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Solid tumor oncology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452549/characterizing-potentially-preventable-cancer-and-chronic-disease-related-emergency-department-use-in-the-year-after-treatment-initiation-a-regional-study
#1
Laura Panattoni, Catherine Fedorenko, Mikael Anne Greenwood-Hickman, Karma Kreizenbeck, Julia R Walker, Renato Martins, Keith D Eaton, John W Rieke, Ted Conklin, Bruce Smith, Gary Lyman, Scott D Ramsey
PURPOSE: As new quality metrics and interventions for potentially preventable emergency department (ED) visits are implemented, we sought to compare methods for evaluating the prevalence and costs of potentially preventable ED visits that were related to cancer and chronic disease among a commercially insured oncology population in the year after treatment initiation. METHODS: We linked SEER records in western Washington from 2011 to 2016 with claims from two commercial insurers...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Oncology Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438463/efficacy-and-safety-findings-from-dream-a-phase-iii-study-of-dhp107-oral-paclitaxel-versus-iv-paclitaxel-in-patients-with-advanced-gastric-cancer-after-failure-of-first-line-chemotherapy
#2
Y-K Kang, M-H Ryu, S H Park, J G Kim, J W Kim, S-H Cho, Y-L Park, S R Park, S Y Rha, M J Kang, J Y Cho, S Y Kang, S Y Roh, B-Y Ryoo, B-H Nam, Y-W Jo, K-E Yoon, S C Oh
Background: Paclitaxel is currently only available as an intravenous (IV) formulation. DHP107 is a novel oral formulation of lipid ingredients and paclitaxel. DHP107 demonstrated comparable efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics to IV paclitaxel as second-line therapy in patients with advanced gastric cancer (AGC). DREAM is a multicenter, open-label, prospective, randomized phase III study of patients with histologically/cytologically confirmed, unresectable/recurrent AGC after first-line therapy failure...
February 9, 2018: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434493/comparative-study-of-complications-in-cv-catheter-insertion-for-pediatric-patients-real-time-ultrasound-guided-versus-venography-guided-approach
#3
Shuichi Takano, Norio Shimizu, Naruo Tokuyasu, Teruhisa Sakamoto, Soichiro Honjo, Keigo Ashida, Hiroaki Saito, Yoshiyuki Fujiwara
Background: Tunneled central venous catheters (CVC), called Broviac/Hickman catheter, are widely used in the long-term treatment of pediatric patients. Recently, the percutaneous approach for CVC insertion has become dominant as a less invasive intervention. In this study, we reviewed the mechanical and delayed complications according to different procedures of CVC insertion and assessed the risk factors for complications in CVC insertions for pediatric patients. Methods: A total of 159 pediatric patients (85 males and 74 females) were included in this study...
December 2017: Yonago Acta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431252/factors-associated-with-abandonment-of-therapy-by-children-diagnosed-with-solid-tumors-in-peru
#4
Liliana Vasquez, Rosdali Diaz, Sharon Chavez, Fanny Tarrillo, Ivan Maza, Eddy Hernandez, Monica Oscanoa, Juan García, Jenny Geronimo, Nuria Rossell
BACKGROUND: Abandonment of treatment is a major cause of treatment failure and poor survival in children with cancer in low- and middle-income countries. The incidence of treatment abandonment in Peru has not been reported. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of and factors associated with treatment abandonment by pediatric patients with solid tumors in Peru. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the sociodemographic and clinical data of children referred between January 2012 and December 2014 to the two main tertiary centers for childhood cancer in Peru...
February 12, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430978/biomarkers-for-immune-related-toxicities-of-checkpoint-inhibitors-current-progress-and-the-road-ahead
#5
Pradnya D Patil, Mauricio Burotto, Vamsidhar Velcheti
Immune checkpoint pathways are key immune regulatory pathways that play a physiologic role in maintaining immune-homeostasis and are often co-opted by cancer cells to evade the host immune system. Recent developments in cancer immunotherapy, mainly drugs blocking the immune checkpoint pathways, have revolutionized the treatment paradigm for many solid tumors. A wide spectrum of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) have been described with the use of these agents which necessitate treatment with immunosuppression, leading to disruption of therapy and can on occasion be life-threatening...
February 10, 2018: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423515/atezolizumab-mpdl3280a-monotherapy-for-patients-with-metastatic-urothelial-cancer-long-term-outcomes-from-a-phase-1-study
#6
Daniel P Petrylak, Thomas Powles, Joaquim Bellmunt, Fadi Braiteh, Yohann Loriot, Rafael Morales-Barrera, Howard A Burris, Joseph W Kim, Beiying Ding, Constanze Kaiser, Marcella Fassò, Carol O'Hear, Nicholas J Vogelzang
Importance: Atezolizumab (anti-programmed death ligand 1) has demonstrated safety and activity in advanced and metastatic urothelial carcinoma, but its long-term clinical profile remains unknown. Objective: To report long-term clinical outcomes with atezolizumab therapy for patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma. Design, Setting, and Participants: Patients were enrolled in an expansion cohort of an ongoing, open-label, phase 1 study...
February 8, 2018: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29418038/imaging-in-gynecological-disease-clinical-and-ultrasound-characteristics-of-endometrioid-ovarian-cancer
#7
F Moro, G Magoga, T Pasciuto, F Mascilini, M C Moruzzi, D Fischerova, L Savelli, S Giunchi, R Mancari, D Franchi, A Czekierdowski, W Froyman, D Verri, E Epstein, V Chiappa, S Guerriero, G F Zannoni, D Timmerman, G Scambia, L Valentin, A C Testa
OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical and ultrasound characteristics of ovarian pure endometrioid carcinoma. METHODS: This is a retrospective multicenter study. From the International Ovarian Tumor Analysis (IOTA) database we identified 161 patients with a histological diagnosis of pure endometrioid carcinoma, who had undergone preoperative ultrasound examination by an experienced ultrasound examiner between 1999 and 2016. Another 78 patients with a histological diagnosis of pure endometrioid carcinoma were identified from the databases of the departments of gynecological oncology in the participating centers...
February 8, 2018: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405770/liquid-biopsy-and-its-role-in-an-advanced-clinical-trial-for-lung-cancer
#8
Donald J Johann, Mathew Steliga, Ik J Shin, Donghoon Yoon, Konstantinos Arnaoutakis, Laura Hutchins, Meeiyueh Liu, Jason Liem, Karl Walker, Andy Pereira, Mary Yang, Susanne K Jeffus, Erich Peterson, Joshua Xu
Liquid biopsy methodologies, for the purpose of plasma genotyping of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) of solid tumors, are a new class of novel molecular assays. Such assays are rapidly entering the clinical sphere of research-based monitoring in translational oncology, especially for thoracic malignancies. Potential applications for these blood-based cfDNA assays include: (i) initial diagnosis, (ii) response to therapy and follow-up, (iii) tumor evolution, and (iv) minimal residual disease evaluation. Precision medicine will benefit from cutting-edge molecular diagnostics, especially regarding treatment decisions in the adjuvant setting, where avoiding over-treatment and unnecessary toxicity are paramount...
February 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404250/extended-endoscopic-endonasal-approach-for-craniopharyngioma-removal
#9
Mahmoud Messerer, Rodolfo Maduri, Roy Thomas Daniel
Objective  Endoscopic transsphenoidal extended endoscopic approach (EEA) represents a valid alternative to microsurgery for craniopharyngiomas removal, especially for retrochiasmatic lesions without large parasellar extension. The present video illustrates the salient surgical steps of the EEA for craniopahryngioma removal. Patient  A 52-year-old man presented with a bitemporal hemianopia and a bilateral decreased visual acuity. MRI showed a Kassam type III cystic craniopharyngioma with a solid component ( Fig...
February 2018: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part B, Skull Base
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398709/ibrutinib-inhibition-of-erbb4-reduces-cell-growth-in-a-wnt5a-dependent-manner
#10
Femina Rauf, Fernanda Festa, Jin G Park, Mitchell Magee, Seron Eaton, Capria Rinaldi, Carlos Morales Betanzos, Laura Gonzalez-Malerva, Joshua LaBaer
Alterations in ERBB family members have been associated with many tumor malignancies. EGFR and ERBB2 have been extensively explored in clinical oncology and several drugs currently target them therapeutically. However, the significance of ERBB4 as a potential therapeutic target remains mostly unexplored, even though ERBB4 is overexpressed or mutated in many solid tumors. Using a unique functional protein microarray platform, we found that ibrutinib inhibits ERBB4 activity in the same nM range as its canonical target, BTK...
February 5, 2018: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397412/resection-arthrodesis-using-distraction-osteogenesis-then-plating-as-a-hybrid-surgical-technique-for-the-management-of-bone-sarcomas-of-the-distal-tibia
#11
Teng-Fei Lou, Hua Li, Yi-Min Chai, Chun-Yang Wang, Sheng-He Liu, Musha Hamushan, Fan Wu, Wei-Jie Cai, Pei Han
PURPOSE: We report the oncological and functional results of limb salvage for bone sarcomas involving the distal tibia using hybrid surgical technique of resection arthrodesis by bone transport then plating. METHODS: Five patients (mean age 18.6 years) with primary distal tibial sarcomas (two Ewing's sarcomas and three osteosarcomas) were treated by this method. The average duration of follow-up is 53 months. All patients accepted distraction osteogenesis with a standard technique using external fixator after wide (four cases) or marginal (one case) resection in the first operation...
February 3, 2018: International Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395863/pembrolizumab-in-patients-with-thymic-carcinoma-a-single-arm-single-centre-phase-2-study
#12
Giuseppe Giaccone, Chul Kim, Jillian Thompson, Colleen McGuire, Bhaskar Kallakury, Joeffrey J Chahine, Maria Manning, Robin Mogg, Wendy M Blumenschein, Ming T Tan, Deepa S Subramaniam, Stephen V Liu, Ian M Kaplan, Justine N McCutcheon
BACKGROUND: Treatment options are limited for patients with thymic carcinoma. These aggressive tumours are not typically associated with paraneoplastic autoimmune disorders, and strong PD-L1 expression has been reported in thymic epithelial tumours. We aimed to assess the activity of pembrolizumab, a monoclonal antibody that targets PD-1, in patients with advanced thymic carcinoma. METHODS: We completed a single-arm phase 2 study of pembrolizumab in patients with recurrent thymic carcinoma who had progressed after at least one line of chemotherapy...
January 25, 2018: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390380/significant-efficacy-and-well-safety-of-apatinib-combined-with-radiotherapy-in-nsclc-case-report
#13
Chunbo Zhao, Qian Zhang, Wenbo Qiao
RATIONALE: The outcomes of locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remain poor, in particular, the frail elderly patients cannot tolerate chemotherapy. The new efficient, safe, and more specific treatments are needed. Radiation combined with targeted therapy is the focus of research in recent years. Apatinib is highly selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2, studies have revealed that apatinib inhibit the growth of solid tumors including NSCLC...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384099/-which-future-for-b-lymphocytes-infiltrating-solid-tumors-prognostic-biomarker-and-or-therapeutic-target
#14
Hélène Kaplon, Marie-Caroline Dieu-Nosjean
The role of B lymphocytes in tumor immuno-surveillance has been neglected for a long time because it has been often considered to be ineffective if not pro-tumoral. Extensive studies of the tumor immune microenvironment, particularly in humans, has now made it possible to specify the nature of the interactions between B cells and their cellular partners. This review will present a number of parameters that dictate the fate of B cells toward a pro-tumor versus an anti-tumor function. Thus, the ability to elicit a B cell-and/or an antibody-dependent anti-tumor immunity involves a wide variety of molecular and cellular mechanisms, some of which may represent novel therapeutic targets in oncology...
January 2018: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372686/proton-mr-spectroscopic-imaging-of-human-glioblastomas-at-1-5-tesla
#15
Petra Hnilicová, Romana Richterová, Ema Kantorová, Michal Bittšanský, Eva Baranovičová, Dušan Dobrota
In this study we evaluated clinical feasibility of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy metabolite mapping (1H MRSI) by using 1.5 Tesla MR-scanner in 10 patients with high-grade glioblastoma. In vivo 1H MRSI performed with a relatively short scan time of 20 minutes enabled to obtain comprehensive information about metabolic changes in glioblastoma and adjacent tissues namely in the peritumoral edema, in the middle and solid part of the tumor, and in the normal-appearing brain tissue. Spectroscopically it was possible to identify initiation of neuronal cell death in the solid tumorous tissue via decreased N-acetyl-aspartate to creatine ratio (↓ tNAA/tCr) and expanding carcinogenesis reflected in elevated choline ratios (↑ tCho/tCr and tCho/tNAA)...
December 2017: General Physiology and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370992/nivolumab-with-or-without-ipilimumab-treatment-for-metastatic-sarcoma-alliance-a091401-two-open-label-non-comparative-randomised-phase-2-trials
#16
Sandra P D'Angelo, Michelle R Mahoney, Brian A Van Tine, James Atkins, Mohammed M Milhem, Balkrishna N Jahagirdar, Cristina R Antonescu, Elise Horvath, William D Tap, Gary K Schwartz, Howard Streicher
BACKGROUND: Patients with metastatic sarcoma have limited treatment options. Nivolumab and ipilimumab are monoclonal antibodies targeting PD-1 and CTLA-4, respectively. We investigated the activity and safety of nivolumab alone or in combination with ipilimumab in patients with locally advanced, unresectable, or metastatic sarcoma. METHODS: We did a multicentre, open-label, non-comparative, randomised, phase 2 study that enrolled patients aged 18 years or older and had central pathology confirmation of sarcoma with at least one measurable lesion by Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST) 1...
January 19, 2018: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369596/melatonin-with-adenosine-solubilized-in-water-and-stabilized-with-glycine-for-oncological-treatment-technical-preparation-effectivity-and-clinical-findings
#17
(no author information available yet)
Melatonin has shown the potential to inhibit growth of different tumors, both in vitro and in vivo. There is clear evidence that the administration of melatonin alone or in combination with chemo and radiotherapy in cancer patients with advanced solid tumors has been associated with improved outcomes of tumor regression and survival. Moreover, chemotherapy has been shown to be better tolerated in patients treated with melatonin. However, there are different ways of preparation and administration of melatonin to the patient...
December 25, 2017: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361470/prexasertib-a-cell-cycle-checkpoint-kinase-1-and-2-inhibitor-in-brca-wild-type-recurrent-high-grade-serous-ovarian-cancer-a-first-in-class-proof-of-concept-phase-2-study
#18
Jung-Min Lee, Jayakumar Nair, Alexandra Zimmer, Stanley Lipkowitz, Christina M Annunziata, Maria J Merino, Elizabeth M Swisher, Maria I Harrell, Jane B Trepel, Min-Jung Lee, Mohammad H Bagheri, Dana-Adriana Botesteanu, Seth M Steinberg, Lori Minasian, Irene Ekwede, Elise C Kohn
BACKGROUND: High-grade serous ovarian carcinoma is characterised by TP53 mutations, DNA repair defects, and genomic instability. We hypothesised that prexasertib (LY2606368), a cell cycle checkpoint kinase 1 and 2 inhibitor, would be active in BRCA wild-type disease. METHODS: In an open-label, single-centre, two-stage, proof-of-concept phase 2 study, we enrolled women aged 18 years or older with measurable, recurrent high-grade serous or high-grade endometrioid ovarian carcinoma...
January 17, 2018: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360725/clinical-development-of-pd-1-blockade-in-hematologic-malignancies
#19
Matthew J Pianko, Aaron D Goldberg, Alexander M Lesokhin
Clinical development of immune checkpoint inhibitors targeting the PD-1 pathway has led to clinical benefits for patients with multiple solid tumor and hematologic malignancies and has revolutionized modern oncology. High response rates to PD-1 blockade in patients with classical Hodgkin lymphoma and certain subtypes of non-Hodgkin lymphoma highlight an intrinsic biologic sensitivity to this strategy of treatment. Despite early success of checkpoint inhibitor and immunomodulatory drug combinations in phase 2 studies in multiple myeloma, safety concerns in patients treated with the combination of immunomodulatory drugs and checkpoint inhibitors in myeloma have stalled drug development in this space...
January 2018: Cancer Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359029/advances-and-challenges-in-laparoscopic-surgery-in-the-management-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#20
REVIEW
Ioannis A Ziogas, Georgios Tsoulfas
Hepatocellular carcinoma is the fifth most common malignancy and the third most common cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. From the wide variety of treatment options, surgical resection and liver transplantation are the only therapeutic ones. However, due to shortage of liver grafts, surgical resection is the most common therapeutic modality implemented. Owing to rapid technological development, minimally invasive approaches have been incorporated in liver surgery. Liver laparoscopic resection has been evaluated in comparison to the open technique and has been shown to be superior because of the reported decrease in surgical incision length and trauma, blood loss, operating theatre time, postsurgical pain and complications, R0 resection, length of stay, time to recovery and oral intake...
December 27, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
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