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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434462/the-effects-of-tai-chi-on-physical-and-psychosocial-function-among-persons-with-multiple-sclerosis-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
Emily Taylor, Ruth E Taylor-Piliae
OBJECTIVES: Conduct a systematic review to evaluate the effects of Tai Chi on physical and psychosocial function among individuals with Multiple Sclerosis. METHODS: An electronic literature search of 12 databases using controlled vocabulary function and keywords from inception through August 2016. All Tai Chi intervention studies assessing physical and psychosocial function among persons with Multiple Sclerosis were included. Study quality was scored using an established tool examining 16 study elements (range=0-32)...
April 2017: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429816/a-randomised-controlled-trial-to-test-the-effect-of-promoting-caregiver-contingent-talk-on-language-development-in-infants-from-diverse-socioeconomic-status-backgrounds
#2
Michelle McGillion, Julian M Pine, Jane S Herbert, Danielle Matthews
BACKGROUND: Early language skills are critical for later academic success. Lower socioeconomic status (SES) children tend to start school with limited language skills compared to advantaged peers. We test the hypothesis that this is due in part to differences in caregiver contingent talk during infancy (how often the caregiver talks about what is in the focus of the infant's attention). METHODS: In a randomised controlled trial with high and low SES families, 142 11-month olds and their caregivers were randomly allocated to either a contingent talk intervention or a dental health control...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426950/testing-the-validity-of-a-continuous-false-belief-task-in-3-to-7-year-old-children
#3
Caitlin E V Mahy, Daniel M Bernstein, Lindsey D Gerrard, Cristina M Atance
In two studies, we examined young children's performance on the paper-and-pencil version of the Sandbox task, a continuous measure of false belief, and its relations with other false belief and inhibition tasks. In Study 1, 96 children aged 3 to 7years completed three false belief tasks (Sandbox, Unexpected Contents, and Appearance/Reality) and two inhibition tasks (Head-Shoulders-Knees-Toes and Grass/Snow). Results revealed that false belief bias-a measure of egocentrism-on the Sandbox task correlated with age but not with the Unexpected Contents or Appearance/Reality task or with measures of inhibition after controlling for age...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424614/relationship-between-cognitive-and-sleep-wake-variables-in-asymptomatic-offspring-of-patients-with-late-onset-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Carolina Abulafia, Bárbara Duarte-Abritta, Mirta F Villarreal, María S Ladrón-de-Guevara, Celeste García, Geraldine Sequeyra, Gustavo Sevlever, Leticia Fiorentini, Karl-Jürgen Bär, Deborah R Gustafson, Daniel E Vigo, Salvador M Guinjoan
Early neuropathological changes characteristic of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) involve brain stem and limbic structures that regulate neurovegetative functions, including sleep-wake rhythm. Indeed, sleep pattern is an emerging biomarker and a potential pathophysiological mechanism in LOAD. We hypothesized that cognitively asymptomatic, middle-aged offspring of patients with LOAD (O-LOAD) would display a series of circadian rhythm abnormalities prior to the onset of objective cognitive alterations. We tested 31 children of patients with LOAD (O-LOAD) and 19 healthy individuals without family history of Alzheimer's disease (control subjects, CS) with basic tests of cognitive function, as well as actigraphy measures of sleep-wake rhythm, cardiac autonomic function, and bodily temperature...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424104/assessing-the-impact-of-conversational-overlap-in-content-on-child-language-growth
#5
Elizabeth S Che, Patricia J Brooks, Maria F Alarcon, Francis D Yannaco, Seamus Donnelly
When engaged in conversation, both parents and children tend to re-use words that their partner has just said. This study explored whether proportions of maternal and/or child utterances that overlapped in content with what their partner had just said contributed to growth in mean length of utterance (MLU), developmental sentence score, and vocabulary diversity over time. We analyzed the New England longitudinal corpus from the CHILDES database, comprising transcripts of mother-child conversations at 14, 20, and 32 months, using the CHIP command to compute proportions of utterances with overlapping content...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Child Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422961/characterization-of-the-mechanism-of-drug-drug-interactions-from-pubmed-using-mesh-terms
#6
Yin Lu, Bryan Figler, Hong Huang, Yi-Cheng Tu, Ju Wang, Feng Cheng
Identifying drug-drug interaction (DDI) is an important topic for the development of safe pharmaceutical drugs and for the optimization of multidrug regimens for complex diseases such as cancer and HIV. There have been about 150,000 publications on DDIs in PubMed, which is a great resource for DDI studies. In this paper, we introduced an automatic computational method for the systematic analysis of the mechanism of DDIs using MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) terms from PubMed literature. MeSH term is a controlled vocabulary thesaurus developed by the National Library of Medicine for indexing and annotating articles...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417214/neural-processes-associated-with-vocabulary-and-vowel-length-differences-in-a-dialect-an-erp-study-in-pre-literate-children
#7
Jessica C Bühler, Franziska Waßmann, Daniela Buser, Flutra Zumberi, Urs Maurer
Although familiarity with a language impacts how phonology and semantics are processed at the neural level, little is known how these processes are affected by familiarity with a dialect. By measuring event-related potentials (ERPs) in kindergarten children we investigated neural processing related to familiarity with dialect-specific pronunciation and lexicality of spoken words before literacy acquisition in school. Children speaking one of two German dialects were presented with spoken word-picture pairings, in which congruity (or the lack thereof) was defined by dialect familiarity with pronunciation or vocabulary...
April 17, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415998/effectiveness-of-current-policing-related-mental-health-interventions-in-england-and-wales-and-crisis-intervention-teams-as-a-future-potential-model-a-systematic-review
#8
Eddie Kane, Emily Evans, Farhad Shokraneh
BACKGROUND: Experiencing mental ill health adds a layer of complexity for individuals in touch with the justice system and for those responsible for working in the justice service with these individuals, such as frontline police officers. In England and Wales, there are three commonly used but not necessarily commonly designed or operated, mental health interventions associated with policing, Liaison and Diversion, Street Triage and specialist staff embedded in Police Contact Control Rooms...
April 17, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413840/modeling-integration-and-reuse-of-heterogeneous-terminologies-in-faceted-browsing-systems
#9
Daniel R Harris
We integrate heterogeneous terminologies into our category-theoretic model of faceted browsing and show that existing terminologies and vocabularies can be reused as facets in a cohesive, interactive system. Commonly found in online search engines and digital libraries, faceted browsing systems depend upon one or more taxonomies which outline the structure and content of the facets available for user interaction. Controlled vocabularies or terminologies are often externally curated and are available as a reusable resource across systems...
July 2016: Proceedings of the ... IEEE International Conference on Information Reuse and Integration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407509/infant-word-segmentation-recruits-the-cerebral-network-of-phonological-short-term-memory
#10
Yasuyo Minagawa, Yoko Hakuno, Ai Kobayashi, Nozomi Naoi, Shozo Kojima
Segmenting word units from running speech is a fundamental skill infants must develop in order to acquire language. Despite ample behavioral evidence of this skill, its neurocognitive basis remains unclear. Using behavioral testing and functional near-infrared spectroscopy, we aimed to uncover the neurocognitive substrates of word segmentation and its development. Of three age-groups of Japanese infants (5-6, 7-8, and 9-10months of age), the two older age-groups showed significantly larger temporo-parietal (particularly supramarginal gyrus) responses to target words repeatedly presented for training, than to control words...
April 10, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388504/training-spatial-simultaneous-working-memory-in-individuals-with-down-syndrome
#11
Silvia Lanfranchi, Francesca Pulina, Barbara Carretti, Irene C Mammarella
Recent studies have suggested that the spatial-simultaneous component of working memory (WM), which is involved when stimuli are presented simultaneously, is selectively impaired in individuals with Down syndrome (DS). The main objective of the present study was to examine whether WM performance can be enhanced in individuals with DS by analyzing the immediate and maintenance effects of a training program. For this purpose, 61 individuals with DS were randomly assigned to three groups: one trained on simultaneous components of visuospatial WM; one serving as an active control group, that completed activities on vocabulary; and one serving as a passive control group, that only attended the pre- and post-test and follow-up assessments...
April 4, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385580/food-brand-recognition-and-bmi-in-preschoolers
#12
Kristen Harrison, Jessica Moorman, Mericarmen Peralta, Kally Fayhee
Children's food brand recognition predicts health-related outcomes such as preference for obesogenic foods and increased risk for overweight. However, it is uncertain to what degree food brand recognition acts as a proxy for other factors such as parental education and income, child vocabulary, child age, child race/ethnicity, parent healthy eating guidance, child commercial TV viewing, and child dietary intake, all of which may influence or be influenced by food brand recognition. U.S. preschoolers (N = 247, average age 56 months) were measured for BMI and completed the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test plus recognition and recall measures for a selection of U...
April 4, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383129/early-maternal-employment-and-children-s-vocabulary-and-inductive-reasoning-ability-a-dynamic-approach
#13
Michael Kühhirt, Markus Klein
This study investigates the relationship between early maternal employment history and children's vocabulary and inductive reasoning ability at age 5, drawing on longitudinal information on 2,200 children from the Growing Up in Scotland data. Prior research rarely addresses dynamics in maternal employment and the methodological ramifications of time-variant confounding. The present study proposes various measures to capture duration, timing, and stability of early maternal employment and uses inverse probability of treatment weighting to control for time-variant confounders that may partially mediate the effect of maternal employment on cognitive scores...
April 6, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381995/working-memory-training-for-healthy-older-adults-the-role-of-individual-characteristics-in-explaining-short-and-long-term-gains
#14
Erika Borella, Elena Carbone, Massimiliano Pastore, Rossana De Beni, Barbara Carretti
Objective: The aim of the present study was to explore whether individual characteristics such as age, education, vocabulary, and baseline performance in a working memory (WM) task-similar to the one used in the training (criterion task)-predict the short- and long-term specific gains and transfer effects of a verbal WM training for older adults. Method: Four studies that adopted the Borella et al. (2010) verbal WM training procedure were found eligible for our analysis as they included: healthy older adults who attended either the training sessions (WM training group), or alternative activities (active control group); the same measures for assessing specific gains (on the criterion WM task), and transfer effects (nearest on a visuo-spatial WM task, near on short-term memory tasks and far on a measure of fluid intelligence, a measure of processing speed and two inhibitory measures); and a follow-up session...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372598/semantic-memory-and-depressive-symptoms-in-patients-with-subjective-cognitive-decline-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
J Lehrner, G Coutinho, P Mattos, D Moser, M Pflüger, A Gleiss, E Auff, P Dal-Bianco, G Pusswald, E Stögmann
BACKGROUND: Semantic memory may be impaired in clinically recognized states of cognitive impairment. We investigated the relationship between semantic memory and depressive symptoms (DS) in patients with cognitive impairment. METHODS: 323 cognitively healthy controls and 848 patients with subjective cognitive decline (SCD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia were included. Semantic knowledge for famous faces, world capitals, and word vocabulary was investigated...
April 4, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369811/do-children-with-grapheme-colour-synaesthesia-show-cognitive-benefits
#16
Julia Simner, Angela E Bain
Grapheme-colour synaesthesia is characterized by conscious and consistent associations between letters and colours, or between numbers and colours (e.g., synaesthetes might see A as red, 7 as green). Our study explored the development of this condition in a group of randomly sampled child synaesthetes. Two previous studies (Simner & Bain, 2013, Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7, 603; Simner, Harrold, Creed, Monro, & Foulkes, 2009, Brain, 132, 57) had screened over 600 primary school children to find the first randomly sampled cohort of child synaesthetes...
March 29, 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369171/a-transition-based-joint-model-for-disease-named-entity-recognition-and-normalization
#17
Yinxia Lou, Yue Zhang, Tao Qian, Fei Li, Shufeng Xiong, Donghong Ji
Motivation: Disease named entities play a central role in many areas of biomedical research, and automatic recognition and normalization of such entities have received increasing attention in biomedical research communities. Existing methods typically used pipeline models with two independent phases: 1) a disease named entity recognition (DER) system is used to find the boundaries of mentions in text; 2) a disease named entity normalization (DEN) system is used to connect the mentions recognized to concepts in a controlled vocabulary...
March 24, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365732/better-living-through-ontologies-at-the-immune-epitope-database
#18
Randi Vita, James A Overton, Alessandro Sette, Bjoern Peters
The Immune Epitope Database (IEDB) project incorporates independently developed ontologies and controlled vocabularies into its curation and search interface. This simplifies curation practices, improves the user query experience and facilitates interoperability between the IEDB and other resources. While the use of independently developed ontologies has long been recommended as a best practice, there continues to be a significant number of projects that develop their own vocabularies instead, or that do not fully utilize the power of ontologies that they are using...
January 1, 2017: Database: the Journal of Biological Databases and Curation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364575/morphological-awareness-and-reading-comprehension-examining-mediating-factors
#19
Kyle C Levesque, Michael J Kieffer, S Hélène Deacon
The relation between morphological awareness-defined as the awareness of and ability to manipulate the smallest units of meaning in language-and reading comprehension remains in need of specification. In this study, we evaluated four potential intervening variables through which morphological awareness may contribute indirectly to reading comprehension. We assessed word reading and vocabulary as well as children's ability to read and analyze the meaning of morphologically complex words (morphological decoding and morphological analysis, respectively)...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348441/educational-pathways-and-change-in-crime-between-adolescence-and-early-adulthood
#20
Raymond R Swisher, Christopher R Dennison
OBJECTIVES: This article examines the relationship between intergenerational educational pathways and change in crime. Moreover, it examines the potential mediating roles of family and employment transitions, economic stressors, and social psychological factors. METHOD: Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (N = 14,742) and negative binomial models are used to assess associations between educational pathways (i.e., upward, downward, and stable) and change in crime between adolescence and early adulthood...
November 2016: Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency
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