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Solid tumor oncology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664561/the-function-and-dysfunction-of-memory-cd8-t-cells-in-tumor-immunity
#1
REVIEW
James L Reading, Felipe Gálvez-Cancino, Charles Swanton, Alvaro Lladser, Karl S Peggs, Sergio A Quezada
The generation and maintenance of CD8+ T cell memory is crucial to long-term host survival, yet the basic tenets of CD8+ T cell immunity are still being established. Recent work has led to the discovery of tissue-resident memory cells and refined our understanding of the transcriptional and epigenetic basis of CD8+ T cell differentiation and dysregulation. In parallel, the unprecedented clinical success of immunotherapy has galvanized an intense, global research effort to decipher and de-repress the anti-tumor response...
May 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659166/strategies-to-improve-tumor-penetration-of-nanomedicines-through-nanoparticle-design
#2
REVIEW
Ya-Ru Zhang, Run Lin, Hong-Jun Li, Wei-Ling He, Jin-Zhi Du, Jun Wang
Nanoparticles (NPs) have emerged as an effective means to deliver therapeutic drugs for cancer treatment, as they can preferentially accumulate at tumor site through the enhanced permeability and retention effect. Various forms of NPs including liposomes, polymeric micelles, and inorganic particles have been used for therapeutic applications. However, the therapeutic benefits of nanomedicines are suboptimal. Although many possible reasons may account for the compromised therapeutic efficacy, the inefficient tumor penetration can be a vital obstacle...
April 16, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649549/bloodstream-infections-in-cancer-patients-risk-factors-associated-with-mortality
#3
Beda Islas-Muñoz, Patricia Volkow-Fernández, Cynthia Ibanes-Gutiérrez, Alberto Villamar-Ramírez, Diana Vilar-Compte, Patricia Cornejo-Juárez
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics and risk factors associated with mortality in cancer patients with bloodstream infections (BSI), analyzing multidrug resistant bacteria (MDRB). METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study at a cancer referral center from August 2016 to July 2017, which included all BSI. RESULTS: 4,220 patients were tested with blood cultures; 496 were included. Mean age was 48 years...
April 9, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627863/the-codesign-of-an-interdisciplinary-team-based-intervention-regarding-initiating-palliative-care-in-pediatric-oncology
#4
Douglas L Hill, Jennifer K Walter, Jessica A Casas, Concetta DiDomenico, Julia E Szymczak, Chris Feudtner
PURPOSE: Children with advanced cancer are often not referred to palliative or hospice care before they die or are only referred close to the child's death. The goals of the current project were to learn about pediatric oncology team members' perspectives on palliative care, to collaborate with team members to modify and tailor three separate interdisciplinary team-based interventions regarding initiating palliative care, and to assess the feasibility of this collaborative approach. METHODS: We used a modified version of experience-based codesign (EBCD) involving members of the pediatric palliative care team and three interdisciplinary pediatric oncology teams (Bone Marrow Transplant, Neuro-Oncology, and Solid Tumor) to review and tailor materials for three team-based interventions...
April 7, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627288/multiparametric-whole-body-mri-with-diffusion-weighted-imaging-and-adc-mapping-for-the-identification-of-visceral-and-osseous-metastases-from-solid-tumors
#5
Michael A Jacobs, Katarzyna J Macura, Atif Zaheer, Emmanuel S Antonarakis, Vered Stearns, Antonio C Wolff, Thorsten Feiweier, Ihab R Kamel, Richard L Wahl, Li Pan
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of multiparametric, whole-body, diffusion-weighted imaging (WB-DWI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps with T2 -weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 3T for the detection and monitoring of metastatic disease in patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-four participants (32 healthy subjects and 22 patients) were scanned with WB-DWI methods using a 3T MRI scanner. Axial, sagittal, or coronal fat-suppressed T2 -weighted (T2 WI), T1 -weighted (T1 WI), and DWI images were acquired...
April 4, 2018: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624591/optimal-cut-off-for-neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio-fact-or-fantasy-a-prospective-cohort-study-in-metastatic-cancer-patients
#6
Yann-Alexandre Vano, Stéphane Oudard, Marie-Agnès By, Pauline Têtu, Constance Thibault, Hail Aboudagga, Florian Scotté, Reza Elaidi
This study assessed the prognostic value of pre-treatment neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in patients with metastatic solid tumors. Clinical and biological data for patients with metastatic solid tumors treated in an oncology outpatient department and prospectively followed by a call center (PROCHE program) between January 2008 and December 2011 were analyzed. All patients with an NLR value within 28 days before the first cycle of first-line of chemotherapy were included (cohort 1). To assess influence of chemotherapy line on NLR prognostic value, data from patients treated with later chemotherapy lines were also analyzed (cohort 2)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615295/radiologic-and-pathologic-response-to-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-predicts-survival-in-patients-undergoing-the-liver-first-approach-for-synchronous-colorectal-liver-metastases
#7
Giammauro Berardi, Marc De Man, Stéphanie Laurent, Peter Smeets, Federico Tomassini, Riccardo Ariotti, Anne Hoorens, Jo van Dorpe, Oswald Varin, Karen Geboes, Roberto I Troisi
PURPOSE: To investigate the short- and long-term outcomes of liver first approach (LFA) in patients with synchronous colorectal liver metastases (CRLM), evaluating the predictive factors of survival. METHODS: Sixty-two out of 301 patients presenting with synchronous CRLM underwent LFA between 2007 and 2016. All patients underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy. After neoadjuvant treatment patients were re-evaluated according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST)...
March 21, 2018: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606586/larotrectinib-for-paediatric-solid-tumours-harbouring-ntrk-gene-fusions-phase-1-results-from-a-multicentre-open-label-phase-1-2-study
#8
Theodore W Laetsch, Steven G DuBois, Leo Mascarenhas, Brian Turpin, Noah Federman, Catherine M Albert, Ramamoorthy Nagasubramanian, Jessica L Davis, Erin Rudzinski, Angela M Feraco, Brian B Tuch, Kevin T Ebata, Mark Reynolds, Steven Smith, Scott Cruickshank, Michael C Cox, Alberto S Pappo, Douglas S Hawkins
BACKGROUND: Gene fusions involving NTRK1, NTRK2, or NTRK3 (TRK fusions) are found in a broad range of paediatric and adult malignancies. Larotrectinib, a highly selective small-molecule inhibitor of the TRK kinases, had shown activity in preclinical models and in adults with tumours harbouring TRK fusions. This study aimed to assess the safety of larotrectinib in paediatric patients. METHODS: This multicentre, open-label, phase 1/2 study was done at eight sites in the USA and enrolled infants, children, and adolescents aged 1 month to 21 years with locally advanced or metastatic solid tumours or CNS tumours that had relapsed, progressed, or were non-responsive to available therapies regardless of TRK fusion status; had a Karnofsky (≥16 years of age) or Lansky (<16 years of age) performance status score of 50 or more, adequate organ function, and full recovery from the acute toxic effects of all previous anticancer therapy...
March 29, 2018: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606314/reengineering-the-physical-microenvironment-of-tumors-to-improve-drug-delivery-and-efficacy-from-mathematical-modeling-to-bench-to-bedside
#9
REVIEW
Triantafyllos Stylianopoulos, Lance L Munn, Rakesh K Jain
Physical forces have a crucial role in tumor progression and cancer treatment. The application of principles of engineering and physical sciences to oncology has provided powerful insights into the mechanisms by which these forces affect tumor progression and confer resistance to delivery and efficacy of molecular, nano-, cellular, and immuno-medicines. Here, we discuss the mechanics of the solid and fluid components of a tumor, with a focus on how they impede the transport of therapeutic agents and create an abnormal tumor microenvironment (TME) that fuels tumor progression and treatment resistance...
April 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600414/metastatic-epidural-spinal-cord-compression-does-timing-of-surgery-influence-the-chance-of-neurological-recovery-an-observational-case-control-study
#10
Valerio Pipola, Silvia Terzi, Giuseppe Tedesco, Stefano Bandiera, Giovanni Barbanti Bròdano, Riccardo Ghermandi, Gisberto Evangelisti, Marco Girolami, Alessandro Gasbarrini
PURPOSE: Metastatic epidural spinal cord compression (MESCC) is radiologically defined as an epidural metastatic lesion causing the displacement of the spinal cord from its normal position in the vertebral canal. The purpose of this paper is the evaluation of the influence of timing of surgery on the chance of neurological recovery. METHODS: This is a retrospective observational case-control study performed on patients with MESCC from solid tumors surgically treated at our institute from January 2010 to December 2016...
March 30, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594042/biotherapies-in-solid-tumors-are-negative-results-still-of-low-priority-for-publication
#11
Alessandro Ottaiano, Antonino Cassata, Monica Capozzi, Chiara De Divitiis, Alfonso De Stefano, Antonio Avallone
In 2005, we performed the largest survey on clinical trials of biotherapies for all solid tumors and found indirect evidence of a publication bias: editors of medical journals were more prone to publish positive results independently from the quality of the studies. We collected data from 2003 to 2015 in 487 studies, and the publication bias previously described was not found in the years between 2010 and 2015: this could be related to changes and/or innovations in the guidelines and editorial policies of oncology journals occurred over the last years...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587004/developing-a-phosphospecific-ihc-assay-as-a-predictive-biomarker-for-topoisomerase-i-inhibitors
#12
Koji Ando, Yara Hamade Tohme, Adithi Srinivasiah, Julian Taylor-Parker, Yevgeniya Harrington, Ankur K Shah, Eiji Oki, Mohan Brahmandam, Ajit K Bharti
Phosphorylation is the most extensively studied posttranslational modification of proteins. There are approximately 500 kinases known in the human genome. The kinase-activated pathways regulate almost every aspect of cell function and a deregulated kinase cascade leads to impaired cellular function. Impaired regulation of several kinase cascades, including the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway, leading to tumor pathogenesis, is well documented. Thus, a phosphospecific test with prognostic or predictive value was expected in oncology...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575765/combination-therapy-of-apatinib-with-icotinib-for-primary-acquired-icotinib-resistance-in-patients-with-advanced-pulmonary-adenocarcinoma-with-egfr-mutation
#13
Pinghui Xia, Jinlin Cao, Xiayi Lv, Luming Wang, Wang Lv, Jian Hu
Multi-targeted agents represent the next generation of targeted therapies for solid tumors, and patients with acquired resistance to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) may also benefit from their combination with TKI therapy. Third-generation targeted drugs, such as osimertinib, are very expensive, thus a more economical solution is required. The aim of this study was to explore the use of apatinib combined with icotinib therapy for primary acquired resistance to icotinib in three patients with advanced pulmonary adenocarcinoma with EGFR mutations...
March 24, 2018: Thoracic Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573236/efficacy-safety-and-predictive-indicators-of-apatinib-after-multilines-treatment-in-advanced-nonsquamous-nonsmall-cell-lung-cancer-apatinib-treatment-in-nonsquamous-nsclc
#14
Di Wu, Li Liang, Ligong Nie, Jun Nie, Ling Dai, Weiheng Hu, Jie Zhang, Xiaoling Chen, Jindi Han, Xiangjuan Ma, Guangming Tian, Sen Han, Jieran Long, Yang Wang, Ziran Zhang, Tao Xin, Jian Fang
AIM: Patients with advanced nonsquamous nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who experienced progression with two or more lines chemotherapy have no treatment options that clearly confer a survival benefit. As a novel vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor, apatinib has a certain antitumor effect for various solid tumors. The present study evaluated the efficacy and safety of apatinib in advanced nonsquamous NSCLC as salvage treatment in Chinese real-world practice...
March 24, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570743/novel-putative-drivers-revealed-by-targeted-exome-sequencing-of-advanced-solid-tumors
#15
Antonio Pannuti, Aleksandra Filipovic, Chindo Hicks, Elliot Lefkowitz, Travis Ptacek, Justin Stebbing, Lucio Miele
Next generation sequencing (NGS) is becoming increasingly integrated into oncological practice and clinical research. NGS methods have also provided evidence for clonal evolution of cancers during disease progression and treatment. The number of variants associated with response to specific therapeutic agents keeps increasing. However, the identification of novel driver mutations as opposed to passenger (phenotypically silent or clinically irrelevant) mutations remains a major challenge. We conducted targeted exome sequencing of advanced solid tumors from 44 pre-treated patients with solid tumors including breast, colorectal and lung carcinomas, neuroendocrine tumors, sarcomas and others...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568913/a-novel-therapeutic-strategy-of-personalized-medicine-based-on-anti-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-monoclonal-antibodies-in-patients-with-metastatic-colorectal-cancer
#16
Nobuhisa Matsuhashi, Takao Takahashi, Satoshi Matsui, Toshiyuki Tanahashi, Hisashi Imai, Yoshihiro Tanaka, Kazuya Yamaguchi, Kazuhiro Yoshida
Achieving tumor shrinkage may be a clinically relevant improvement in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). The present study attempted to evaluate early tumor shrinkage (ETS) and deepness of response over 6-8 courses of therapy, which were assessed previously in first-line trials of anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibodies. A total of 37 patients with mCRC that was considered unresectable or borderline resectable were enrolled in the study. Patients exhibited the wild-type RAS gene, and anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies were used as the first-line treatment in the Department of Surgical Oncology at Gifu University School of Medicine (Gifu, Japan) between January 2010 and March 2017...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563835/optimized-multiparametric-flow-cytometric-analysis-of-circulating-endothelial-cells-and-their-subpopulations-in-peripheral-blood-of-patients-with-solid-tumors-a-technical-analysis
#17
Fangbin Zhou, Yaying Zhou, Ming Yang, Jinli Wen, Jun Dong, Wenyong Tan
Background: Circulating endothelial cells (CECs) and their subpopulations could be potential novel biomarkers for various malignancies. However, reliable enumerable methods are warranted to further improve their clinical utility. This study aimed to optimize a flow cytometric method (FCM) assay for CECs and subpopulations in peripheral blood for patients with solid cancers. Patients and methods: An FCM assay was used to detect and identify CECs. A panel of 60 blood samples, including 44 metastatic cancer patients and 16 healthy controls, were used in this study...
2018: Cancer Management and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556814/a-cohort-study-on-protocol-based-nurse-led-out-patient-management-of-post-chemotherapy-low-risk-febrile-neutropenia
#18
Fiona Lim Mei Ying, Maria Choy Yin Ping, Macy Tong, Elaine Yim Pik Yan, Tracy Lui Siu Yee, Lam Yuk Ting, Anita Lo Wing Sim, Lui Cheuk Yu, Bosco Lam Hoi Shiu, Ashley Cheng Chi Kin
PURPOSE: International guidelines adopt risk stratification approach to manage patients with low-risk febrile neutropenia patients. We developed this out-patient program using shared-care model with professional input and patient empowerment, so as to reduce patients' psychological burden from hospitalization and to improve the cost-effectiveness of management. METHOD: This is a prospective cohort study to compare the efficacy and safeness of the out-patient program when compared with traditional in-patient care...
March 20, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556048/combining-immune-check-point-blockade-and-cryoablation-in-an-immunocompetent-hormone-sensitive-murine-model-of-prostate-cancer
#19
Benjamin Benzon, Stephanie A Glavaris, Brian W Simons, Robert M Hughes, Kamyar Ghabili, Patrick Mullane, Rebecca Miller, Katriana Nugent, Brian Shinder, Jeffrey Tosoian, Ephraim J Fuchs, Phuoc T Tran, Paula J Hurley, Milena Vuica-Ross, Edward M Schaeffer, Charles G Drake, Ashley E Ross
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer related death in men. Immune check point blocking antibodies have revolutionized treatment of multiple solid tumors, but results in prostate cancer remain marginal. Previous reports have suggested that local therapies, in particular cryoablation might increase tumor immunogenicity. In this work, we examine potential synergism between tumor cryoabalation and check point blocking antibodies. METHODS: FVB/NJ mice were injected subcutaneously into each flank with either 1 × 106 or 0...
March 20, 2018: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551235/oncological-patients-admitted-to-an-intensive-care-unit-analysis-of-predictors-of-in-hospital-mortality
#20
D Díaz-Díaz, M Villanova Martínez, E Palencia Herrejón
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the factors influencing in-hospital mortality among cancer patients admitted to an Intensive Care Unit (ICU). DESIGN: A retrospective observational study was carried out. SETTING: The ICU of a community hospital. PATIENTS: Adults diagnosed with solid or hematological malignancies admitted to the ICU, excluding those admitted after scheduled surgery and those with an ICU stay of under 24h. INTERVENTIONS: Review of clinical data...
March 15, 2018: Medicina Intensiva
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