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Myelin protein

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776406/the-effect-of-dpp-4-inhibition-to-improve-functional-outcome-after-stroke-is-mediated-by-the-sdf-1%C3%AE-cxcr4-pathway
#1
Fausto Chiazza, Harald Tammen, Hiranya Pintana, Grazyna Lietzau, Massimo Collino, Thomas Nyström, Thomas Klein, Vladimer Darsalia, Cesare Patrone
BACKGROUND: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors (gliptins) are approved drugs for the treatment of hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. These effects are mainly mediated by inhibiting endogenous glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) cleavage. Interestingly, gliptins can also improve stroke outcome in rodents independently from GLP1. However, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) is a DPP-4 substrate and CXCR4 agonist promoting beneficial effects in injured brains...
May 19, 2018: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775115/immunofluorescent-localization-of-non-myelinating-schwann-cells-and-their-interactions-with-immune-cells-in-mouse-thymus
#2
Dailun Hu, Philip K Nicholls, Changfu Yin, Khama Kelman, Qionglan Yuan, Wayne K Greene, Zhongli Shi, Bin Ma
The thymus is innervated by sympathetic/parasympathetic nerve fibers from the peripheral nervous system (PNS), suggesting a neural regulation of thymic function including T-cell development. Despite some published studies, data on the innervation and nerve-immune interaction inside the thymus remain limited. In the present study, we used immunofluorescent staining of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) coupled with confocal microscopy/three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction to reveal the distribution of non-myelinating Schwann cells (NMSC) and their interactions with immune cells inside mouse thymus...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771329/regulation-of-the-neuropathy-associated-pmp22-gene-by-a-distal-super-enhancer
#3
Harrison Pantera, John J Moran, Holly A Hung, Evgenia Pak, Amalia Dutra, John Svaren
Peripheral nerve myelination is adversely affected in the most common form of the hereditary peripheral neuropathy called Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease. This form, classified as CMT1A, is caused by a 1.4 Mb duplication on chromosome 17, which includes the abundantly expressed Schwann cell myelin gene, Peripheral Myelin Protein 22 (PMP22). This is one of the most common copy number variants causing neurological disease. Overexpression of Pmp22 in rodent models recapitulates several aspects of neuropathy, and reduction of Pmp22 in such models results in amelioration of the neuropathy phenotype...
May 16, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768974/brain-phospholipid-precursors-administered-post-injury-reduce-tissue-damage-and-improve-neurological-outcome-in-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury
#4
Orli Thau-Zuchman, Rita Noutel Gomes, Simon Christopher Dyall, Meirion Davis, John V Priestley, Martine Groenendijk, Martijn DE Wilde, Jordi Lopez-Tremoleda, Adina T Michael-Titus
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) leads to cellular loss, destabilisation of membranes, disruption of synapses and altered brain connectivity, and increased risk of neurodegenerative disease. A significant and long-lasting decrease in phospholipids (PL), essential membrane constituents, has recently been reported in plasma and brain tissue, in human and experimental TBI. We hypothesised that supporting PL synthesis post-injury could improve outcome after TBI. We tested this hypothesis using a multi-nutrient combination designed to support the biosynthesis of phospholipids and available for clinical use...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768188/micropatterned-biodegradable-polyesters-clicked-with-cqaasikvav-promote-cell-alignment-directional-migration-and-neurite-outgrowth
#5
Deteng Zhang, Sai Wu, Jianyong Feng, Yiyuan Duan, Dongming Xing, Changyou Gao
The interplay of microstructures and biological cues is critical to regulate the behaviors of Schwann cells (SCs) in terms of cellular spatial arrangement and directional migration as well as neurite orientation for bridging the proximal and distal stumps of the injured peripheral nervous system. In this study, stripe micropatterns having ridges/grooves of width 20/20 and 20/40 μm were fabricated on the surface of maleimide-functionalized biodegradable poly(ester carbonate) (P(LLA-MTMC)) films by the polydimethylsiloxane mold-pressing method, respectively...
May 13, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766020/amelioration-of-muscle-and-nerve-pathology-in-lama2-muscular-dystrophy-by-aav9-mini-agrin
#6
Chunping Qiao, Yi Dai, Viktoriya D Nikolova, Quan Jin, Jianbin Li, Bin Xiao, Juan Li, Sheryl S Moy, Xiao Xiao
LAMA2-related muscular dystrophy (LAMA2 MD) is the most common and fatal form of early-onset congenital muscular dystrophies. Due to the large size of the laminin α2 cDNA and heterotrimeric structure of the protein, it is challenging to develop a gene-replacement therapy. Our group has developed a novel adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector carrying the mini-agrin, which is a non-homologous functional substitute for the mutated laminin α2. A significant therapeutic effect in skeletal muscle was observed in our previous study using AAV serotype 1 (AAV1)...
June 15, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761344/beyond-the-magic-bullet-current-progress-of-therapeutic-vaccination-in-multiple-sclerosis
#7
Barbara Willekens, Nathalie Cools
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic immune-mediated disease of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration and impaired repair mechanisms that lead to neurological disability. The crux of MS is the patient's own immune cells attacking self-antigens in the CNS, namely the myelin sheath that protects nerve cells of the brain and spinal cord. Restoring antigen-specific tolerance via therapeutic vaccination is an innovative and exciting approach in MS therapy. Indeed, leveraging the body's attempt to prevent autoimmunity, i...
May 14, 2018: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755396/overlapping-autoimmune-syndromes-in-patients-with-glial-fibrillary-acidic-protein-antibodies
#8
Xinguang Yang, Huiming Xu, Meilin Ding, Qingmei Huang, Baikeng Chen, Huacai Yang, Tianni Liu, Youming Long, Cong Gao
Background: Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) astrocytopathy, an autoimmune central nervous system disorder with a specific GFAP-IgG, often coexists with other antibodies. Objective: The aim of this article was to study overlapping syndromes in autoimmune GFAP astrocytopathy. Methods: Antibody was detected by indirect immunofluorescence assay. Patient data were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Thirty patients with positive GFAP-IgG were included, of whom 10 were defined as overlapping syndrome...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752656/developmental-changes-in-oligodendrocyte-genesis-myelination-and-associated-behavioral-dysfunction-in-a-rat-model-of-intra-generational-protein-malnutrition
#9
Nisha Patro, Aijaz Ahmad Naik, Ishan K Patro
Impairments in oligodendrocyte development and resultant myelination deficits appear as a common denominator to all neurological diseases. An optimal in utero environment is obligatory for normal fetal brain development and later life brain functioning. Late embryonic and early postnatal brains from F1 rat born to protein malnourished mothers were studied through a combination of immunocytochemical and quantitative PCR assay for analyzing the relative expression of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α (PDGFRα), myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), proteolipid protein (PLP), and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) to determine oligodendrocyte genesis, differentiation, maturation, and myelination...
May 12, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751775/cxcl12-engineered-endothelial-progenitor-cells-enhance-neurogenesis-and-angiogenesis-after-ischemic-brain-injury-in-mice
#10
Yaning Li, Shuang Chang, Wanlu Li, Guanghui Tang, Yuanyuan Ma, Yanqun Liu, Fang Yuan, Zhijun Zhang, Guo-Yuan Yang, Yongting Wang
BACKGROUND: Ischemic stroke causes a multitude of brain damage. Neurovascular injury and myelin sheath degradation are two manifestations of ischemic brain damage. Therapeutic strategies aiming only at repairing the neural components or the vessels cannot efficiently restore neurological function. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have the advantages of both promoting angiogenesis and secreting trophic factors that would promote neurogenesis. Chemokine cxcl12 gene therapy has also been shown to promote angiogenesis, neurogenesis, and remyelination, attracting EPCs, neural progenitor cells, and oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) to the injured sites of the brain...
May 11, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751054/%C3%AE-elemene-enhances-gap-43-expression-and-neurite-outgrowth-by-inhibiting-rhoa-kinase-activation-in-rats-with-spinal-cord-injury
#11
Jingyu Wang, Heyangzi Li, Ying Yao, Yucheng Ren, Jiangtao Lin, Jue Hu, Mingzhi Zheng, Xinghui Song, Tengfei Zhao, Ying-Ying Chen, Yueliang Shen, Yong-Jian Zhu, Lin-Lin Wang
RhoA signalling pathway inhibitors such as Y27632 (a ROCK inhibitor) have recently been applied as treatments for spinal cord injury (SCI) because they promote neurite outgrowth and axonal regeneration in neurons. β-elemene, a compound that is extracted from a natural plant (Curcuma zedoary), influences the expression level of RhoA protein. Whether it can promote neurite outgrowth in motor neurons or enhance locomotor recovery in SCI remains unclear. Here, we initially demonstrated that β-elemene promotes neurite outgrowth of ventral spinal cord 4...
May 8, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748249/maf-links-neuregulin1-signaling-to-cholesterol-synthesis-in-myelinating-schwann-cells
#12
Minchul Kim, Hagen Wende, Jan Walcher, Johannes Küehnemund, Cyril Cheret, Stefan Kempa, Erik McShane, Matthias Selbach, Gary R Lewin, Carmen Birchmeier
Cholesterol is a major constituent of myelin membranes, which insulate axons and allow saltatory conduction. Therefore, Schwann cells, the myelinating glia of the peripheral nervous system, need to produce large amounts of cholesterol. Here, we define a crucial role of the transcription factor Maf in myelination and cholesterol biosynthesis and show that Maf acts downstream from Neuregulin1 (Nrg1). Maf expression is induced when Schwann cells begin myelination. Genetic ablation of Maf resulted in hypomyelination that resembled mice with defective Nrg1 signaling...
May 10, 2018: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747818/glycan-chains-of-gangliosides-functional-ligands-for-tissue-lectins-siglecs-galectins
#13
Robert W Ledeen, Jürgen Kopitz, José Abad-Rodríguez, Hans-Joachim Gabius
Molecular signals on the cell surface are responsible for adhesion and communication. Of relevance in this respect, their chemical properties endow carbohydrates with the capacity to store a maximum of information in a minimum of space. One way to present glycans on the cell surface is their covalent conjugation to a ceramide anchor. Among the resulting glycosphingolipids, gangliosides are special due to the presence of at least one sialic acid in the glycan chains. Their spatial accessibility and the dynamic regulation of their profile are factors that argue in favor of a role of glycans of gangliosides as ligands (counterreceptors) for carbohydrate-binding proteins (lectins)...
2018: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744572/protective-potential-of-dimethyl-fumarate-in-a-mouse-model-of-thalamocortical-demyelination
#14
Manuela Cerina, Venu Narayanan, Anna Delank, Patrick Meuth, Stephanie Graebenitz, Kerstin Göbel, Alexander M Herrmann, Stefanie Albrecht, Thiemo Daldrup, Thomas Seidenbecher, Ali Gorji, Tanja Kuhlmann, Heinz Wiendl, Christoph Kleinschnitz, Erwin J Speckmann, Hans-Christian Pape, Sven G Meuth, Thomas Budde
Alterations in cortical cellular organization, network functionality, as well as cognitive and locomotor deficits were recently suggested to be pathological hallmarks in multiple sclerosis and corresponding animal models as they might occur following demyelination. To investigate functional changes following demyelination in a well-defined, topographically organized neuronal network, in vitro and in vivo, we focused on the primary auditory cortex (A1) of mice in the cuprizone model of general de- and remyelination...
May 9, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742816/angiostrongylus-cantonensis-conditioned-culture-medium-induces-myelin-basic-protein-alterations-via-erk1-2-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation-in-rat-rsc-96-schwann-cells
#15
Jo-Ping Chin, Chien-Min Chen, Tsong-Hai Lee, Chii-Wen Chou, Cheng-You Lu
Eating of excessive raw or undercooked environmental snails produces Angiostrongyliasis demyelination caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk)1/2-nuclear factor (NF)-κB pathway and myelin basic protein (MBP) expression in RSC 96 Schwann cells treated with A. cantonensis- conditioned culture medium, which was prepared by culturing the third-stage (L3) nematode larvae in DMEM for 72 h. The supernatants were collected and filtered before use...
May 10, 2018: Chinese Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742495/progressive-degeneration-and-inhibition-of-peripheral-nerve-regeneration-in-the-sod1-g93a-mouse-model-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#16
Binbin Deng, Wenjing Lv, Weisong Duan, Yakun Liu, Zhongyao Li, Yanqin Ma, Guisen Zhang, Xueqin Song, Can Cui, Xiaoming Qi, Yuan Li, Chunyan Li
BACKGROUND: Myelination, degeneration and regeneration are implicated in crucial responses to injury in the peripheral nervous system. Considering the progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), we used the superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1)-G93A transgenic mouse model of ALS to investigate the effects of mutant SOD1 on the peripheral nerves. METHODS: Changes in peripheral nerve morphology were analyzed in SOD1 mutant mice at various stages of the disease by toluidine blue staining and electron microscopy (EM)...
May 4, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740943/vanishing-white-matter-a-leukodystrophy-due-to-astrocytic-dysfunction
#17
Marianna Bugiani, Caroline Vuong, Marjolein Breur, Marjo S van der Knaap
VWM is one of the most prevalent leukodystrophies with unique clinical, pathological and molecular features. It mostly affects children, but may develop at all ages, from birth to senescence. It is dominated by cerebellar ataxia and susceptible to stresses that act as factors provoking disease onset or episodes of rapid neurological deterioration possibly leading to death. VWM is caused by mutations in any of the genes encoding the five subunits of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B (eIF2B). Although eIF2B is ubiquitously expressed, VWM primarily manifests as a leukodystrophy with increasing white matter rarefaction and cystic degeneration, meager astrogliosis with no glial scarring and dysmorphic immature astrocytes and increased numbers of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells that are restrained from maturing into myelin-forming cells...
May 2018: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740613/big1-arfgef1-and-arf1-regulate-the-initiation-of-myelination-by-schwann-cells-in-mice
#18
Yuki Miyamoto, Tomohiro Torii, Kenji Tago, Akito Tanoue, Shou Takashima, Junji Yamauchi
During development of the peripheral nervous system in mammals, Schwann cells wrap their plasma membranes around neuronal axons, forming multiple myelin sheaths. A mature myelin sheath insulates axons and increases nerve conduction velocity while protecting nerve fibers from various stresses such as physical ones. Despite this functional importance, the molecular units that underlie dynamic morphological changes in formation of myelin sheaths are not sufficiently understood. Arf1 is a small guanosine triphosphate-binding protein that plays multiple roles in intracellular trafficking and related signaling, both of which are processes involved in cell morphogenesis...
April 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738685/blood-derived-rna-and-microrna-hydrolyzing-igg-antibodies-in-schizophrenia-patients
#19
E A Ermakov, S A Ivanova, V N Buneva, G A Nevinsky
Abzymes with various catalytic activities are the earliest statistically significant markers of existing and developing autoimmune diseases (AIDs). Currently, schizophrenia (SCZD) is not considered to be a typical AID. It was demonstrated recently that antibodies from SCZD patients efficiently hydrolyze DNA and myelin basic protein. Here, we showed for the first time that autoantibodies from 35 SCZD patients efficiently hydrolyze RNA (cCMP > poly(C) > poly(A) > yeast RNA) and analyzed site-specific hydrolysis of microRNAs involved in the regulation of several genes in SCZD (miR-137, miR-9-5p, miR-219-2-3p, and miR-219a-5p)...
May 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732611/jmy-regulates-oligodendrocyte-differentiation-via-modulation-of-actin-cytoskeleton-dynamics
#20
Maria M Azevedo, Helena S Domingues, Fabrice P Cordelières, Paula Sampaio, Ana I Seixas, João B Relvas
During central nervous system development, oligodendrocytes form structurally and functionally distinct actin-rich protrusions that contact and wrap around axons to assemble myelin sheaths. Establishment of axonal contact is a limiting step in myelination that relies on the oligodendrocyte's ability to locally coordinate cytoskeletal rearrangements with myelin production, under the control of a transcriptional differentiation program. The molecules that provide fine-tuning of actin dynamics during oligodendrocyte differentiation and axon ensheathment remain largely unidentified...
May 6, 2018: Glia
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