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Cancer detection

Lei Fang, Dedi Kong, Wei Xu
BACKGROUND: Thyroid cancer is the most common malignancy in human endocrine system. This study aimed to investigate the effects of microRNA-625-3p (miR-625-3p) on thyroid cancer cell proliferation, migration, invasion and apoptosis, as well as underlying potential mechanism. METHODS: The relative expressions of miR-625-3p in tumor tissues and adjacent normal tissues of 20 patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) were assessed using qRT-PCR. Cell transfection was used to up-regulate or down-regulate the expressions of miR-625-3p in thyroid cancer SW579 and TPC-1 cells...
March 17, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Nora B Henrikson, Caitlin C Morrison, Paula R Blasi, Matt Nguyen, Kendall C Shibuya, Carrie D Patnode
Importance: Exposure to UV radiation, especially in childhood, increases skin cancer risk. Objective: To systematically review the evidence on the benefits and harms of behavioral counseling for skin cancer prevention to inform the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF). Data Sources: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, and PubMed were searched for studies published from January 2009 to March 31, 2016, for skin cancer prevention and from August 2005 to March 31, 2016, for skin self-examination...
March 20, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Dawei Cai, Zongjian Liu, Guangqi Kong
BACKGROUND Circular RNAs (circRNAs) have emerged as important regulators in carcinogenesis and metastasis. However, the knowledge of circRNAs in bladder cancer remains limited. This study aimed to investigate the role and mechanism of circRNAs in the development and progression of bladder cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS Three pairs of bladder carcinomas (including high- and low-grade tumors) and adjacent normal tissues were collected from patients. The total RNAs were extracted from these samples and subjected to Clariom D microarray assays to detect the differentially expressed circRNAs and mRNAs...
March 20, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Timsy Uppal, Roni Sarkar, Ranjit Dhelaria, Subhash C Verma
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus or Human herpesvirus-8 (KSHV/HHV-8), an oncogenic human herpesvirus and the leading cause of cancer in HIV-infected individuals, is a major public health concern with recurring reports of epidemics on a global level. The early detection of KSHV virus and subsequent activation of the antiviral immune response by the host's immune system are crucial to prevent KSHV infection. The host's immune system is an evolutionary conserved system that provides the most important line of defense against invading microbial pathogens, including viruses...
March 20, 2018: Cancers
Morgan J Cichon, Nancy E Moran, Ken M Riedl, Steven J Schwartz, Steven K Clinton
The carotenoid lycopene is a bioactive component of tomatoes and is hypothesized to reduce risk of several chronic diseases, such as prostate cancer. The metabolism of lycopene is only beginning to be understood and some studies suggest that metabolites of lycopene may be partially responsible for bioactivity associated with the parent compound. The detection and characterization of these compounds in vivo is an important step in understanding lycopene bioactivity. The metabolism of lycopene likely involves both chemical and enzymatic oxidation...
March 20, 2018: Metabolites
Andrzej N Majda, Aleksandra Majdan, Paweł Piłat, Paweł Cisek
Gout tophi around auricular area are common in old men. The differential diagnosis of papules or nodules on the ear includes tophaceous gout, rheumatoid nodules, basal or squamous cell cancer, melanoma, verruca vulgaris or actinic keratosis. The presence of the skin cancer, most commonly located on the head and neck, is often related to the long exposure of the skin to sunlight. Elderly patients are the predominant group of patients with skin malignancies. The aim of this study is to emphasize the importance of early cancer detection in elderly people and use of appropriate therapeutic options that take into account the special requirements of geriatric patients...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Francesca Caumo, Giovanna Romanucci, Kylie Hunter, Manuel Zorzi, Silvia Brunelli, Petra Macaskill, Nehmat Houssami
BACKGROUND: The Verona population-based breast cancer (BC) screening program provides biennial mammography to women aged 50-69 years. Based on emerging evidence of enhanced detection, the program transitioned to digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) screening. METHODS: This is a prospective pilot evaluation of DBT with synthesised 2D mammography screening implemented during April 2015-March 2017; the rate and characteristics of cancers detected at DBT screening were compared with those detected at the preceding digital mammography (DM) screening round (April 2013-March 2015) in the same screening program...
March 20, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Alpesh A Patel, Shah-Nawaz M Dodwad, Barrett S Boody, Surabhi Bhatt, Jason W Savage, Wellington K Hsu, Nan E Rothrock
STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, cohort study. OBJECTIVE: Demonstrate validity of PROMIS physical function, pain interference, and pain behavior computer adaptive tests (CATs) in surgically treated lumbar stenosis patients. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: There has been increasing attention given to patient reported outcomes associated with spinal interventions. Historical patient outcome measures have inadequate validation, demonstrate floor/ceiling effects, and infrequently used due to time constraints...
March 19, 2018: Spine
Brittany Wheatley
Skin cancer is treatable and curable. Primary care providers should perform skin assessments for detection of skin cancer, however, due to conflicting guidelines and time constraints, many providers do not conduct adequate skin inspections. This quality improvement project aimed to improve skin inspection, documentation, and skin cancer detection through increased patient gowning.
April 19, 2018: Nurse Practitioner
Gokhan Boyraz, Fatma Oz Atalay, Mehmet Coskun Salman, Alp Usubutun, Anil Erturk, Murat Gultekin, Nejat Ozgul, Kunter Yuce
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare Mayo and Milwaukee risk stratification models for predicting lymphatic dissemination in patients with endometrial cancer (EC). METHODS: A total of 904 patients with EC underwent surgical treatment between 2004 and 2016 at Hacettepe University Hospital, and clinicopathological data of patients were retrieved from the computerized database of the Hacettepe University. Patients who did not undergo lymphadenectomy and who had nonendometrioid histology, stage-IV disease, and synchronous epithelial ovarian and EC were excluded...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
Qian Zhou, Hui Zeng, Peng Ye, Yu Shi, Juan Guo, Xinghua Long
Increasing evidence has shown that the dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) is associated with drug resistance. Fulvestrant and tamoxifen represent the major endocrine drugs for the treatment of breast cancer patients, and yet little is known about the biological mechanisms of acquiring resistance to fulvestrant and tamoxifen, let alone the differences between cell lines resistant to these two drugs. Exploration of the differential miRNA profiles between these two cell lines is a useful way to further clarify these resistance mechanisms...
March 19, 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
Simeon U Springer, Chung-Hsin Chen, Maria Del Carmen Rodriguez Pena, Lu Li, Christopher Douville, Yuxuan Wang, Joshua David Cohen, Diana Taheri, Natalie Silliman, Joy Schaefer, Janine Ptak, Lisa Dobbyn, Maria Papoli, Isaac Kinde, Bahman Afsari, Aline C Tregnago, Stephania M Bezerra, Christopher VandenBussche, Kazutoshi Fujita, Dilek Ertoy, Isabela W Cunha, Lijia Yu, Trinity J Bivalacqua, Arthur P Grollman, Luis A Diaz, Rachel Karchin, Ludmila Danilova, Chao-Yuan Huang, Chia-Tung Shun, Robert J Turesky, Byeong Hwa Yun, Thomas A Rosenquist, Yeong-Shiau Pu, Ralph H Hruban, Cristian Tomasetti, Nickolas Papadopoulos, Ken W Kinzler, Bert Vogelstein, Kathleen G Dickman, George J Netto
Current non-invasive approaches for detection of urothelial cancers are suboptimal. We developed a test to detect urothelial neoplasms using DNA recovered from cells shed into urine. UroSEEK incorporates massive parallel sequencing assays for mutations in 11 genes and copy number changes on 39 chromosome arms. In 570 patients at risk for bladder cancer (BC), UroSEEK was positive in 83% of those who developed BC. Combined with cytology, UroSEEK detected 95% of patients who developed BC. Of 56 patients with upper tract urothelial cancer, 75% tested positive by UroSEEK, including 79% of those with non-invasive tumors...
March 20, 2018: ELife
Minghui Li, Yan Zhou, Tiansong Xia, Xin Zhou, Zebo Huang, Huo Zhang, Wei Zhu, Qiang Ding, Shui Wang
PURPOSE: Novel noninvasive biomarkers with high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of breast cancer (BC) are urgently needed in clinics. The aim of this study was to explore whether miRNAs from the miR-106a-363 cluster can be detected in the circulation of BC patients and whether these miRNAs can serve as potential diagnostic biomarkers. METHODS: The expression of 12 miRNAs from the miR-106a-363 cluster was evaluated using qRT-PCR in 400 plasma samples (from 200 BC patients and 200 healthy controls (HCs)) and 406 serum samples (from 204 BC patients and 202 HCs) via a three-phase study...
March 20, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Nuray Erin, Nur Ogan, Azmi Yerlikaya
PURPOSE: Metastatic breast cancer is resistant to many conventional treatments and novel therapeutic targets are needed. We previously isolated subsets of 4T1 murine breast cancer cells which metastasized to liver (4TLM), brain (4TBM), and heart (4THM). Among these cells, 4TLM is the most aggressive one, demonstrating mesenchymal phenotype. Here we compared secreted proteins from 4TLM, 4TBM, and 4THM cells and compared with that of hardly metastatic 67NR cells to detect differentially secreted factors involved in organ-specific metastasis...
March 20, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Olga Sjomina, Jelizaveta Pavlova, Ilva Daugule, Pavel Janovic, Ilze Kikuste, Aigars Vanags, Ivars Tolmanis, Dace Rudzite, Inese Polaka, Ilona Kojalo, Inta Liepniece-Karele, Sergejs Isajevs, Daiga Santare, Valdis Pirags, Jelena Pahomova, Vilnis Dzerve, Lilian Tzivian, Andrejs Erglis, Marcis Leja
AIMS: The aim of the study was to evaluate the rationale of blood pepsinogen (PG) testing in population based screening settings. METHODS: Participants from a cross-sectional population-based study of cardiovascular risk factors in Latvia were invited to participate in the current study. Pepsinogen I and II were measured in blood samples taken during the initial study and at follow-up; upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed. There were three groups of patients: with moderately decreased (PG I< 70 ng/ml and PG I/PG II ratio < 3), with strongly decreased (PG I< 30 ng/ml and PG I/PG II ratio < 2), and with normal PG level...
March 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases: JGLD
Yaeji Lim, Ji Soo Choi, Kiyoun Kim, Mira Park, Seonwoo Kim
Diagnostic procedures are mostly used to detect a particular disease, and each procedure indicates the presence or absence of the disease in an individual. Sensitivity and positive predictive value, which are measures of the effectiveness of a diagnostic procedure, are simply calculated as the proportion of the individuals diagnosed with the disease by the test among the patients with the disease, and of the diseased persons among the individuals in whom the disease was detected by the test, respectively. For a diagnosis with such a binary result, sensitivity and the positive predictive value of diagnostic procedures can be compared using the chi-square statistic...
January 1, 2018: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
Carlos A Alvear Rodriguez, José Rafael Tovar Cuevas
A key biomarker in the study of differentiated thyroid cancer is thyroglobulin. Measurements of the levels of this protein in the blood are determined using laboratory instruments that cannot detect very small concentrations below a threshold, generating left-censored measurements. In the presence of censoring, ordinary least-squares regression models generate biased parameter estimates; therefore, it is necessary to resort to more complex models that consider the censored observations and the behavior of the distribution of the response variable, such as censored and mixed regression models...
January 1, 2018: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
Xue Li, Lanlan Pan, Lin Wei, Zunyan Yi, Xiao Wang, Zhongju Ye, Lehui Xiao, Hung-Wing Li, Jianfang Wang
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is an intercellular glycoprotein produced primarily by the prostate gland, which is commonly chosen as the initial target for the early diagnosis of prostate cancer. In this work, we demonstrate a simple yet sensitive sandwich-type single-particle enumeration (SPE) immunoassay for the quantitative detection of PSA in a flow chamber. The design is based on the luminescence resonance energy transfer (LRET) between upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) and gold nanoparticles (GNPs)...
March 20, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Yaw Opoku-Damoah, Assogba G Assanhou, Mopa A Sooro, Cynthia A Baduweh, Chunmeng Sun, Yang Ding
The circulation of tumor cells in peripheral blood is mostly recognized as a prerequisite for cancer progression or systemic invasion, and it correlates with the pivotal hallmark of malignancies known as metastasis. Multiple detection schemes for CTCs have emerged as the most discerning criteria for monitoring the outcome of anticancer therapy. Therefore, there has been a tremendous increase in the use of robust nanostructured platforms for observation of these mobile tumor cells through various simultaneous diagnosis and treatment regimens developed from conventional techniques...
March 20, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Muge Yucel, Osman Akin, Mehmet Cayoren, Ibrahim Akduman, Alagappan Palaniappan, Bo Liedberg, Gurkan Hizal, Fatih Inci, Umit Hakan Yildiz
This study reports on a handheld volatilome analyzer for selective determination of clinically relevant biomarkers in exhaled breath. The sensing platform is based on electrospun polymer nanofiber-multi walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) sensing micro-channels. Polymer nanofibers of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), polystyrene (PS), and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) incorporated with MWCNT exhibits stable response to interferences of humidity and CO2 and provides selective deformations upon exposure of exhaled breath target volatilomes acetone and toluene, exhibiting correlation to diabetes and lung cancer, respectively...
March 20, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
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