saiju Jacob
A previously well 25-year-old man presented with agitation, double incontinence and left-sided incoordination. His symptoms started after smoking a synthetic cannabinoid (black mamba) 5 days earlier. Over 48 hours, he developed aphasia, generalised hypertonia, hyper-reflexia and dense left hemiparesis. This progressed to profuse diaphoresis, fever, tachycardia, hypertension and a possible seizure necessitating admission to the intensive care unit. CT head and cerebrospinal fluid analysis were unremarkable...
April 22, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376427/experimental-warming-and-antecedent-fire-alter-leaf-element-composition-and-increase-soil-c-n-ratio-in-sub-alpine-open-heathland
#12
A C White-Monsant, G J Clark, M A G Ng Kam Chuen, C Tang
Plant communities in alpine ecosystems worldwide are being altered by climate warming. In the alpine open heathland of the Bogong High Plains, Australia, warming and fire have affected the growth and phenology of plants, and have recently been found to alter soil nutrient availability. We examined the effects of nine years of passive warming by open-top chambers and nine years post-fire on (i) the soluble and extractable nutrients and toxic elements available for plant uptake in the soil and (ii) on the element composition of leaves of seven dominant sub-alpine open heathland plants...
October 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365875/effects-of-dha-on-hippocampal-autophagy-and-lysosome-function-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#13
Yan Yin, Eric Li, George Sun, Hong Q Yan, Lesley M Foley, Liwia A Andrzejczuk, Insiya Y Attarwala, T Kevin Hitchens, Kirill Kiselyov, C Edward Dixon, Dandan Sun
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) triggers endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and impairs autophagic clearance of damaged organelles and toxic macromolecules. In this study, we investigated the effects of the post-TBI administration of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on improving hippocampal autophagy flux and cognitive functions of rats. TBI was induced by cortical contusion injury in Sprague-Dawley rats, which received DHA (16 mg/kg in DMSO, intraperitoneal administration) or vehicle DMSO (1 ml/kg) with an initial dose within 15 min after the injury, followed by a daily dose for 3 or 7 days...
April 1, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363257/brain-lesions-associated-with-acute-toxic-hepatopathy-in-cattle
#14
Angelica T B Wouters, Flademir Wouters, Fabiana M Boabaid, Tatiane T N Watanabe, Gabriela Fredo, Mary S Varaschin, David Driemeier
Samples of the liver, telencephalon, brainstem, and cerebellum were obtained from 22 bovids suffering from spontaneous or experimental acute toxic liver disease. Perreyia flavipes larvae, and leaves of Cestrum corymbosum, Cestrum intermedium, Dodonaea viscosa, Trema micrantha, and Xanthium cavanillesii were the causal agents in the disorders studied. Hematoxylin and eosin and periodic acid-Schiff staining, as well as anti-S100 protein (anti-S100), anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein (anti-GFAP), and anti-vimentin immunostaining were used to evaluate the brain sections...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276094/pathology-of-toxic-leucoencephalopathy-in-drug-abuse-supports-hypoxic-ischemic-pathophysiology-etiology
#15
Murad Alturkustani, Lee-Cyn Ang, David Ramsay
The histopathological features of leucoencephalopathy caused by illicit drugs (such as opioids and cocaine) are well documented in acute cases but not in long-survival cases. There are several hypotheses about the pathogenesis of this disorder, including hypoperfusion, direct drug toxicity resulting from the neurotoxic effects of the drug itself or contaminants in the illicit drug vehicle. We reviewed the post mortem findings in five males (aged 24 to 56 years, with survival intervals ranging from 7 days to 5 months) with a history of illicit drug use and concomitant fatal white matter changes...
March 9, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269429/investigating-an-alternative-ring-design-of-transducer-arrays-for-tumor-treating-fields-ttfields
#16
Mario Macedo, Cornelia Wenger, Ricardo Salvador, Sofia R Fernandes, Pedro C Miranda
Tumor treating fields (TTFields) is a therapy that inhibits cell proliferation and has been approved by the U.S Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of Glioblastoma Multiforme. This anti-mitotic technique works non-invasively and regionally, and is associated with less toxicity and a better quality of life. Currently a device called Optune™ is clinically used which works with two perpendicular and alternating array pairs each consisting of 3×3 transducers. The aim of this study is to investigate a theoretical alternative array design which consists of two rings of 16 transducers and thus permits various field directions...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258904/a-simplified-approach-to-encephalitis-and-its-mimics-key-clinical-decision-points-in-the-setting-of-specific-imaging-abnormalities
#17
Colin D McKnight, Aine M Kelly, Myria Petrou, Anna E Nidecker, Matthew T Lorincz, Duaa K Altaee, Stephen S Gebarski, Bradley Foerster
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Infectious encephalitis is a relatively common cause of morbidity and mortality. Treatment of infectious encephalitis with antiviral medication can be highly effective when administered promptly. Clinical mimics of encephalitis arise from a broad range of pathologic processes, including toxic, metabolic, neoplastic, autoimmune, and cardiovascular etiologies. These mimics need to be rapidly differentiated from infectious encephalitis to appropriately manage the correct etiology; however, the many overlapping signs of these various entities present a challenge to accurate diagnosis...
June 2017: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227675/investigating-an-alternative-ring-design-of-transducer-arrays-for-tumor-treating-fields-ttfields
#18
Mario Macedo, Cornelia Wenger, Ricardo Salvador, Sofia R Fernandes, Pedro C Miranda, Mario Macedo, Cornelia Wenger, Ricardo Salvador, Sofia R Fernandes, Pedro C Miranda, Sofia R Fernandes, Pedro C Miranda, Cornelia Wenger, Ricardo Salvador, Mario Macedo
Tumor treating fields (TTFields) is a therapy that inhibits cell proliferation and has been approved by the U.S Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of Glioblastoma Multiforme. This anti-mitotic technique works non-invasively and regionally, and is associated with less toxicity and a better quality of life. Currently a device called Optune™ is clinically used which works with two perpendicular and alternating array pairs each consisting of 3×3 transducers. The aim of this study is to investigate a theoretical alternative array design which consists of two rings of 16 transducers and thus permits various field directions...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124770/the-effect-of-stereotactic-injections-on-demyelination-and-remyelination-a-study-in-the-cuprizone-model
#19
Laura Salinas Tejedor, Tanja Wostradowski, Stefan Gingele, Thomas Skripuletz, Viktoria Gudi, Martin Stangel
Remyelination is the natural repair mechanism in demyelinating disorders of the central nervous system (CNS) such as multiple sclerosis. Several animal models have been used to study demyelination and remyelination. Among toxic animal models, oral administration of the toxin cuprizone leads to white and gray matter demyelination. In contrast, focal demyelination models include the stereotactic application of a toxin such as lysolecithin or ethidium bromide. The injection procedure generates a local disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and might thus trigger a local inflammatory reaction and consequently may influence demyelination and remyelination...
April 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101995/cholinergic-signaling-in-myelination
#20
REVIEW
R Douglas Fields, Dipankar J Dutta, Jillian Belgrad, Maya Robnett
There is a long history of research on acetylcholine (ACh) function in myelinating glia, but a resurgence of interest recently as a result of the therapeutic potential of manipulating ACh signaling to promote remyelination, and the broader interest in neurotransmitter signaling in activity-dependent myelination. Myelinating glia express all the major types of muscarinic and nicotinic ACh receptors at different stages of development, and acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase are highly expressed in white matter...
January 19, 2017: Glia
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