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toxic white matter

S Kemp, R S Allan, N Patanjali, M H Barnett, B P Jonker
We report a unique case of neurological deficit from late onset multiple sclerosis (MS), in a 65-year-old woman, after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for trigeminal neuralgia (TN). At 3.5months post-SRS for TN, the patient developed ataxia and left leg paraesthesiae and brain MRI showed altered signal and enhancement in the vicinity of the right trigeminal root entry zone (REZ). The symptoms remitted following treatment with intravenous methylprednisolone, however, 10months post-SRS, the patient developed gait ataxia and left lower limb weakness...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Jason J Rose, Ling Wang, Qinzi Xu, Charles F McTiernan, Sruti Shiva, Jesus Tejero, Mark T Gladwin
Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning affects 50,000 people a year in the United States. The clinical presentation runs a spectrum, ranging from headache and dizziness to coma and death, with a mortality rate ranging from 1-3%. A significant number of patients who survive CO poisoning suffer from long term neurologic and affective sequelae. The neurologic deficits do not necessarily correlate with blood CO levels, but likely result from the pleiotropic effects of CO on cellular mitochondrial respiration, cellular energy utilization, inflammation and free radical generation, especially in the brain and heart...
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Romain Lefaucheur, Axel Lebas, Emmanuel Gérardin, Lou Grangeon, Ozlem Ozkul-Wermester, Carole Aubier-Girard, Olivier Martinaud, David Maltête
A 29-year-old man was admitted for acute cognitive impairment. Three weeks earlier, he had been admitted for coma due to sniffed heroin abuse responsive to naloxone infusion. At admission, the patient presented with apraxia, severe memory impairment and anosognosia. Brain MRI revealed symmetric hyperintensities of supratentorial white matter, sparing brainstem and cerebellum, on FLAIR and B1000 sequences. Four months later, repeated neuropsychological assessment revealed dramatic improvement of global cognitive functions...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Yongqiang Zhang, Yangsheng Lin, Xi Li, Li Zhang, Wei Pan, Huili Zhu, Danfeng Yang
Growing concern has been raised over the potential hazard of nanoparticles (NPs) on human health from ambient particulate air pollution. Silicon dioxide (SiO2) NPs are one of the most widely used nanoparticles in many sectors of industry. Research on NPs has focused mainly on their toxicity in organs. Meanwhile, NPs are present in the air year-round, but are more serious in winter. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the inflammatory response to SiO2 NPs using in vivo test systems. The composition of particulate matter is complicated; however, elemental silicon accounts for a significant proportion...
October 6, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Natalie A Wheeler, Babette Fuss, Pamela E Knapp, ShiPing Zou
White matter injury has been frequently reported in HIV(+) patients. Previous studies showed that HIV-1 Tat (transactivator of transcription), a viral protein that is produced and secreted by HIV-infected cells, is toxic to young, immature oligodendrocytes (OLGs). Adding Tat to the culture medium reduced the viability of immature OLGs, and the surviving OLGs exhibited reduced process networks. OLGs produce and secrete autotaxin (ATX), an ecto-enzyme containing a lysophospholipase D (lysoPLD) activity that converts lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) to lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a lipid signaling molecule that stimulates OLG differentiation...
October 2016: ASN Neuro
Nicolae Sarbu, Robert Y Shih, Robert V Jones, Iren Horkayne-Szakaly, Laura Oleaga, James G Smirniotopoulos
White matter diseases include a wide spectrum of disorders that have in common impairment of normal myelination, either by secondary destruction of previously myelinated structures (demyelinating processes) or by primary abnormalities of myelin formation (dysmyelinating processes). The pathogenesis of many white matter diseases remains poorly understood. Demyelinating disorders are the object of this review and will be further divided into autoimmune, infectious, vascular, and toxic-metabolic processes. Autoimmune processes include multiple sclerosis and related diseases: tumefactive demyelinating lesions, Balo concentric sclerosis, Marburg and Schilder variants, neuromyelitis optica (Devic disease), acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalopathy (Hurst disease)...
September 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Marina Milic, Jeremy H Rees
Radiotherapy is the mainstay of treatment after surgery for high-grade gliomas and is usually well tolerated. Radiation toxicity in the brain is usually classified according to the timing of side effects in relation to treatment, as either acute (during radiotherapy), early delayed (within 12 weeks of radiotherapy) or late delayed (months to years after radiotherapy). We report two cases of young women who developed severe acute demyelination within 4 months of radiotherapy for glioma, one of whom had a previous history of transverse myelitis...
September 9, 2016: Practical Neurology
Tekwani Parmanand H
Marchiafava-Bignami disease is a rare toxic encephalopathy seen mostly in chronic alcoholics due to progressive demyelination and necrosis of the corpus callosum. It may involve adjacent white matter and subcortical regions. We present here the magnetic resonance imaging findings of Machiafava-Bignami disease in a chronic alcoholic patient. In 1903, Italian pathologists Marchiafava and Bignami described 3 alcoholic men who died after having seizures and coma. All 3 patients were chronic alcoholics and had consumed considerable amounts of red wine...
September 2016: Radiology case reports
Namik Ozcan, Giray Ozcam, Pinar Kosar, Ayse Ozcan, Hulya Basar, Cetin Kaymak
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Carbon monoxide is a toxic gas for humans and is still a silent killer in both developed and developing countries. The aim of this case series was to evaluate early radiological images as a predictor of subsequent neuropsychological sequelae, following carbon monoxide poisoning. CASE 1: After carbon monoxide exposure, early computed tomography scans and magnetic resonance imaging findings of a 52-year-old woman showed bilateral lesions in the globus pallidus...
September 2016: Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
Yanyan Kong, Yihui Guan, Fengchun Hua, Zhengwei Zhang, Xiuhong Lu, Tengfang Zhu, Bizeng Zhao, Jianhua Zhu, Cong Li, Jian Chen
The quantification of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) using specific PET tracers can facilitate the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and allow monitoring of disease progression and treatment efficacy. [(18)F]-THK523 has shown high affinity and selectivity for tau pathology. However, its high retention in white matter, which makes simple visual inspection difficult, may limit its use in research or clinical settings. In this paper, we optimized the automated radiosynthesis of [(11)C]-TKF and evaluated its biodistribution and toxicity in C57 mice...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Cristina Zalfa, Chiara Verpelli, Francesca D'Avanzo, Rosella Tomanin, Cinzia Vicidomini, Laura Cajola, Renzo Manara, Carlo Sala, Maurizio Scarpa, Angelo Luigi Vescovi, Lidia De Filippis
Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPSII) is a lysosomal storage disorder due to the deficit of the iduronate 2-sulfatase (IDS) enzyme, causing progressive neurodegeneration in patients. Neural stem cells (NSCs) derived from the IDS-ko mouse can recapitulate MPSII pathogenesis in vitro. In differentiating IDS-ko NSCs and in the aging IDS-ko mouse brain, glial degeneration precedes neuronal degeneration. Here we show that pure IDS-ko NSC-derived astrocytes are selectively able to drive neuronal degeneration when cocultured with healthy neurons...
2016: Cell Death & Disease
Mihaela Boca, Katie Lloyd, Marcus Likeman, Philip Jardine, Alan Whone
A previously well 16-year-old boy developed a rapid-onset hypokinetic syndrome, coupled with a radiological appearance of extensive and highly symmetrical basal ganglia and white matter change. The diagnostic process was challenging and we systematically considered potential causes. After excluding common causes of this clinico-radiological picture, we considered common disorders with this unusual radiological picture and vice versa, before finally concluding that this was a rare presentation of a rare disease...
August 8, 2016: Practical Neurology
Wenmin Xing, Lili Gu, Xinyue Zhang, Jiadong Xu, Hong Lu
Acyclovir (ACV) exposure is a common cause of acute kidney injury (AKI). The toxicity mechanism of ACV has always been a matter of debate. The present study investigated into the time-effect relationship and dose-effect relationship of ACV-induced nephrotoxicity in rats using metabonomics. Twenty-four rats were randomly divided into four groups: a 0.9% NaCl solution group, and 100, 300, and 600mg/kg ACV-treated groups; the ACV or vehicle solution was administered with a single intravenous injection. Urine was collected at different time periods (12h before administration, and 0-6h, 7-12h, and 13-24h after administration)...
September 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Maria Luisa Mandelli, Eduard Vilaplana, Jesse A Brown, H Isabel Hubbard, Richard J Binney, Suneth Attygalle, Miguel A Santos-Santos, Zachary A Miller, Mikhail Pakvasa, Maya L Henry, Howard J Rosen, Roland G Henry, Gil D Rabinovici, Bruce L Miller, William W Seeley, Maria Luisa Gorno-Tempini
Neurodegeneration has been hypothesized to follow predetermined large-scale networks through the trans-synaptic spread of toxic proteins from a syndrome-specific epicentre. To date, no longitudinal neuroimaging study has tested this hypothesis in vivo in frontotemporal dementia spectrum disorders. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that longitudinal progression of atrophy in non-fluent/agrammatic variant primary progressive aphasia spreads over time from a syndrome-specific epicentre to additional regions, based on their connectivity to the epicentre in healthy control subjects...
August 6, 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Florian Eichler, Eva Ratai, Jason J Carroll, Joseph C Masdeu
This chapter starts with a description of imaging of inherited metabolic disorders, followed by a discussion on imaging of acquired toxic-metabolic disorders of the adult brain. Neuroimaging is crucial for the diagnosis and management of a number of inherited metabolic disorders. Among these, inherited white-matter disorders commonly affect both the nervous system and endocrine organs. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has enabled new classifications of these disorders that have greatly enhanced both our diagnostic ability and our understanding of these complex disorders...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Devender Bairwa, Virendra Kumar, Surabhi Vyas, Bimal Kumar Das, Achal Kumar Srivastava, Ravinder M Pandey, Surendra K Sharma, Naranamangalam R Jagannathan, Sanjeev Sinha
BACKGROUND: In vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) studies on brain in HIV infected patients have shown significant alteration in neuro-biochemicals. METHODS: In this study, we measured the neuro-biochemical metabolites from the left frontal white matter (FWM) and left basal ganglia (BG) caudate head nucleus in 71 subjects that include 30 healthy controls, 20 asymptomatic HIV and 21 HIV patients with CNS lesion. Proton MR spectra were acquired at 3 T MRI system and the concentration (institutional units) of tNAA (N-acetylaspartate, NAA + N-acetylaspartylglutamate, NAAG), tCr (Creatine, Cr + phosphocreatine, PCr), choline containing compounds (tCho), glutamate + glutamine (Glx) and lipid and macromolecules at 0...
2016: BMC Neurology
Guangcai Chen, Chuanxin Ma, Arnab Mukherjee, Craig Musante, Jianfeng Zhang, Jason C White, Om Parkash Dhankher, Baoshan Xing
The effect of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on nanoparticle toxicity to plants is poorly understood. In this study, tannic acid (TA) was selected as a DOM surrogate to explore the mechanisms of neodymium oxide NPs (Nd2O3 NPs) phytotoxicity to pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima). The results from the tested concentrations showed that 100 mg L(-1) Nd2O3 NPs were significantly toxic to pumpkin in term of fresh biomass, and the similar results from the bulk particles and the ionic treatments were also evident. Exposure to 100 mg L(-1) of Nd2O3 NPs and BPs in 1/5 strength Hoagland's solution not only significantly inhibited pumpkin growth, but also decreased the S, Ca, K and Mg levels in plant tissues...
November 2016: Nanotoxicology
Carol L Armstrong, Michael J Fisher, Yimei Li, Robert A Lustig, Jean B Belasco, Jane E Minturn, Christine E Hill-Kayser, Sonny Batra, Peter C Phillips
PURPOSE: Clinically effective measurement of cognitive toxicity from photon radiation therapy (XRT) should be accurate, sensitive, and specific. This pilot study tested translational findings on phasic changes in children's memory systems that are sensitive and insensitive to toxic XRT effects to identify a possible neuroplastic effect. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Memory processes were prospectively tested before XRT and at 3 later time points up to 2 years in 35 children with mixed primary brain tumors who had not experienced recurrence...
July 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Philip Wong, Ilana R Leppert, David Roberge, Karim Boudam, Paul D Brown, Thierry Muanza, G Bruce Pike, Jeffrey Chankowsky, Catalin Mihalcioiu
PURPOSE: This pilot prospective study sought to determine whether dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) could be used as a clinical imaging biomarker of tissue toxicity from whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT). METHOD: 14 patients who received WBRT were imaged using dynamic contrast enhanced DCE-MRI prior to and at 8-weeks, 16-weeks and 24-weeks after the initiation of WBRT. Twelve of the patients were also enrolled in the RTOG 0614 trial, which randomized patients to the use of placebo or memantine...
May 28, 2016: Oncotarget
J Scott Miners, Polly Clarke, Seth Love
Clusterin, also known as apoJ, is a lipoprotein abundantly expressed within the CNS. It regulates Aβ fibril formation and toxicity and facilitates amyloid-β (Aβ) transport across the blood-brain barrier. Genome-wide association studies have shown variations in the clusterin gene (CLU) to influence the risk of developing sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). To explore whether clusterin modulates the regional deposition of Aβ, we measured levels of soluble (NP40-extracted) and insoluble (guanidine-HCl-extracted) clusterin, Aβ40 and Aβ42 by sandwich ELISA in brain regions with a predilection for amyloid pathology - mid-frontal cortex (MF), cingulate cortex (CC), parahippocampal cortex (PH) - and regions with little or no pathology - thalamus (TH) and white matter (WM)...
June 1, 2016: Brain Pathology
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