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Myelin protein

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336932/tmeff2-is-expressed-in-differentiating-oligodendrocytes-but-dispensable-for-their-differentiation-in-vivo
#1
Hao Huang, Peng Teng, Ruyi Mei, Aifen Yang, Zunyi Zhang, Xiaofeng Zhao, Mengsheng Qiu
Myelin elaborated by oligodendrocytes (OLs) in the central nervous system (CNS) is required for saltatory conduction of action potentials along neuronal axons. We found that TMEFF2, a transmembrane protein with EGF-like and two follistatin-like domains, is selectively expressed in differentiating/myelinating OLs. Previous studies showed that TMEFF2 is capable of binding to PDGFA, which plays important roles in the proliferation, migration and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). However, molecular and genetic analysis revealed that Tmeff2 is a weak binder of PDGFA, and not required for OL differentiation and myelin gene expression in vivo...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334857/co-cultures-with-stem-cell-derived-human-sensory-neurons-reveal-regulators-of-peripheral-myelination
#2
Alex J Clark, Malte S Kaller, Jorge Galino, Hugh J Willison, Simon Rinaldi, David L H Bennett
Effective bidirectional signalling between axons and Schwann cells is essential for both the development and maintenance of peripheral nerve function. We have established conditions by which human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived sensory neurons can be cultured with rat Schwann cells, and have produced for the first time long-term and stable myelinating co-cultures with human neurons. These cultures contain the specialized domains formed by axonal interaction with myelinating Schwann cells, such as clustered voltage-gated sodium channels at the node of Ranvier and Shaker-type potassium channel (Kv1...
February 15, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334782/golgi-retained-cx32-mutants-interfere-with-gene-addition-therapy-for-cmt1x
#3
Styliana Kyriakoudi, Irene Sargiannidou, Alexia Kagiava, Margarita Olympiou, Kleopas A Kleopa
Numerous GJB1 gene mutations cause the X-linked form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT1X). GJB1 encodes connexin32 (Cx32), which forms trans-myelin gap junctions in Schwann cells. Most GJB1 mutations result in loss-of-function mechanisms, supporting the concept of gene replacement therapy. However, interactions between delivered wild type and endogenously expressed mutant Cx32 may potentially occur in the setting of gene replacement therapy. In order to screen for possible interactions of several representative CMT1X mutants with wild type Cx32 that may interfere with functional gap junction formation, we established an in vitro screening method co-expressing in HeLa cells wild type Cx32 and one of eight different Cx32 mutants including A39P, A39V, T55I, R75W, M93V, L143P, N175D and R183S...
February 21, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327523/methodological-challenges-in-protein-microarray-and-immunohistochemistry-for-the-discovery-of-novel-autoantibodies-in-paediatric-acute-disseminated-encephalomyelitis
#4
Patrick Peschl, Melanie Ramberger, Romana Höftberger, Karin Jöhrer, Matthias Baumann, Kevin Rostásy, Markus Reindl
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a rare autoimmune-mediated demyelinating disease affecting mainly children and young adults. Differentiation to multiple sclerosis is not always possible, due to overlapping clinical symptoms and recurrent and multiphasic forms. Until now, immunoglobulins reactive to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG antibodies) have been found in a subset of patients with ADEM. However, there are still patients lacking autoantibodies, necessitating the identification of new autoantibodies as biomarkers in those patients...
March 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326889/aquaporin-4-autoimmunity-in-patients-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-a-predominantly-population-based-study
#5
Nasrin Asgari, Sven Jarius, Helle Laustrup, Hanne Pb Skejoe, Soeren T Lillevang, Brian G Weinshenker, Anne Voss
BACKGROUND: Serum immunoglobulin G targeting the astrocyte water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4) in the central nervous system (CNS) is a biomarker for neuromyelitis optica spectrum disease (NMOSD). Co-existence of NMOSD with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) putatively suggests susceptibility to antibody-mediated autoimmune disease. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of NMOSD in SLE and investigate the immunogenetic background for an association of NMOSD and SLE...
March 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326060/microbial-neuraminidase-induces-a-moderate-and-transient-myelin-vacuolation-independent-of-complement-system-activation
#6
Pablo Granados-Durán, María Dolores López-Ávalos, Manuel Cifuentes, Margarita Pérez-Martín, María Del Mar Fernández-Arjona, Timothy R Hughes, Krista Johnson, B Paul Morgan, Pedro Fernández-Llebrez, Jesús M Grondona
AIMS: Some central nervous system pathogens express neuraminidase (NA) on their surfaces. In the rat brain, a single intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of NA induces myelin vacuolation in axonal tracts. Here, we explore the nature, the time course, and the role of the complement system in this damage. METHODS: The spatiotemporal analysis of myelin vacuolation was performed by optical and electron microscopy. Myelin basic protein-positive area and oligodendrocyte transcription factor (Olig2)-positive cells were quantified in the damaged bundles...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323064/the-relevance-of-%C3%AE-klotho-to-the-central-nervous-system-some-key-questions
#7
REVIEW
Marina Minto Lopes-Cararo, Caio Henrique Yokoyama Mazucanti, Cristoforo Scavone, Elisa Mitiko Kawamoto, Daniel Charles Berwick
α-Klotho is well described as an anti-aging protein, with critical roles in kidney function as a transmembrane co-receptor for FGF23, and as a soluble factor in serum. α-Klotho is also expressed in the choroid plexus, where it is released into the cerebrospinal fluid. Nonetheless, α-Klotho is also expressed in the brain parenchyma. Accumulating evidence indicates that this pool of α-Klotho, which we define as brain α-Klotho, may play important roles as a neuroprotective factor and in promoting myelination, thereby supporting healthy brain aging...
March 18, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321419/pvaxhsp65-vaccination-primes-for-high-il-10-production-and-decreases-experimental-encephalomyelitis-severity
#8
Sofia Fernanda Gonçalves Zorzella-Pezavento, Fernanda Chiuso-Minicucci, Thais Graziela Donegá França, Larissa Lumi Watanabe Ishikawa, Larissa Camargo da Rosa, Priscila Maria Colavite, Bianca Balbino, Camila Marques, Maura Rosane Valerio Ikoma, Ana Paula Masson, Célio Lopes Silva, Alexandrina Sartori
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a demyelinating pathology of the central nervous system (CNS) used as a model to study multiple sclerosis immunopathology. EAE has also been extensively employed to evaluate potentially therapeutic schemes. Considering the presence of an immune response directed to heat shock proteins (hsps) in autoimmune diseases and the immunoregulatory potential of these molecules, we evaluated the effect of a previous immunization with a genetic vaccine containing the mycobacterial hsp65 gene on EAE development...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319253/heat-shock-protein-expression-in-cerebral-x-linked-adrenoleukodystrophy-reveals-astrocyte-stress-prior-to-myelin-loss
#9
Anna Lena Görtz, Laura A N Peferoen, Wouter H Gerritsen, Johannes M van Noort, Marianna Bugiani, Sandra Amor
AIMS: X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a genetic white matter disorder in which demyelination occurs due to accumulation of very long chain fatty acids. Inflammation in the brain white matter is a hallmark of the pathology of cerebral X-ALD, but the underlying pathogenic mechanisms are still largely unknown. In other inflammatory demyelinating disorders such as multiple sclerosis, the expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in combination with interferon-γ (IFN-γ) has been suggested to play a prominent role in the initiation of demyelination and inflammation...
March 20, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318976/assembly-of-cns-nodes-of-ranvier-in-myelinated-nerves-is-promoted-by-the-axon-cytoskeleton
#10
Veronica Brivio, Catherine Faivre-Sarrailh, Elior Peles, Diane L Sherman, Peter J Brophy
Nodes of Ranvier in the axons of myelinated neurons are exemplars of the specialized cell surface domains typical of polarized cells. They are rich in voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav) and thus underpin rapid nerve impulse conduction in the vertebrate nervous system [1]. Although nodal proteins cluster in response to myelination, how myelin-forming glia influence nodal assembly is poorly understood. An axoglial adhesion complex comprising glial Neurofascin155 and axonal Caspr/Contactin flanks mature nodes [2]...
March 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318499/loss-of-function-mutations-in-lgi4-a-secreted-ligand-involved-in-schwann-cell-myelination-are-responsible-for-arthrogryposis-multiplex-congenita
#11
Shifeng Xue, Jérôme Maluenda, Florent Marguet, Mohammad Shboul, Loïc Quevarec, Carine Bonnard, Alvin Yu Jin Ng, Sumanty Tohari, Thong Teck Tan, Mung Kei Kong, Kristin G Monaghan, Megan T Cho, Carly E Siskind, Jacinda B Sampson, Carolina Tesi Rocha, Fawaz Alkazaleh, Marie Gonzales, Luc Rigonnot, Sandra Whalen, Marta Gut, Ivo Gut, Martine Bucourt, Byrappa Venkatesh, Annie Laquerrière, Bruno Reversade, Judith Melki
Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC) is a developmental condition characterized by multiple joint contractures resulting from reduced or absent fetal movements. Through genetic mapping of disease loci and whole-exome sequencing in four unrelated multiplex families presenting with severe AMC, we identified biallelic loss-of-function mutations in LGI4 (leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 4). LGI4 is a ligand secreted by Schwann cells that regulates peripheral nerve myelination via its cognate receptor ADAM22 expressed by neurons...
March 8, 2017: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317919/scavenger-receptor-collectin-placenta-1-is-a-novel-receptor-involved-in-the-uptake-of-myelin-by-phagocytes
#12
Jeroen F J Bogie, Jo Mailleux, Elien Wouters, Winde Jorissen, Elien Grajchen, Jasmine Vanmol, Kristiaan Wouters, Niels Hellings, Jack Van Horsen, Tim Vanmierlo, Jerome J A Hendriks
Myelin-containing macrophages and microglia are the most abundant immune cells in active multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions. Our recent transcriptomic analysis demonstrated that collectin placenta 1 (CL-P1) is one of the most potently induced genes in macrophages after uptake of myelin. CL-P1 is a type II transmembrane protein with both a collagen-like and carbohydrate recognition domain, which plays a key role in host defense. In this study we sought to determine the dynamics of CL-P1 expression on myelin-containing phagocytes and define the role that it plays in MS lesion development...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315884/complementary-feeding-micronutrients-and-developmental-outcomes-of-children
#13
Jacqueline F Gould
The period of complementary feeding (6-24 months of age) can be a challenging and vulnerable time for infant nutrition due to disproportionately high requirements for metabolic processes, rapid developmental processes, and limited gastric capacity. This is a period of crucial brain development where high caloric intake is necessary to allow synaptogenesis (creation of channels between neurons for communication), and maintenance of established synapses, myelination (laying the myelin sheath around neuronal axons) and everyday psychological functioning...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315720/the-protective-effect-of-the-active-components-of-erpc-on-diabetic-peripheral-neuropathy-in-rats
#14
Gai-Mei Hao, Yong-Gang Liu, Yan Wu, Wei Xing, Shu-Zhen Guo, Yong Wang, Zheng-Lin Wang, Chun Li, Tian-Tian Lv, Hong-Liang Wang, Tian-Jiao Shi, Wei Wang, Jing Han
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Euonymus alatus, Radix trichosanthis, Panax notoginseng and Coptis chinensis are popular plants used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat diabetes. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of the study is to investigate the therapeutic effect of the active components of Euonymus alatus, Radix trichosanthis, Panax notoginseng and Coptis chinensis (cERPC) on diabetic peripheral neuropathy in the rats and explore the underlying mechanism involved...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314941/neuropeptide-expression-and-morphometric-differences-in-crushed-alveolar-inferior-nerve-of-rats-effects-of-photobiomodulation
#15
Daniel Oliveira Martins, Fabio Martinez Dos Santos, Adriano Polican Ciena, Ii-Sei Watanabe, Luiz Roberto G de Britto, José Benedito Dias Lemos, Marucia Chacur
Inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) injuries may occur during various dental routine procedures, especially in the removal of impacted lower third molars, and nerve recovery in these cases is a great challenge in dentistry. Here, the IAN crush injury model was used to assess the efficacy of photobiomodulation (PBM) in the recovery of the IAN in rats following crushing injury (a partial lesion). Rats were divided into four experimental groups: without any procedure, IAN crush injury, and IAN crush injury with PBM and sham group with PBM...
March 17, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302163/matrix-metalloproteinase-activity-stimulates-n-cadherin-shedding-and-the-soluble-n-cadherin-ectodomain-promotes-classical-microglial-activation
#16
Katherine Conant, Stefano Daniele, P Lorenzo Bozzelli, Tsion Abdi, Amanda Edwards, Arek Szklarczyk, India Olchefske, David Ottenheimer, Kathleen Maguire-Zeiss
BACKGROUND: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of enzymes that are typically released from intracellular stores to act on specific extracellular substrates. MMP expression and activity can be increased in a neuronal activity-dependent manner, and further increased in response to tissue injury. MMP substrates include cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) that are abundantly expressed in the brain and well positioned for membrane proximal cleavage. Importantly, CAM integrity is important to synaptic structure and axon-myelin interactions, and shed ectodomains may themselves influence cellular function...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302134/microrna-142-regulates-inflammation-and-t-cell-differentiation-in-an-animal-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#17
Farideh Talebi, Samira Ghorbani, Wing Fuk Chan, Roobina Boghozian, Farimah Masoumi, Sedigheh Ghasemi, Mohammed Vojgani, Christopher Power, Farshid Noorbakhsh
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs have emerged as an important class of modulators of gene expression. These molecules influence protein synthesis through translational repression or degradation of mRNA transcripts. Herein, we investigated the potential role of miR-142a isoforms, miR-142a-3p and miR-142a-5p, in the context of autoimmune neuroinflammation. METHODS: The expression levels of two mature isoforms of miR-142 were measured in the brains of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and the CNS tissues from mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299403/effects-of-ifn-%C3%AE-1a-and-ifn-%C3%AE-1b-treatment-on-the-expression-of-cytokines-inducible-nos-nos-type-ii-and-myelin-proteins-in-animal-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#18
Natalia Lubina-Dąbrowska, Adam Stepień, Grzegorz Sulkowski, Beata Dąbrowska-Bouta, Józef Langfort, Małgorzata Chalimoniuk
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of interferon (IFN)-β1a and IFN-β1b treatment on inflammatory factors and myelin protein levels in the brain cortex of the Lewis rat experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), animal model of multiple sclerosis. To induce EAE, rat were immunized with inoculums containing spinal cord guinea pig homogenized in phosphate-buffered saline and emulsified in Freund's complete adjuvant containing 110 µg of the appropriate antigen in 100 µl of an emulsion and additionally 4-mg/ml Mycobacterium tuberculosis (H37Ra)...
March 15, 2017: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290147/temporal-profile-and-severity-correlation-of-a-panel-of-rat-spinal-cord-injury-protein-biomarkers
#19
Zhihui Yang, Helen M Bramlett, Ahmed Moghieb, Dongnan Yu, Ping Wang, Fan Lin, Carl Bauer, Tyler M Selig, Emily Jaalouk, Amanda S Weissman, Disa S Rathore, Pammela Romo, Zhiqun Zhang, Ronald L Hayes, Michael Y Wang, W Dalton Dietrich, Kevin K W Wang
In the USA, there are approximately 12,000 new cases of spinal cord injury (SCI) each year and some 1.2 million people living with paralysis due to SCI. Seven percent of them are paralyzed due to an accident or injury occurring while serving in the military. Here, we report a systematic study on protein biomarker candidates in a rat SCI model with either moderate or severe injury. Tissue, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and serum samples were obtained at 4 h, 24 h, and 7 days post-injury. The candidate biomarkers included axonal injury markers αII-spectrin breakdown products (SBDP150/145/120), neuronal cell body injury marker ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1), astrogliosis/astroglial injury markers S100 calcium-binding protein-β (S100β), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and GFAP breakdown products (GBDPs), demyelination marker myelin basic protein (MBP), axonal injury marker phosphorylated neurofilament-H (pNF-H), and neuroinflammation marker interleukin-6 (IL-6)...
March 13, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289516/biochemical-changes-in-the-injured-brain
#20
EDITORIAL
Seelora Sahu, Deb Sanjay Nag, Amlan Swain, Devi Prasad Samaddar
Brain metabolism is an energy intensive phenomenon involving a wide spectrum of chemical intermediaries. Various injury states have a detrimental effect on the biochemical processes involved in the homeostatic and electrophysiological properties of the brain. The biochemical markers of brain injury are a recent addition in the armamentarium of neuro-clinicians and are being increasingly used in the routine management of neuro-pathological entities such as traumatic brain injury, stroke, subarachnoid haemorrhage and intracranial space occupying lesions...
February 26, 2017: World Journal of Biological Chemistry
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