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controlled vocabulary

Geoffrey S Meltzner, James T Heaton, Yunbin Deng, Gianluca De Luca, Serge H Roy, Joshua C Kline
Each year thousands of individuals require surgical removal of their larynx (voice box) due to trauma or disease, and thereby require an alternative voice source or assistive device to verbally communicate. Although natural voice is lost after laryngectomy, most muscles controlling speech articulation remain intact. Surface electromyographic (sEMG) activity of speech musculature can be recorded from the neck and face, and used for automatic speech recognition to provide speech-to-text or synthesized speech as an alternative means of communication...
December 2017: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Audio, Speech, and Language Processing
Erebouni Arakelian, Emma Laurssen, Caisa Öster
PURPOSE: To examine anxiety and what older patients worry about related to anesthesia and colorectal surgery, and their perceptions regarding nurses' ability to ease preoperative worry. DESIGN: Qualitative individual face-to-face interviews. METHODS: The study included 18 patients aged between 62 and 91 years with lower abdominal tumors. The study was conducted in two day-surgery wards in Sweden. Interview data were analyzed with Malterud's systematic text condensation...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Perianesthesia Nursing: Official Journal of the American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses
Lisa M Durso, Kimberly L Cook
Agriculture reflects One Health principals, with the job of the farmer being to sustainably balance human, animal, and soil health. It is imperative to include an agricultural perspective when addressing antibiotic resistance (AR) from a One Health perspective, as the farmers, ranchers, and agricultural professionals have an intimate working knowledge of these complex systems, and they will be on the front lines of implementing on-farm control measures. Currently, communication across the One Health triad (humans, animals, environment) regarding agricultural AR is hindered by ambiguous language, complicated by cultural and linguistic differences that can lead to the conclusion that the other participant is not aware of the facts, or has ulterior motives...
March 14, 2018: EcoHealth
Joeri J Meijsen, Archie Campbell, Caroline Hayward, David J Porteous, Ian J Deary, Riccardo E Marioni, Kristin K Nicodemus
Lower performances in cognitive ability in individuals with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) have been observed on multiple occasions. Understanding cognitive performance in MDD could provide a wider insight in the aetiology of MDD as a whole. Using a large, well characterised cohort (N = 7012), we tested for: differences in cognitive performance by MDD status and a gene (single SNP or polygenic score) by MDD interaction effect on cognitive performance. Linear regression was used to assess the association between cognitive performance and MDD status in a case-control, single-episode-recurrent MDD and control-recurrent MDD study design...
March 13, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Tien Le, Christopher Giede
OBJECTIVES: To optimize the management of adnexal masses and to assist primary care physicians and gynaecologists determine which patients presenting with an ovarian mass with a significant risk of malignancy should be considered for gynaecologic oncology referral and management. OPTIONS: Laparoscopic evaluation, comprehensive surgical staging for early ovarian cancer, or tumour debulking for advanced stage ovarian cancer. OUTCOMES: To optimize conservative versus operative management of women with possible ovarian malignancy and to optimize the involvement of gynaecologic oncologists in planning and delivery of treatment...
March 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
Patricia Crespo, Juan E Jiménez, Cristina Rodríguez, Doris Baker, Yonghan Park
The present study compares the patterns of growth of beginning reading skills (i.e., phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary and comprehension) of Spanish speaking monolingual students who received a Tier 2 reading intervention with students who did not receive the intervention. All the students in grades K-2 were screened at the beginning of the year to confirm their risk status. A quasi-experimental longitudinal design was used: the treatment group received a supplemental program in small groups of 3 to 5 students, for 30 minutes daily from November to June...
March 9, 2018: Spanish Journal of Psychology
Carol McDonald Connor, Michèle M M Mazzocco, Terri Kurz, Elizabeth C Crowe, Elizabeth L Tighe, Taffeta S Wood, Frederick J Morrison
Accumulating evidence suggests that assessment-informed personalized instruction, tailored to students' individual skills and abilities, is more effective than more one-size-fits-all approaches. In this study, we evaluate the efficacy of Individualizing Student Instruction in Mathematics (ISI-Math) compared to Reading (ISI-Reading) where classrooms were randomly assigned to ISI-Math or ISI-Reading. The literature on child characteristics X instruction or skill X treatment interaction effects point to the complexities of tailoring instruction for individual students who present with constellations of skills...
February 2018: Journal of School Psychology
Kelly J Mrklas, Shannon MacDonald, Melissa A Shea-Budgell, Nancy Bedingfield, Heather Ganshorn, Sarah Glaze, Lea Bill, Bonnie Healy, Chyloe Healy, Juliet Guichon, Amy Colquhoun, Christopher Bell, Ruth Richardson, Rita Henderson, James Kellner, Cheryl Barnabe, Robert A Bednarczyk, Angeline Letendre, Gregg S Nelson
BACKGROUND: Despite the existence of human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccines with demonstrated safety and effectiveness and funded HPV vaccination programs, coverage rates are persistently lower and cervical cancer burden higher among Canadian Indigenous peoples. Barriers and supports to HPV vaccination in Indigenous peoples have not been systematically documented, nor have interventions to increase uptake in this population. This protocol aims to appraise the literature in Canadian and global Indigenous peoples, relating to documented barriers and supports to vaccination and interventions to increase acceptability/uptake or reduce hesitancy of vaccination...
March 2, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Gloria Pino Escobar, Marina Kalashnikova, Paola Escudero
The role of early bilingual experience in the development of skills in the general cognitive and linguistic domains remains poorly understood. This study investigated the link between these two domains by assessing inhibitory control processes in school-aged monolingual and bilingual children with similar English receptive vocabulary size. The participants, 8-year-old monolinguals and bilinguals, completed two Verbal Fluency Tasks (VFTs), letter and category, and two measures of inhibitory control. Results showed that bilinguals outperformed monolinguals on the VFTs, but performance was similar on the inhibitory control measures approaching ceiling for both monolingual and bilingual children...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Hugh A Stoddard, Erica D Brownfield
PROBLEM: Undergraduate medical education (UME) has trended toward outcomes-based education, unveiling new issues for UME program organization and leadership. Using a common language for categorizing and linking all program components is essential. The Emory Curriculum Alignment Taxonomy (ECAT) was designed as a common vocabulary for curriculum mapping in the outcomes-based environment of the Emory University School of Medicine. APPROACH: The ECAT, developed in 2016, uses a set of 291 controlled identifiers, or "tags," to describe every educational activity's content, instruction, assessment, and outcomes, and thereby to align teaching inputs with student outcomes...
February 20, 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Alexandra M Dick, Michael K Suvak
The current study examined the role of conceptual knowledge and language in affective instability (AI) associated with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Forty-six females meeting criteria for BPD and 51 nonclinical female control participants without BPD completed a measure of general vocabulary and a semantic similarities task that provided estimates of the degree to which participants weighted information about valence and arousal in their understanding of emotion language. Feelings of valence and arousal were assessed using the Self-Assessment Manikin in response to 62 emotionally evocative images, which was used to derive estimates of AI...
February 19, 2018: Personality Disorders
Paul Denny, Marc Feuermann, David P Hill, Ruth C Lovering, Helene Plun-Favreau, Paola Roncaglia
Autophagy is a fundamental cellular process that is well conserved among eukaryotes. It is one of the strategies that cells use to catabolize substances in a controlled way. Autophagy is used for recycling cellular components, responding to cellular stresses and ridding cells of foreign material. Perturbations in autophagy have been implicated in a number of pathological conditions such as neurodegeneration, cardiac disease and cancer. The growing knowledge about autophagic mechanisms needs to be collected in a computable and shareable format to allow its use in data representation and interpretation...
February 17, 2018: Autophagy
Maureen E Pittman, Stephen W Edwards, Cataia Ives, Holly M Mortensen
The Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) framework describes the progression of a toxicity pathway from molecular perturbation to population-level outcome in a series of measurable, mechanistic responses. The controlled, computer-readable vocabulary that defines an AOP has the ability to, automatically and on a large scale, integrate AOP knowledge with publically available sources of biological high-throughput data and its derived associations. To support the discovery and development of putative (existing) and potential AOPs, we introduce the AOP-DB, an exploratory database resource that aggregates association relationships between genes and their related chemicals, diseases, pathways, species orthology information, ontologies, and gene interactions...
February 14, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Marion Porcherie, Mathilde Lejeune, Marion Gaudel, Jeanine Pommier, Emmanuelle Faure, Zoé Heritage, Stéphane Rican, Jean Simos, Nicola Luca Cantoreggi, Anne Roué Le Gall, Linda Cambon, Jean-Philippe Regnaux
INTRODUCTION: Green space in the built environment is an important topic on the health agenda today. Studies have shown that access to green spaces is associated with better mental and physical health, yet green spaces can also be detrimental to health if they are not managed appropriately. Despite the increasing interest in urban green spaces, little research has so far been conducted into the links between green spaces and cancer. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this scoping review is therefore to map the literature available on the types of relationship between urban green spaces and cancer...
February 16, 2018: BMJ Open
Kenneth Lim, Kimberly Butt, Joan M Crane
OBJECTIVES: To review (1) the use of ultrasonographic-derived cervical length measurement in predicting preterm birth and (2) interventions associated with a short cervical length. OUTCOMES: Reduction in rates of prematurity and/or better identification of those at risk, as well as possible prevention of unnecessary interventions. EVIDENCE: Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed and The Cochrane Library up to December 2009, using appropriate controlled vocabulary and key words (preterm labour, ultrasound, cervix, incompetent cervix, transvaginal, transperineal, cervical length, fibronectin)...
February 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
Yoav Yinon, Dan Farine, Mark H Yudin
OBJECTIVES: To review the principles of prenatal diagnosis of congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and to describe the outcomes of the affected pregnancies. OUTCOMES: Effective management of fetal infection following primary and secondary maternal CMV infection during pregnancy. Neonatal signs include intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), microcephaly, hepatosplenomegaly, petechiae, jaundice, chorioretinitis, thrombocytopenia and anemia, and long-term sequelae consist of sensorineural hearing loss, mental retardation, delay of psychomotor development, and visual impairment...
February 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
David J Osumi-Sutherland, Enrico Ponta, Melanie Courtot, Helen Parkinson, Laura Badi
BACKGROUND: The Gene Ontology (GO) consists of over 40,000 terms for biological processes, cell components and gene product activities linked into a graph structure by over 90,000 relationships. It has been used to annotate the functions and cellular locations of several million gene products. The graph structure is used by a variety of tools to group annotated genes into sets whose products share function or location. These gene sets are widely used to interpret the results of genomics experiments by assessing which sets are significantly over- or under-represented in results lists...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Semantics
Katerina Ntourou, Julie D Anderson, Stacy A Wagovich
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the executive function (EF) abilities of preschool children who do (CWS) and do not stutter (CWNS) using a parent-report questionnaire and a behavioral task. METHOD: Participants were 75 CWS and 75 CWNS between the ages of 3;0 and 5;11 (years; months). Parents rated their children's EF abilities using the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Preschool Version (BRIEF-P; Gioia, Espy, & Isquith, 2003). Children's ability to integrate cognitive flexibility, inhibitory control, and working memory was measured using a behavioral task, the Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders (HTKS; Cameron Ponitz, McClelland, Matthews, & Morrison, 2009)...
December 30, 2017: Journal of Fluency Disorders
Ruth C Lovering, Paola Roncaglia, Douglas G Howe, Stanley J F Laulederkind, Varsha K Khodiyar, Tanya Z Berardini, Susan Tweedie, Rebecca E Foulger, David Osumi-Sutherland, Nancy H Campbell, Rachael P Huntley, Philippa J Talmud, Judith A Blake, Ross Breckenridge, Paul R Riley, Pier D Lambiase, Perry M Elliott, Lucie Clapp, Andrew Tinker, David P Hill
BACKGROUND: A systems biology approach to cardiac physiology requires a comprehensive representation of how coordinated processes operate in the heart, as well as the ability to interpret relevant transcriptomic and proteomic experiments. The Gene Ontology (GO) Consortium provides structured, controlled vocabularies of biological terms that can be used to summarize and analyze functional knowledge for gene products. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, we created a computational resource to facilitate genetic studies of cardiac physiology by integrating literature curation with attention to an improved and expanded ontological representation of heart processes in the Gene Ontology...
February 2018: Circ Genom Precis Med
Christos Argyriou, George S Georgiadis, Nikolaos Kontopodis, Arun D Pherwani, Joost A Van Herwaarden, Constantijn E V B Hazenberg, George A Antoniou
BACKGROUND: Screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) during transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) may be an effective targeted screening strategy. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to assess the feasibility of AAA screening during TTE and to estimate the prevalence of AAA in patients undergoing TTE. METHODS: Electronic bibliographic sources were interrogated using a combination of free text and controlled vocabulary searches to identify studies reporting on AAA screening during TTE...
February 9, 2018: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
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