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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730968/modulation-of-the-immune-system-for-the-treatment-of-glaucoma
#1
Katharina Bell, Nadine von Thun Und Hohenstein-Blaul, Julia Teister, Franz H Grus
At present intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering therapies are the only approach to treat glaucoma. Neuroprotective strategies to protect the retinal ganglion cells (RGC) from apoptosis are lacking to date. Results from clinical studies revealed altered immunoreactivities against retinal and optic nerve antigens in sera and aqueous humor of glaucoma patients and point toward an autoimmune involvement in glaucomatous neurodegeneration and RGC death. IgG accumulations along with plasma cells were found localised in human glaucomatous retinae in a pro-inflammatory environment possibly maintained by microglia...
July 19, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730955/itraq-based-proteomic-analysis-of-appsw-ind-mice-provides-insights-into-the-early-changes-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Nan Li, Pinghong Hu, Tiantian Xu, Huan Chen, Xiaoying Chen, Jianwen Hu, Xifei Yang, Lei Shi, Jian-Hong Luo, Junyu Xu
BACKGROUND: Several proteins have been identified as potential diagnostic biomarkers in imaging, genetic, or proteomic studies in Alzheimer disease (AD) patients and mouse models. However, biomarkers for presymptom diagnosis of AD are still under investigation, as are the presymptom molecular changes in AD pathogenesis. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aim to analyzed the early proteomic changes in APPSw,Ind mice and to conduct further functional studies on interesting proteins...
July 19, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729867/exposure-to-the-epstein-barr-viral-antigen-latent-membrane-protein-1-induces-myelin-reactive-antibodies-in-vivo
#3
Yakov Lomakin, Georgii Pavlovich Arapidi, Alexander Chernov, Rustam Ziganshin, Evgenii Tcyganov, Irina Lyadova, Ivan Olegovich Butenko, Maria Osetrova, Natalia Ponomarenko, Georgy Telegin, Vadim Markovich Govorun, Alexander Gabibov, Alexey Belogurov
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Cross-reactivity of neuronal proteins with exogenous antigens is considered one of the possible mechanisms of MS triggering. Previously, we showed that monoclonal myelin basic protein (MBP)-specific antibodies from MS patients cross-react with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1). In this study, we report that exposure of mice to LMP1 results in induction of myelin-reactive autoantibodies in vivo...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729690/functional-variation-of-shp-2-promoter-is-associated-with-preterm-birth-and-delayed-myelination-and-motor-development-in-preterm-infants
#4
So-Yeon Shim, Hye Jin Jeong, Hyo Jin Park, Eun Young Kwon, Bo Min Kim, Yang Ji Choi, Youn-Hee Choi, Su Jin Cho, Ji Ha Choi, Eun Ae Park
Src homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP-2) is a cytoplasmic tyrosine phosphatase that is highly expressed in hematopoietic cells and in the CNS and exerts opposite effects on signal transduction by exerting a neuroprotective or proapoptotic effect. Several mutations of SHP-2 have been found in children with myeloproliferative disorders or malignant leukemia, and some of these can affect brain development. In the present study, we aimed to identify and functionally characterize genetic variations in SHP-2 in 72 preterm and 58 full-term infants and to evaluate the effect of the variations on neurodevelopment in preterm infants...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729624/taxanes-and-platinum-derivatives-impair-schwann-cells-via-distinct-mechanisms
#5
Satoshi Imai, Madoka Koyanagi, Ziauddin Azimi, Yui Nakazato, Mayuna Matsumoto, Takashi Ogihara, Atsushi Yonezawa, Tomohiro Omura, Shunsaku Nakagawa, Shuji Wakatsuki, Toshiyuki Araki, Shuji Kaneko, Takayuki Nakagawa, Kazuo Matsubara
Impairment of peripheral neurons by anti-cancer agents, including taxanes and platinum derivatives, has been considered to be a major cause of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN), however, the precise underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, we examined the direct effects of anti-cancer agents on Schwann cells. Exposure of primary cultured rat Schwann cells to paclitaxel (0.01 μM), cisplatin (1 μM), or oxaliplatin (3 μM) for 48 h induced cytotoxicity and reduced myelin basic protein expression at concentrations lower than those required to induce neurotoxicity in cultured rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728837/epileptic-apnea-in-a-patient-with-inherited-glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchor-deficiency-and-pigt-mutations
#6
Kosuke Kohashi, Akihiko Ishiyama, Shota Yuasa, Tomomi Tanaka, Kazushi Miya, Yuichi Adachi, Noriko Sato, Hirotomo Saitsu, Chihiro Ohba, Naomichi Matsumoto, Yoshiko Murakami, Taroh Kinoshita, Kenji Sugai, Masayuki Sasaki
We report an 11-month-old boy with acetazolamide-responsive epileptic apnea and inherited glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor deficiency who presented with decreased serum alkaline phosphatase associated with compound PIGT mutations. The patient exhibited congenital anomalies, severe intellectual disability, and seizures, including epileptic apnea with epileptiform discharges from bilateral temporal areas. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed delayed myelination and progressive atrophy of the brainstem, cerebellum, and cerebrum...
July 17, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724598/cystometrography-of-meningitis-retention-syndrome
#7
Yuji Tanaka, Kazuo Satomi
Although the combination of acute urinary retention and aseptic meningitis has not been well recognised, this combination can be referred to as meningitis-retention syndrome (MRS). We report a case of MRS with urodynamic follow-up. A 29-year-old man developed fever and headache, and after 7 days, he developed sudden urinary retention. Neurological examination indicated stiff neck, hyper-reflexes of the lower extremities. Cerebrospinal fluid examination showed mononuclear leucocytosis, increased protein level...
July 19, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723885/term-versus-preterm-cord-blood-cells-for-the-prevention-of-preterm-brain-injury
#8
Jingang Li, Tamara Yawno, Amy Sutherland, Jan Loose, Ilias Nitsos, Beth J Allison, Robert Bischof, Courtney A McDonald, Graham Jenkin, Suzanne L Miller
BACKGROUND: White matter brain injury in preterm infants can induce neurodevelopmental deficits. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) cells demonstrate neuroprotective properties, but it is unknown whether cells obtained from preterm versus term cord blood have similar efficacy. This study compared the ability of term cord blood (TCB) versus preterm cord blood (PCB) cells to reduce white matter injury in preterm fetal sheep. METHODS: Hypoxia-ischemia (HI) was induced in fetal sheep (0...
July 19, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722234/minocycline-reduces-microgliosis-and-improves-subcortical-white-matter-function-in-a-model-of-cerebral-vascular-disease
#9
Yasmina Manso, Philip R Holland, Akihiro Kitamura, Stefan Szymkowiak, Jessica Duncombe, Edel Hennessy, James L Searcy, Martina Marangoni, Andrew D Randall, Jon T Brown, Barry W McColl, Karen Horsburgh
Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion is a key mechanism associated with white matter disruption in cerebral vascular disease and dementia. In a mouse model relevant to studying cerebral vascular disease, we have previously shown that cerebral hypoperfusion disrupts axon-glial integrity and the distribution of key paranodal and internodal proteins in subcortical myelinated axons. This disruption of myelinated axons is accompanied by increased microglia and cognitive decline. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether hypoperfusion impairs the functional integrity of white matter, its relation with axon-glial integrity and microglial number, and whether by targeting microglia these effects can be improved...
July 19, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714350/activation-and-expression-of-%C3%AE-calpain-in-dorsal-root-contributes-to-rtx-induced-mechanical-allodynia
#10
Xiao-Cui Yuan, Cai-Hua Wu, Fang Gao, Hong-Ping Li, Hong-Chun Xiang, He Zhu, Xiao-Li Pan, Li-Xue Lin, Yan-Shen Liu, Wei Yu, Bo Tian, Xian-Fang Meng, Man Li
Background Calpain is a calcium-dependent cysteine protease, and inhibition of calpain by pre-treatment with MDL28170 attenuated the rat mechanical allodynia in a variety of pain models. Postherpetic neuralgia (Shingles) is a neuropathic pain conditioned with the presence of profound mechanical allodynia. Systemic injection of resiniferatoxin can reproduce the clinical symptoms of postherpetic neuralgia. In this study, we determined to study whether activation of calpain contributes to cleave the myelin basic protein of dorsal root and is involved in resiniferatoxin-induced mechanical allodynia of postherpetic neuralgia animal model...
January 2017: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713915/concurrent-administration-of-thyroxine-and-donepezil-induces-plastic-changes-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-adult-hypothyroid-rats
#11
Fen Wang, Zhangbi Wu, Xiaoxue Zha, Yaojun Cai, Bo Wu, Xuemei Jia, Defa Zhu
The aim of the present study was to observe the effects of the concurrent administration of thyroxine (T4) and an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor, donepezil (DON), on the hypothyroidism‑induced ultrastructural changes of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in adult rats. The acetylcholine (ACh) content and AChE activity was assessed, as well as the expressions of synaptotagmin‑1 (syt‑1) and SNAP‑25 were analyzed in the rats. Adding 0.05% propylthiouracil to rats' drinking water induced a hypothyroid rat model...
July 14, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713821/comparative-analysis-of-the-cell-fates-of-induced-schwann-cells-from-subcutaneous-fat-tissue-and-na%C3%A3-ve-schwann-cells-in-the-sciatic-nerve-injury-model
#12
Mingzi Zhang, Mei Hua Jiang, Dae-Wook Kim, Woosung Ahn, Eunkyung Chung, Youngsook Son, Guangfan Chi
PURPOSE: The fate and function of the induced Schwann cells (iSCs) like cells from adipose tissue have not been critically evaluated in vivo after transplantation. The objective of this study is to compare the fate of iSCs with naïve SCs (nSCs) after transplantation into the lesion sites of sciatic nerve, respectively. METHODS: Adipose-derived stem cells from eGFP-expressing transgenic rat's subcutaneous fat were induced to iSCs in vitro. iSCs were injected to the sciatic nerve lesion area after crush injury and the cells fate was comparatively analyzed with that of nSCs from the same rat...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711670/evaluation-of-serum-neuron-specific-enolase-s100b-myelin-basic-protein-and-glial-fibrilliary-acidic-protein-as-brain-specific-proteins-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#13
Erman Esnafoglu, Sema Nur Ayyıldız, Selma Cırrık, Emine Yurdakul Erturk, Abdullah Erdil, Abdullah Daglı, Tevfik Noyan
OBJECTIVE: Brain specific-proteins are not found in other tissues and measurement non-invasively in the blood may identify structurally and functionally damaged brain regions and identify the severity and prognosis of neuropsychiatric diseases. For this reason, we aimed to evaluate serum brain-specific protein values as brain damage markers in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHOD: 35 children with ASD and 31 healthy subjects were included in the study...
July 13, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709864/the-role-of-human-natural-killer-1-hnk-1-carbohydrate-in-neuronal-plasticity-and-disease
#14
REVIEW
Jyoji Morise, Hiromu Takematsu, Shogo Oka
BACKGROUND: The human natural killer-1 (HNK-1) carbohydrate, a unique trisaccharide possessing sulfated glucuronic acid in a non-reducing terminus (HSO3-3GlcAß1-3Galß1-4GlcNAc-), is highly expressed in the nervous system and its spatiotemporal expression is strictly regulated. Mice deficient in the gene encoding a key enzyme, GlcAT-P, of the HNK-1 biosynthetic pathway exhibit almost complete disappearance of the HNK-1 epitope in the brain, significant reduction of long-term potentiation, and aberration of spatial learning and memory formation...
July 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707358/suppressed-oligodendrocyte-steroidogenesis-in-multiple-sclerosis-implications-for-regulation-of-neuroinflammation
#15
Roobina Boghozian, Brienne A McKenzie, Leina B Saito, Ninad Mehta, William G Branton, JianQiang Lu, Glen B Baker, Farshid Noorbakhsh, Christopher Power
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Neurosteroids are reported to exert anti-inflammatory effects in several neurological disorders. We investigated the expression and actions of the neurosteroid, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and its more stable 3β-sulphated ester, DHEA-S, in MS and associated experimental models. CNS tissues from patients with MS and animals with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) displayed reduced DHEA concentrations, accompanied by diminished expression of the DHEA-synthesizing enzyme CYP17A1 in oligodendrocytes (ODCs), in association with increased expression of inflammatory genes including interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-1β...
July 14, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704293/analysis-of-neural-crest-cells-from-charcot-marie-tooth-disease-patients-demonstrates-disease-relevant-molecular-signature
#16
Fukiko Kitani-Morii, Keiko Imamura, Takayuki Kondo, Ryo Ohara, Takako Enami, Ran Shibukawa, Takuya Yamamoto, Kazuya Sekiguchi, Junya Toguchida, Toshiki Mizuno, Masanori Nakagawa, Haruhisa Inoue
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is the most common inherited neuropathy. The majority of CMT is demyelinating type (demyelinating CMT) caused by Schwann cell involvement. Although a large number of genes responsible for demyelinating CMT have been found, the common molecular target of the pathophysiology caused by these different genes in demyelinating CMT is still unknown. We generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from healthy controls and patients with demyelinating CMT caused by duplication in peripheral myelin protein 22 kDa (PMP22) or point mutations in myelin protein zero (MPZ) or early growth response 2 (EGR2)...
July 12, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699206/kiaa1199-a-novel-regulator-of-mek-erk-induced-schwann-cell-dedifferentiation
#17
Angélique Boerboom, Céline Reusch, Alexandra Pieltain, Alain Chariot, Rachelle Franzen
The molecular mechanisms that regulate Schwann cell (SC) plasticity and the role of the Nrg1/ErbB-induced MEK1/ERK1/2 signalling pathway in SC dedifferentiation or in myelination remain unclear. It is currently believed that different levels of MEK1/ERK1/2 activation define the state of SC differentiation. Thus, the identification of new regulators of MEK1/ERK1/2 signalling could help to decipher the context-specific aspects driving the effects of this pathway on SC plasticity. In this perspective, we have investigated the potential role of KIAA1199, a protein that promotes ErbB and MEK1/ERK1/2 signalling in cancer cells, in SC plasticity...
July 12, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698109/myelin-structure-in-unfixed-single-nerve-fibers-scanning-x-ray-microdiffraction-with-a-beam-size-of-200-nm
#18
Hideyo Inouye, Fong-Hsu Kuo, Andrew R Denninger, Britta Weinhausen, Manfred Burghammer, Daniel A Kirschner
Previous raster-scanning with a 1 μm x-ray beam of individual, myelinated fibers from glutaraldehyde-fixed rat sciatic nerve revealed a spatially-dependent variation in the diffraction patterns from single fibers. Analysis indicated differences in the myelin periodicity, membrane separations, distribution of proteins, and orientaion of membrane lamellae. As chemical fixation is known to produce structural artifacts, we sought to determine in the current study whether the structural heterogeneity is intrinsic to unfixed myelin...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697333/the-dyt6-dystonia-protein-thap1-regulates-myelination-within-the-oligodendrocyte-lineage
#19
Dhananjay Yellajoshyula, Chun-Chi Liang, Samuel S Pappas, Silvia Penati, Angela Yang, Rodan Mecano, Ravindran Kumaran, Stephanie Jou, Mark R Cookson, William T Dauer
The childhood-onset motor disorder DYT6 dystonia is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the transcription factor THAP1, but the neurodevelopmental processes in which THAP1 participates are unknown. We find that THAP1 is essential for the timing of myelination initiation during CNS maturation. Conditional deletion of THAP1 in the CNS retards maturation of the oligodendrocyte (OL) lineage, delaying myelination and causing persistent motor deficits. The CNS myelination defect results from a cell-autonomous requirement for THAP1 in the OL lineage and is recapitulated in developmental assays performed on OL progenitor cells purified from Thap1 null mice...
July 10, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696010/myelin-as-an-inflammatory-mediator-myelin-interactions-with-complement-macrophages-and-microglia-in-spinal-cord-injury
#20
REVIEW
Timothy J Kopper, John C Gensel
Spinal cord injury (SCI) triggers chronic intraspinal inflammation consisting of activated resident and infiltrating immune cells (especially microglia/macrophages). The environmental factors contributing to this protracted inflammation are not well understood; however, myelin lipid debris is a hallmark of SCI. Myelin is also a potent macrophage stimulus and target of complement-mediated clearance and inflammation. The downstream effects of these neuroimmune interactions have the potential to contribute to ongoing pathology or facilitate repair...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
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