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Cancer detection

Přemysl Frič, Jan Škrha, Aleksi Šedo, Tomaš Zima, Petr Bušek, Klára Kmochová, Martin Laclav, Bohuš Bunganič, Svatopluk Solař, Petr Hrabal, František Bělina, Pavel Záruba, Pavel Škrha, Miroslav Zavoral
High-resolution imaging methods (HRIMs) and biomarkers present the second step of pancreatic cancer (PC) diagnostics in at-risk individuals. These include patients with positive risk factors, early symptoms, nonresponders to the initial antidiabetic therapy, patients older than 50 years of age with new-onset unstable diabetes requiring insulin as well as patients with long-term insulin-non-dependent diabetes and recent (up to 6 months) failure of antidiabetic therapy. The procedures should be started without delay and the co-operation between the primary and tertiary medical centers is highly desirable...
December 2016: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Shih-Hsin Tu, Yin-Ching Lin, Chi-Cheng Huang, Po-Sheng Yang, Hui-Wen Chang, Chien-Hsi Chang, Chih-Hsiung Wu, Li-Ching Chen, Yuan-Soon Ho
We previously demonstrated that the activation of α9-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α9-nAchR) signaling by smoking promotes breast cancer formation. To investigate the downstream signaling molecules involved in α9-nAChR-induced breast tumorigenesis, we used real-time polymerase chain reactions and Western blotting to assess expression of protein phosphatase Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent 1F (PPM1F), a Ser/Thr protein phosphatase, in human breast cancer samples (n=167). Additionally, stable PPM1F-knockdown and -overexpressing cell lines were established to evaluate the function of PPM1F...
October 18, 2016: Oncotarget
Seul-Gi Oh, Xian Li, Ho Won Lee, Thoudam Debraj Singh, Sang Bong Lee, Hyun Dong Ji, GhilSuk Yoon, Sung Jin Cho, In-Kyu Lee, Shin Young Jeong, Byeong-Cheol Ahn, Jaetae Lee, Hyeun Wook Chang, Sang-Woo Lee, Yong Hyun Jeon
The inability to monitor the in vivo dynamics of mast cells (MCs) limits the better understanding of its role in cancer progression. Here, we report on noninvasive imaging of MC migration to tumor lesions in mice and evaluation of the effects of migrated MCs on tumor progression through reporter gene-based in vivo optical imaging and glucose metabolism monitoring in cancer with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) in vitro and in vivo. Murine MCs (MC-9) and Lewis lung cancer cells (LLC) expressing an enhanced firefly luciferase (effluc) gene were established, termed MC-9/effluc and LLC/effluc, respectively...
October 13, 2016: Biomaterials
Xiang-Xin Huang, Yun-Xuan Li, Xiang-Yu Li, Xiao-Xia Hu, Peng-Fei Tang, Guo-Xin Hu
Currently, crizotinib is the first generation drug, which has been used in the treatment of ALK-rearranged non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, more and more patients are found in crizotinib-resistance. In the last year, alectinib has been approved for treatment of patients with crizotinib-resistance. In this study, we aim to develop and validate a simple, rapid and sensitive tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for determination of alectinib in rat plasma. Diazepam was chosen as an internal standard (IS)...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Gavish Munbauhal, Thomas Seisen, Florie D Gomez, Benoit Peyronnet, Olivier Cussenot, Shahrokh F Shariat, Morgan Rouprêt
The sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND) concept relies on the accurate detection of primary nodal landing sites and could represent a major advancement towards accurate, non-invasive pelvic staging in prostate cancer (PCa). Different iterations of the technique have now been validated and reproduced mostly in large-volume centres. The existing evidence denotes the feasibility and sensitivity of SLND, with encouraging pre- and intraoperative detection rates of 98% and 96%. Yet, current surgical practice mandates a backup template dissection due to a false negative rate, up to 7...
October 6, 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Ranjan Basak, Naveen Kumar Nair, Indraneel Mittra
There is extensive literature to show that nucleic acids can be taken up by cells under experimental conditions and that foetal DNA can be detected in maternal tissues. The uptaken DNA can integrate into host cell genomes and can be transcribed and translated into proteins. They can also cause chromosomal damage and karyotype alterations. Cell-free nucleic acids (cfNAs)-based non-invasive DNA diagnostic techniques are being extensively researched in the field of cancer with the potential to advance new prognostic parameters and direct treatment decisions...
October 12, 2016: Mutation Research
Mehrnaz Asadi Gharabaghi
BACKGROUND/AIM: Lung cancer is the major contributor to overall cancer-related mortality. Biomarkers are important in early detection and prognosis, in addition to developing treatment regimes, which may improve the patient survival rates. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the prognostic and diagnostic value of SIRT1/BIRC6 expression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) Methods: The data on the prognostic impact of SIRT1/BIRC6 in NSCLC were collected from 11 September 2006 to 10 July 2014...
October 21, 2016: Clinical Respiratory Journal
Ivan A Zaporozhchenko, Evgeny S Morozkin, Tatyana E Skvortsova, Anastasia A Ponomaryova, Elena Yu Rykova, Nadezhda V Cherdyntseva, Evgeny S Polovnikov, Oksana A Pashkovskaya, Evgeny A Pokushalov, Valentin V Vlassov, Pavel P Laktionov
Lung cancer is a complex disease that often manifests at the point when treatment is not effective. Introduction of blood-based complementary diagnostics using molecular markers may enhance early detection of this disease and help reduce the burden of lung cancer. Here we evaluated the diagnostic potential of seven plasma miRNA biomarkers (miR-21, -19b, -126, -25, -205, -183, -125b) by quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Influence clinical and demographical characteristics, including age, tumor stage and cancer subtype on miRNA levels was investigated...
2016: PloS One
Bang-Shun He, Tao Xu, Yu-Qin Pan, Han-Jin Wang, William C Cho, Kang Lin, Hui-Ling Sun, Tian-Yi Gao, Shu-Kui Wang
Polymorphisms in nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway genes are associated with the risk of breast cancer, but the relevance of these associations appeared to vary according to the ethnicity of the subjects. To systemically evaluate the potential associations between NER polymorphisms and breast cancer risk in a Chinese population, we carried out a case-control study on 450 breast cancer patients and 430 healthy controls. Sequenom MassARRAY was used for genotyping, and immunohistochemistry was performed to detect estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) expression in tumor tissue...
October 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Sachin S Kumbhar, Ryan B O'Malley, Tracy J Robinson, Suresh Maximin, Neeraj Lalwani, David R Byrd, Carolyn L Wang
Optimal treatment of thyroid cancer is highly dependent on accurate staging of the extent of disease at presentation. Preoperative ultrasonography (US) is the most sensitive method for detecting metastatic lymph nodes and is recommended as part of the standard preoperative workup. Missed findings on preoperative scans may lead to understaging and inadequate surgical management, which subsequently predispose these patients to residual disease postoperatively and a higher risk for recurrence, possibly requiring repeat surgery...
October 21, 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Allegra T Aron, Morten O Loehr, Jana Bogena, Christopher J Chang
Iron is essential for sustaining life, as its ability to cycle between multiple oxidation states is critical for catalyzing chemical transformations in biological systems. However, without proper regulation, this same redox capacity can trigger oxidative stress events that contribute to aging along with diseases ranging from cancer to cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders. Despite its importance, methods for monitoring biological iron bound weakly to cellular ligands-the labile iron pool-to generate a response that preserves spatial and temporal information remain limited, owing to the potent fluorescence quenching ability of iron...
October 21, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Hung-Wei Yang, Rung-Ywan Tsai, Jung-Po Chen, Shin-Pon Ju, Jing-Fong Liao, KuoChen Wei, Wei-Lun Zou, Mu-Yi Hua
A simple and accurate device for early detection of malignancies is paramount for prompt treatment and prevention of metastases. In this study, we describe a novel fabrication method for producing an ordered nano-gold-dot array with strong localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) and narrow bandwidth. The array was used as an optical bio-sensing chip for the detection of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in human serum. The biochip was constructed by conjugating an anti-VEGF antibody, a specific bio-recognition element for VEGF, onto the array via the fragment crystallizable (Fc) region of the antibody, ultimately increasing the efficiency of VEGF detection...
October 21, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Ashton A Connor, Robert E Denroche, Gun Ho Jang, Lee Timms, Sangeetha N Kalimuthu, Iris Selander, Treasa McPherson, Gavin W Wilson, Michelle A Chan-Seng-Yue, Ivan Borozan, Vincent Ferretti, Robert C Grant, Ilinca M Lungu, Eithne Costello, William Greenhalf, Daniel Palmer, Paula Ghaneh, John P Neoptolemos, Markus Buchler, Gloria Petersen, Sarah Thayer, Michael A Hollingsworth, Alana Sherker, Daniel Durocher, Neesha Dhani, David Hedley, Stefano Serra, Aaron Pollett, Michael H A Roehrl, Prashant Bavi, John M S Bartlett, Sean Cleary, Julie M Wilson, Ludmil B Alexandrov, Malcolm Moore, Bradly G Wouters, John D McPherson, Faiyaz Notta, Lincoln D Stein, Steven Gallinger
Importance: Outcomes for patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remain poor. Advances in next-generation sequencing provide a route to therapeutic approaches, and integrating DNA and RNA analysis with clinicopathologic data may be a crucial step toward personalized treatment strategies for this disease. Objective: To classify PDAC according to distinct mutational processes, and explore their clinical significance. Design, Setting, and Participants: We performed a retrospective cohort study of resected PDAC, using cases collected between 2008 and 2015 as part of the International Cancer Genome Consortium...
October 20, 2016: JAMA Oncology
Abdul K Parchur, Qifei Li, Anhong Zhou
We report the synthesis, characterization, and application of Prussian blue (PB) functionalized CaMoO4:Eu@SiO2@Au nanorod hybrid nanoparticles (HNPs), with multimodal capabilities such as fluorescence imaging, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) detection and photothermal therapy (PTT). The average size of CaMoO4:Eu@SiO2 NPs was 206 nm. The HNPs are highly dispersible in water for several weeks without settling and show a strong absorption in the near-infrared region, overlapping with the PB absorption between 600 nm and 1000 nm and the surface plasmon resonance of Au nanorods around 800 nm...
October 21, 2016: Biomaterials Science
Cuijuan Yu, Hai Wang, Aaron Muscarella, Amit Goldstein, Huan-Chang Zeng, Yangjin Bae, Brendan H I Lee, Xiang H-F Zhang
Intra-iliac artery (IIA) injection is an efficient approach to introduce metastatic lesions of various cancer cells in animals. Compared to the widely used intra-cardiac and intra-tibial injections, IIA injection brings several advantages. First, it can deliver a large quantity of cancer cells specifically to hind limb bones, thereby providing spatiotemporally synchronized early-stage colonization events and allowing robust quantification and swift detection of disseminated tumor cells. Second, it injects cancer cells into the circulation without damaging the local tissues, thereby avoiding inflammatory and wound-healing processes that confound the bone colonization process...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Seetharam Shiva Prasad, L Ramachandra, Vijay Kumar, Aniket Dave, Lalit K Mestha, Krithika Venkatarmani
BACKGROUND: Thermographic imaging is a non-invasive and radiation free imaging modality that measures the infrared radiation released by the body. Recently, there is a renewed interest regarding the scope of thermal imaging for breast cancer. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of thermographic breast imaging in detecting breast cancer. METHODS: A Prospective observational study was carried out from January 2014 to December 2014 at Kasturba Hospital, Manipal, India...
October 17, 2016: Breast Disease
Nanjing Hao, Laifeng Li, Fangqiong Tang
A straightforward method was developed to synthesize hollow mesoporous silica nanotubes (HMSNTs) using bovine serum protein (BSA) as the protective coating and phosphate buffered saline (PBS) as the etching agent at room temperature. Galactose-grafted HMSNTs significantly reduced phagocytosis by macrophages, and enhanced cellular uptake by A549 cells via caveolae-mediated uptake pathway. Trehalose-conjugated HMSNTs interacted strongly with mycobacteria, showing the linear detection range from 1 × 10(4) to 1 × 10(8) bacteria/mL and the detection limit of 1 × 10(3) bacteria/mL...
October 21, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Robbert D A Weren, Arjen R Mensenkamp, Michiel Simons, Astrid Eijkelenboom, Aisha S Sie, Hicham Ouchene, Monique van Asseldonk, Encarna B Gomez-Garcia, Marinus J Blok, Joanne A de Hullu, Marcel R Nelen, Alexander Hoischen, Johan Bulten, Bastiaan B J Tops, Nicoline Hoogerbrugge, En Marjolijn J L Ligtenberg
With the recent introduction of Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors, a promising novel therapy has become available for ovarian carcinoma patients with inactivating BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations in their tumour. To select patients who may benefit from these treatments, assessment of the mutation status of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in the tumour is required. For reliable evaluation of germline and somatic mutations in these genes in DNA derived from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue, we have developed a single molecule molecular inversion probe (smMIP)-based targeted next generation sequencing (NGS) approach...
October 21, 2016: Human Mutation
Pavel Damborský, Katarzyna M Koczula, Andrea Gallotta, Jaroslav Katrlík
Lateral flow assays (LFAs) enable the simple and rapid detection and quantification of analytes and is popular for point-of-care (PoC), point-of-use and outdoor testing applications. LFAs typically depend on antibody or nucleic acid based recognition. We present the innovative concept of a LFA using lectins in the role of the biorecognition element. Lectins are a special kind of glycan-binding protein and the lectin-based LFA herein described was developed for the determination of the glycosylation of free prostate specific antigen (PSA)...
October 21, 2016: Analyst
Ayse Ayhan, Elisabetta Kuhn, Ren-Chin Wu, Hiroshi Ogawa, Asli Bahadirli-Talbott, Tsui-Lien Mao, Haruhiko Sugimura, Ie-Ming Shih, Tian-Li Wang
Ovarian clear cell carcinoma is a unique type of ovarian cancer, often derived from endometriosis, and advanced-stage disease has a dismal prognosis primarily due to the resistance to conventional chemotherapy. Previous studies have shown frequent somatic mutations in ARID1A, PIK3CA, hTERT promoter, and amplification of ZNF217; however, the molecular alterations that are associated with its aggressiveness remain largely unknown. This study examined and compared cyclin E1 expression in endometriosis-related ovarian tumors, with the aim of determining the relationship between hTERT mutations and ARID1A expression and evaluating the effects of these molecular alterations on patient survival...
October 21, 2016: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
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