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Medical Subject Headings

Justine W Welsh, Valeria Tretyak, R Kathryn McHugh, Roger D Weiss, Olivera Bogunovic
BACKGROUND: Many patients require discontinuation of benzodiazepines due to a reduction in drug efficacy over time, the development of a sedative use disorder, or unwanted side effects. Benzodiazepine discontinuation can pose a significant challenge for prescribing clinicians due to potential withdrawal symptoms and a recurrence of psychiatric complaints. METHODS: A PubMed literature search was conducted using the medical subject heading of benzodiazepines in combination with the following key words: discontinuation, withdrawal, detoxification, cessation, dependence, addiction, substance use disorders, or long term...
May 31, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Graciane Radaelli, Francisco de Souza Santos, Wyllians Vendramini Borelli, Leonardo Pisani, Magda Lahorgue Nunes, Fulvio Alexandre Scorza, Jaderson Costa da Costa
INTRODUCTION: Early infantile epileptic encephalopathy syndrome (EIEE), also known as Ohtahara syndrome, is an age-dependent epileptic encephalopathy syndrome defined by clinical features and electroencephalographic findings. Epileptic disorders with refractory seizures beginning in the neonatal period and/or early infancy have a potential risk of premature mortality, including sudden death. We aimed to identify the causes of death in EIEE and conducted a literature survey of fatal outcomes...
June 12, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Jaeyeon Yoon, Enhao Gong, Itthi Chatnuntawech, Berkin Bilgic, Jingu Lee, Woojin Jung, Jingyu Ko, Hosan Jung, Kawin Setsompop, Greg Zaharchuk, Eung Yeop Kim, John Pauly, Jongho Lee
Deep neural networks have demonstrated promising potential for the field of medical image reconstruction, successfully generating high quality images for CT, PET and MRI. In this work, an MRI reconstruction algorithm, which is referred to as quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM), has been developed using a deep neural network in order to perform dipole deconvolution, which restores magnetic susceptibility source from an MRI field map. Previous approaches of QSM require multiple orientation data (e.g. Calculation of Susceptibility through Multiple Orientation Sampling or COSMOS) or regularization terms (e...
June 9, 2018: NeuroImage
Xin Hui S Chan, Yan Naung Win, Laura J Mawer, Jireh Y Tan, Josep Brugada, Nicholas J White
BACKGROUND: Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine is an effective and well tolerated artemisinin-based combination therapy that has been assessed extensively for the prevention and treatment of malaria. Piperaquine, similar to several structurally related antimalarials currently used, can prolong cardiac ventricular repolarisation duration and the electrocardiographic QT interval, leading to concerns about its proarrhythmic potential. We aimed to assess the risk of potentially lethal iatrogenic ventricular arrhythmias in individuals receiving dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine...
June 7, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Saira Sanjida, Steven M McPhail, Joanne Shaw, Jeremy Couper, David Kissane, Melanie A Price, Monika Janda
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this meta-analysis was to estimate the overall effect size (ES) of psychological interventions on anxiety in patients with cancer; and extract sample and intervention characteristics that influence effectiveness. METHODS: PubMed, Scopus, PsycINFO, Embase, Medline and CINAHL were searched using Medical Subject Heading keywords- 'cancer' AND 'anxiety' AND 'psychological intervention' AND 'counselling' AND 'psycho*' AND 'psychotherapy' AND 'psychosocial' AND 'therapy' between January 1993- June 2017...
June 9, 2018: Psycho-oncology
Daniel Erlewein, Tommaso Bruni, Mariacarla Gadebusch Bondio
OBJECTIVE: In 1983, McIntyre and Popper underscored the need for more openness in dealing with errors in medicine. Since then, much has been written on individual medical errors. Furthermore, at the beginning of the 21st century, researchers and medical practitioners increasingly approached individual medical errors through health information technology. Hence, the question arises whether the attention of biomedical researchers shifted from individual medical errors to health information technology...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Evidence-based Medicine
Daniel Wolverton, David P Elliott
OBJECTIVE: To review clinical trial data supporting the use of drugs to treat osteoporosis in the oldest adults, 74 years of age and older. DATA SOURCES: The PubMed database (September 1969-June 2017) was searched utilizing the following Medical Subject Headings terms: osteoporosis, postmenopausal, aged, 80 and over, and fractures, bone, in combination with diphosphonates, denosumab, parathyroid hormone, raloxifene, and calcitonin. STUDY SELECTION/DATA EXTRACTION: An initial search revealed 119 results, of which 18 clinical trials were included...
June 1, 2018: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
Saurabh Kumar, Catherine Chandran, Rabin Chacko, J S Jesija, Arun Paul
Aims and Objectives: Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) of the jaw is a significant yet rare complication of radiotherapy (RT) associated with the management of head-and-neck malignancies. Recent decrease in the incidence of ORN following RT to the head and neck is being mainly attributed to refinement in RT techniques and improvement in our understanding of this morbid disease. The aim of this study is to assess the patients with ORN following head-and-neck RT to determine the various contributing risk factors involved in the development of ORN...
April 2018: Contemporary Clinical Dentistry
Monia Daami, Imed Latiri, Sonia Rouatbi, Raoudha Sfaxi, Helmi Ben Saad
INTRODUCTION: The primary outcome of the 6-min walk-test is the 6-min walk-distance (6MWD). Its interpretation relies upon the comparison of the measured 6MWD with the predicted one from published norms. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present review is to report the 6MWD norms published for healthy adults Arab populations. METHODS: The review includes a literature search, from 1970 to January 5th 2017 using the PubMed search engine. Reference equations lists of retrieved English/French articles were searched for any supplementary references...
August 2017: La Tunisie Médicale
Andrew C Prince, Kristine E Day, Chee Paul Lin, Benjamin J Greene, William R Carroll
Objectives To recognize the utility of the surgical Apgar score (SAS) in a noncutaneous head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) population. Study Design Retrospective case series with chart review. Setting Academic tertiary medical center. Subjects and Methods Patients (n = 563) undergoing noncutaneous HNSCC resection between April 2012 and March 2015 were included. Demographics, medical history, intraoperative data, and postoperative hospital summaries were collected. SASs were calculated following the published schema...
May 1, 2018: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Melissa Henry, Zeev Rosberger, Lia Bertrand, Christina Klassen, Michael Hier, Anthony Zeitouni, Karen Kost, Alex Mlynarek, Keith Richardson, Martin Black, Christina MacDonald, Xun Zhang, Gabrielle Chartier, Saul Frenkiel
Objectives (1) Determine 1-year period prevalence of suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, and completed suicide among patients newly diagnosed with a first occurrence of head and neck cancer (HNC). (2) Characterize stability and trajectory of suicidal ideation over the year following cancer diagnosis. (3) Identify patients at risk of suicidal ideation. Study Design Prospective longitudinal study with 1-year follow-up. Setting Three university-affiliated outpatient departments of otolaryngology-head and neck surgery...
May 1, 2018: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Maya Peled-Raz, Michal Perl, Manfred S Green
BACKGROUND: By law, the provision of medical treatment to minors in the State of Israel is conditional upon the consent of their parents. In 2004, the Head of the Medical Administration Unit in the Ministry of Health issued Circular No. 4/2004 regarding the treatment of un-accompanied minors in primary care clinics. This circular aims to expand on the law, and permits the treatment of certain minors without parental attendance or consent. The circular does indicate that parents should be notified of the treatment retroactively, and provides cases in which it is possible to avoid notification altogether...
June 1, 2018: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research
Charlotte Capri, Lameze Abrahams, Judith McKenzie, Ockert Coetzee, Siyabulela Mkabile, Manuel Saptouw, Andrew Hooper, Peter Smith, Colleen Adnams, Leslie Swartz
Background: Intellectual disability (ID) is the most prevalent disability in the world. People with intellectual disability (PWID) frequently experience extreme violations of numerous human rights. Despite greater prevalence in South Africa than in high-income countries, most ID research currently comes from the Global North. This leaves us with few contextually sensitive studies to draw from to advance inclusive citizenship. Objectives: Our scoping review aims to investigate pertinent ID rights issues in South Africa, synthesise quantitative and qualitative studies, and provide a synopsis of available evidence on which to base future work...
2018: African Journal of Disability
Heyoung Yang, Hyuck Jai Lee
Motivation : PubMed is a primary source of biomedical information comprising search tool function and the biomedical literature from MEDLINE which is the US National Library of Medicine premier bibliographic database, life science journals and online books. Complimentary tools to PubMed have been developed to help the users search for literature and acquire knowledge. However, these tools are insufficient to overcome the difficulties of the users due to the proliferation of biomedical literature. A new method is needed for searching the knowledge in biomedical field...
May 30, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Meghan M Crippen, Jacob S Brady, Alexander M Mozeika, Jean Anderson Eloy, Soly Baredes, Richard Chan Woo Park
Objective Analyze the risk for perioperative complications associated with body mass index (BMI) class in patients undergoing head and neck free flap reconstruction. Study Design and Setting Retrospective cohort study. Subjects and Methods The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database was queried for all cases of head and neck free flaps between 2005 and 2014 (N = 2187). This population was stratified into underweight, normal-weight, overweight, and obese BMI cohorts. Groups were compared for demographics, comorbidities, and procedure-related variables...
May 1, 2018: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Florian Berger, Tilo Niemann, Rahel A Kubik-Huch, Henning Richter, Michael J Thali, Dominic Gascho
BACKGROUND: Metal artifacts from retained bullets impair the image quality on computed tomography (CT) and may compromise the detection of critical lesions or the bullet path. To reduce metallic artifacts from medical implants on CT, special algorithms have been developed, e.g., iterative metal artifact reduction (iMAR). The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the application of iMAR in cases of retained bullets. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, nine different types of projectiles (n = 9) were selected to evaluate the effect of iMAR...
June 2018: European Journal of Radiology
Narayana R Subramaniam, Vijay Kumar Srinivasalu, Deepak Balasubramanian, K U Pushpaja, Anoop Remesan Nair, Chelakkot Prameela, Krishnakumar Thankappan, Subramania Iyer
INTRODUCTION: It is estimated that around 10% of all head and neck cancer patients in India are aged over 70 years. Elderly patients are often subjected to palliative or inadequate treatment for head and neck cancers in spite of being candidates for curative intent therapy. In this study we evaluated our use of radical radiotherapy in carcinoma larynx for patients over seventy years of age to determine morbidity, likelihood of completing therapy, functional and oncological outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 132 patients of squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx treated between 2005-2015 at Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, Kochi who were seventy years of age or older were included...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Cancer
James H Diaz
Background: Coccidioidomycosis is a regionally endemic systemic mycosis with unique risk factors. Since people travel for business or pleasure, and often in conjunction with their avocations or hobbies, the objectives of this review were to describe these and other risk factors for coccidioidomycosis; to alert travel medicine clinicians to the different presenting manifestations of coccidioidomycosis; and to recommend effective treatment, disease control and prevention strategies. Methods: To meet the objectives of this review, Internet search engines were queried with the keywords as medical subject headings over the study period, 1970-2017...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Travel Medicine
Isabella Romano, M Claire Buchan, Mark A Ferro
INTRODUCTION: Multimorbidity (co-occurring physical and mental illness) is an important issue for clinicians and researchers with combined efforts aimed at promoting the health and well-being of individuals across the life course. In children and youth, experience of any chronic physical illness leads to a substantial increase in risk for mental illness. As a growing field of interest, research is needed to map the current state of the literature in child and youth multimorbidity in order to identify existing gaps and inform the direction of future investigations...
May 24, 2018: BMJ Open
Ana M Franceschi, Robert Matthews, Lev Bangiyev, Nand Relan, Ammar Chaudhry, Dinko Franceschi
OBJECTIVE: FDG PET/MRI examination of the body is routinely performed from the skull base to the mid thigh. Many types of brain abnormalities potentially could be detected on PET/MRI if the head was included. The objective of this study was therefore to identify and characterize brain findings incidentally detected on PET/MRI of the body with the head included. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively identified 269 patients with FDG PET/MRI whole-body scans that included the head...
May 24, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
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