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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802853/diversity-not-quantity-in-caregiver-speech-using-computational-modeling-to-isolate-the-effects-of-the-quantity-and-the-diversity-of-the-input-on-vocabulary-growth
#1
Gary Jones, Caroline F Rowland
Children who hear large amounts of diverse speech learn language more quickly than children who do not. However, high correlations between the amount and the diversity of the input in speech samples makes it difficult to isolate the influence of each. We overcame this problem by controlling the input to a computational model so that amount of exposure to linguistic input (quantity) and the quality of that input (lexical diversity) were independently manipulated. Sublexical, lexical, and multi-word knowledge were charted across development (Study 1), showing that while input quantity may be important early in learning, lexical diversity is ultimately more crucial, a prediction confirmed against children's data (Study 2)...
August 10, 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792687/ols-client-and-ols-dialog-open-source-tools-to-annotate-public-omics-datasets
#2
Yasset Perez-Riverol, Tobias Ternent, Maximilian Koch, Harald Barsnes, Olga Vrousgou, Simon Jupp, Juan Antonio Vizcaíno
The availability of user-friendly software to annotate biological datasets and experimental details is becoming essential in data management practices, both in local storage systems and in public databases. The Ontology Lookup Service (OLS, http://www.ebi.ac.uk/ols) is a popular centralized service to query, browse and navigate biomedical ontologies and controlled vocabularies. Recently, the OLS framework has been completely redeveloped (version 3.0), including enhancements in the data model, like the added support for Web Ontology Language (OWL)-based ontologies, among many other improvements...
August 9, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774649/the-dynamic-imprint-of-word-learning-on-the-dorsal-language-pathway
#3
María-Ángeles Palomar-García, Ana Sanjuán, Elisenda Bueichekú, Noelia Ventura-Campos, César Ávila
According to Hickok and Poeppel (2007), the acquisition of new vocabulary rests on the dorsal language pathway connecting auditory and motor areas. The present study tested this hypothesis longitudinally by measuring BOLD signal changes during a verbal repetition task and modulation of resting state functional connectivity (rs-FC) in the dorsal stream. Thirty-five healthy participants, divided into trained and control groups, completed fMRI sessions on days 1, 10, and 24. Between days 1 and 10, the trained group learned 84 new pseudowords associated with 84 native words...
July 31, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764311/altmetrics-a-collated-adjunct-beyond-citations-for-scholarly-impact-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
Basavaraj Patthi, Monika Prasad, Ritu Gupta, Ashish Singla, Jishnu Krishna Kumar, Kuldeep Dhama, Irfan Ali, Lav Kumar Niraj
INTRODUCTION: In emerging Figures, scholars are unifying social media tools like blogs, Twitter, and Mendeley into their professional communications. The online, open nature of these tools reveals the scholarly action to be clear and unambiguous. Metrics which is set on these activities could enlighten broader, faster measures of impact, supplementing traditional citation metrics. AIM: The present review aims to analyse the correlation of altmetrics with the traditional citations in medical research...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742849/joint-action-aesthetics
#5
Staci Vicary, Matthias Sperling, Jorina von Zimmermann, Daniel C Richardson, Guido Orgs
Synchronized movement is a ubiquitous feature of dance and music performance. Much research into the evolutionary origins of these cultural practices has focused on why humans perform rather than watch or listen to dance and music. In this study, we show that movement synchrony among a group of performers predicts the aesthetic appreciation of live dance performances. We developed a choreography that continuously manipulated group synchronization using a defined movement vocabulary based on arm swinging, walking and running...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694792/context-is-everything-harmonization-of-critical-food-microbiology-descriptors-and-metadata-for-improved-food-safety-and-surveillance
#6
Emma Griffiths, Damion Dooley, Morag Graham, Gary Van Domselaar, Fiona S L Brinkman, William W L Hsiao
Globalization of food networks increases opportunities for the spread of foodborne pathogens beyond borders and jurisdictions. High resolution whole-genome sequencing (WGS) subtyping of pathogens promises to vastly improve our ability to track and control foodborne disease, but to do so it must be combined with epidemiological, clinical, laboratory and other health care data (called "contextual data") to be meaningfully interpreted for regulatory and health interventions, outbreak investigation, and risk assessment...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676774/look-who-s-talking-now-parentese-speech-social-context-and-language-development-across-time
#7
Nairán Ramírez-Esparza, Adrián García-Sierra, Patricia K Kuhl
In previous studies, we found that the social interactions infants experience in their everyday lives at 11- and 14-months of age affect language ability at 24 months of age. These studies investigated relationships between the speech style (i.e., parentese speech vs. standard speech) and social context [i.e., one-on-one (1:1) vs. group] of language input in infancy and later speech development (i.e., at 24 months of age), controlling for socioeconomic status (SES). Results showed that the amount of exposure to parentese speech-1:1 in infancy was related to productive vocabulary at 24 months...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676576/stimulating-multiple-demand-cortex-enhances-vocabulary-learning
#8
Magdalena W Sliwinska, Inês R Violante, Richard J S Wise, Robert Leech, Joseph T Devlin, Fatemeh Geranmayeh, Adam Hampshire
It is well established that networks within multiple-demand cortex (MDC) become active when diverse skills and behaviors are being learnt. However, their causal role in learning remains to be established. In the present study, we first performed functional magnetic resonance imaging on healthy female and male human participants to confirm that MDC was most active in the initial stages of learning a novel vocabulary, consisting of pronounceable nonwords (pseudowords), each associated with a picture of a real object...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675326/mixed-frames-and-risky-decision-making
#9
Jiaxi Peng, Jiaxi Zhang, Hao Sun, Zhicong Zeng, Yuexia Mai, Danmin Miao
By applying unitive vocabulary, "die" or "save," to respective frames of the Asian disease problem, Tversky and Kahneman were able to define framing effect. In this study, we preliminarily explored the effect of mixed frames, which are characterized by the use of different vocabulary in one frame. In study 1, we found that only the sure option description had significant effect on decision-making, while the effects of risky option descriptions were not significant, nor were interactions between descriptions...
January 1, 2017: Psychological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673304/lost-in-translation-a-multilingual-query-builder-improves-the-quality-of-pubmed-queries-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#10
Matthieu Schuers, Mher Joulakian, Gaetan Kerdelhué, Léa Segas, Julien Grosjean, Stéfan J Darmoni, Nicolas Griffon
BACKGROUND: MEDLINE is the most widely used medical bibliographic database in the world. Most of its citations are in English and this can be an obstacle for some researchers to access the information the database contains. We created a multilingual query builder to facilitate access to the PubMed subset using a language other than English. The aim of our study was to assess the impact of this multilingual query builder on the quality of PubMed queries for non-native English speaking physicians and medical researchers...
July 3, 2017: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666276/language-and-false-belief-task-performance-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#11
M Jeffrey Farrar, Hye Kyeung Seung, Hyeonjin Lee
Purpose: Language is related to false-belief (FB) understanding in both typically developing children and children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The current study examined the role of complementation and general language in FB understanding. Of interest was whether language plays similar or different roles in the groups' FB performance. Method: Participants were 16 typically developing children (mean age = 5.0 years; mental age = 6.7) and 18 with ASD (mean age = 7...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661262/memantine-improves-semantic-memory-in-patients-with-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-single-photon-emission-computed-tomography-study
#12
Demet Ilhan Algin, Suna Dagli Atalay, Serhat Ozkan, Demet Ozbabalik Adapinar, Ilknur Ak Sivrioz
Objective This study was performed to assess the efficacy of memantine in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Methods Thirty healthy controls and 45 patients diagnosed with aMCI based on the Petersen criteria were classified into 3 groups. Group 1 comprised patients who received a single memantine dose following examination (n = 25), Group 2 comprised patients who did not receive memantine treatment following examination (n = 20), and Group 3 comprised healthy age-matched volunteers (n = 30)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654411/a-multi-method-investigation-of-pragmatic-development-in-individuals-with-down-syndrome
#13
Michelle Lee, Lauren Bush, Gary E Martin, Jamie Barstein, Nell Maltman, Jessica Klusek, Molly Losh
This longitudinal study examined pragmatic language in boys and girls with Down syndrome (DS) at up to three time points, using parent report, standardized and direct assessments. We also explored relationships among theory of mind, executive function, nonverbal mental age, receptive and expressive vocabulary, grammatical complexity, and pragmatic competence. Controlling for cognitive and language abilities, children with DS demonstrated greater difficulty than younger typically developing controls on parent report and standardized assessments, but only girls with DS differed on direct assessments...
July 2017: American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652342/early-phonology-revealed-by-international-adoptees-birth-language-retention
#14
Jiyoun Choi, Mirjam Broersma, Anne Cutler
Until at least 6 mo of age, infants show good discrimination for familiar phonetic contrasts (i.e., those heard in the environmental language) and contrasts that are unfamiliar. Adult-like discrimination (significantly worse for nonnative than for native contrasts) appears only later, by 9-10 mo. This has been interpreted as indicating that infants have no knowledge of phonology until vocabulary development begins, after 6 mo of age. Recently, however, word recognition has been observed before age 6 mo, apparently decoupling the vocabulary and phonology acquisition processes...
July 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637208/unit-conversions-between-loinc-codes
#15
Ronald G Hauser, Douglas B Quine, Alex Ryder, Sheldon Campbell
Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) is the most widely used controlled vocabulary to identify laboratory tests. A given laboratory test can often be reported in more than 1 unit of measure (eg, grams or moles), and LOINC defines unique codes for each unit. Consequently, an identical laboratory test performed by 2 different clinical laboratories may have different LOINC codes. The absence of unit conversions between compatible LOINC codes impedes data aggregation and analysis of laboratory results...
June 19, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632910/withdrawn-hypnosis-for-children-undergoing-dental-treatment
#16
REVIEW
Sharifa Al-Harasi, Paul F Ashley, David R Moles, Susan Parekh, Val Walters
BACKGROUND: Managing children is a challenge that many dentists face. Many non-pharmacological techniques have been developed to manage anxiety and behavioural problems in children, such us: 'tell, show & do', positive reinforcement, modelling and hypnosis. The use of hypnosis is generally an overlooked area, hence the need for this review. OBJECTIVES: This systematic review attempted to answer the question: What is the effectiveness of hypnosis (with or without sedation) for behaviour management of children who are receiving dental care in order to allow successful completion of treatment?Null hypothesis: Hypnosis has no effect on the outcome of dental treatment of children...
June 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600923/multicomponent-view-of-vocabulary-acquisition-an-investigation-with-primary-grade-children
#17
Young-Suk Grace Kim
The role of working memory in vocabulary acquisition has been well established in the literature. In this study, we proposed and empirically tested the multicomponent view of vocabulary acquisition, which states that multiple language and cognitive skills are involved to facilitate phonological and semantic representations needed for vocabulary acquisition. Working memory and attention were hypothesized to be directly and indirectly related to vocabulary, whereas inference and morphosyntactic knowledge were hypothesized to be directly related to vocabulary (measured by the Picture Vocabulary Test of the Woodcock-Johnson III battery)...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591795/socioeconomic-status-and-reading-disability-neuroanatomy-and-plasticity-in-response-to-intervention
#18
Rachel R Romeo, Joanna A Christodoulou, Kelly K Halverson, Jack Murtagh, Abigail B Cyr, Carly Schimmel, Patricia Chang, Pamela E Hook, John D E Gabrieli
Although reading disability (RD) and socioeconomic status (SES) are independently associated with variation in reading ability and brain structure/function, the joint influence of SES and RD on neuroanatomy and/or response to intervention is unknown. In total, 65 children with RD (ages 6-9) with diverse SES were assigned to an intensive, 6-week summer reading intervention (n = 40) or to a waiting-list control group (n = 25). Before and after, all children completed standardized reading assessments and magnetic resonance imaging to measure cortical thickness...
June 7, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586825/typical-toddlers-participation-in-just-in-time-programming-of-vocabulary-for-visual-scene-display-augmentative-and-alternative-communication-apps-on-mobile-technology-a-descriptive-study
#19
Christine Holyfield, Kathryn Drager, Janice Light, Jessica Gosnell Caron
Purpose: Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) promotes communicative participation and language development for young children with complex communication needs. However, the motor, linguistic, and cognitive demands of many AAC technologies restrict young children's operational use of and influence over these technologies. The purpose of the current study is to better understand young children's participation in programming vocabulary "just in time" on an AAC application with minimized demands...
June 6, 2017: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581688/when-you-re-happy-and-i-know-it-four-year-olds-emotional-perspective-taking-during-online-language-comprehension
#20
Melanie Khu, Craig Chambers, Susan A Graham
Using a novel emotional perspective-taking task, this study investigated 4-year-olds' (n = 97) use of a speaker's emotional prosody to make inferences about the speaker's emotional state and, correspondingly, their communicative intent. Eye gaze measures indicated preschoolers used emotional perspective inferences to guide their real-time interpretation of ambiguous statements. However, these sensitivities were less apparent in overt responses, suggesting preschoolers' ability to integrate emotional perspective cues is at an emergent state...
June 5, 2017: Child Development
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