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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716652/toxicity-profiles-of-immunotherapy
#1
REVIEW
Sophie Cousin, Antoine Italiano
Immunotherapies are changing the landscape of advanced solid tumor treatment. These therapies have different mechanisms of action and include oncolytic viruses, checkpoint inhibitors, such as CTLA-4 or PD1/PD-L1 monoclonal antibodies, and CSF-1R antibodies. Given the growing therapeutic impact of these agents in oncology, it is important to better understand their properties. Immunotherapies generate new toxicity profiles that are called immune-related adverse events and require specific management. This review focuses on the mechanisms of action of such side effects, as well as their description and their general management...
July 14, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699149/is-the-clavicula-pro-humero-technique-of-value-for-reconstruction-after-resection-of-the-proximal-humerus-in-children
#2
Dominique Barbier, Benoît De Billy, Philippe Gicquel, Sophie Bourelle, Pierre Journeau
BACKGROUND: There are several options for reconstruction of proximal humerus resections after wide resection for malignant tumors in children. The clavicula pro humero technique is a biologic option that has been used in the past, but there are only scant case reports and small series that comment on the results of the procedure. Because the longevity of children mandates a reconstruction with potential longevity not likely to be achieved by other techniques, the clavicula pro humero technique may be a potential option in selected patients...
July 11, 2017: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693851/a-population-based-analysis-of-a-rare-oncologic-entity-malignant-pancreatic-tumors-in-children
#3
Konstantinos S Mylonas, Dimitrios Nasioudis, Diamantis I Tsilimigras, Ilias P Doulamis, Peter T Masiakos, Cassandra M Kelleher
PURPOSE: To examine the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of pediatric patients with malignant pancreatic tumors in a population-based cohort. METHODS: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database was utilized to identify all pediatric patients with malignant pancreatic tumors, diagnosed between 1973 and 2013. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to determine median and five-year overall survival (OS) rates. Univariate survival analysis was executed using the log-rank test...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692635/resisting-recist-uniformity-versus-clinical-validity
#4
Michelle K Wilson, Michael L Friedlander, Stephanie Lheureux, William Small, Andrés Poveda, Eric Pujade-Lauraine, Katherine Karakasis, Monica Bacon, Valerie Bowering, Tanya Chawla, Amit M Oza
OBJECTIVES: The Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) International Working Group developed criteria for tumor response and progression to standardize radiological assessment in patients receiving chemotherapy in phase 2 trials. However, it is unclear whether the defined percentage change in tumor size and volume reflects true clinical benefit for the patient. The RECIST criteria were designed to improve objectivity in trials, but not to replace clinical decision making...
July 7, 2017: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685225/phase-ii-trial-of-pazopanib-in-advanced-progressive-malignant-pheochromocytoma-and-paraganglioma
#5
Sina Jasim, Vera J Suman, Camilo Jimenez, Pamela Harris, Kostandinos Sideras, Jill K Burton, Francis Paul Worden, Richard J Auchus, Keith C Bible
INTRODUCTION: Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (Pheo/PGL) are rare, vascular, sometimes malignant endocrine tumors. Case reports indicate the activity of vascular endothelium growth factor receptor-targeted kinase inhibitors in these cancers. OBJECTIVES: To assess the antitumor activity and tolerability of pazopanib in progressive malignant Pheo/PGL. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This multicenter Phase II trial (MC107C) enrolled individuals  ≥18 years old with disease progression ≤ 6 months prior to registration, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group PS 0-2, and measurable disease (response evaluation criteria in solid tumors 1...
August 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683503/focal-breast-lesions-in-clinical-ct-examinations-of-the-chest-a-retrospective-analysis
#6
Kathrin Barbara Krug, Christian Houbois, Olga Grinstein, Jan Borggrefe, Michael Puesken, Bettina Hanstein, Wolfram Malter, David Maintz, Martin Hellmich
Purpose Based on radiological reports, the percentage of breast cancers visualized as incidental findings in routine CT examinations is estimated at ≤ 2 %. In view of the rising number of CT examinations and the high prevalence of breast cancer, it was the goal of the present study to verify the frequency and image morphology of false-negative senological CT findings. Materials and Methods All first contrast-enhanced CT examinations of the chest in adult female patients carried out in 2012 were retrospectively included...
July 6, 2017: RöFo: Fortschritte Auf Dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681349/pharmacotherapy-of-glioblastoma-established-treatments-and-emerging-concepts
#7
REVIEW
Enrico Franceschi, Santino Minichillo, Alba A Brandes
Glioblastoma is the most frequent malignant brain tumor and is characterized by poor prognosis, increased invasiveness, and high recurrence rates. Standard treatment for glioblastoma includes maximal safe surgical resection, radiation, and chemotherapy with temozolomide. Despite treatment advances, only 15-20% of glioblastoma patients survive to 5 years, and no therapies have demonstrated a durable survival benefit in recurrent disease. In the last 10 years, significant advances in knowledge of the biology and molecular pathology of the malignancy have opened the way to new treatment options...
July 5, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678605/the-early-pregnancy-placenta-foreshadows-dna-methylation-alterations-of-solid-tumors
#8
Akpéli V Nordor, Djamel Nehar-Belaid, Sophie Richon, David Klatzmann, Dominique Bellet, Virginie Dangles-Marie, Thierry Fournier, Martin J Aryee
The placenta relies on phenotypes that are characteristic of cancer to successfully implant the embryo in the uterus during early pregnancy. Notably, it has to invade its host tissues, promote angiogenesis-while surviving hypoxia-, and escape the immune system. Similarities in DNA methylation patterns between the placenta and cancers suggest that common epigenetic mechanisms may be involved in regulating these behaviors. We show here that megabase-scale patterns of hypomethylation distinguish first from third trimester chorionic villi in the placenta, and that these patterns mirror those that distinguish many tumors from corresponding normal tissues...
July 5, 2017: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672850/quality-of-life-qol-during-screening-for-phase-1-trial-studies-in-patients-with-advanced-solid-tumors-and-its-impact-on-risk-for-serious-adverse-events
#9
Sidra Anwar, Wei Tan, Chi-Chen Hong, Sonal Admane, Askia Dozier, Francine Siedlecki, Amy Whitworth, Ann Marie DiRaddo, Dawn DePaolo, Sandra M Jacob, Wen Wee Ma, Austin Miller, Alex A Adjei, Grace K Dy
Background: Serious adverse events (SAEs) and subject replacements occur frequently in phase 1 oncology clinical trials. Whether baseline quality-of-life (QOL) or social support can predict risk for SAEs or subject replacement among these patients is not known. Methods: Between 2011-2013, 92 patients undergoing screening for enrollment into one of 22 phase 1 solid tumor clinical trials at Roswell Park Cancer Institute were included in this study. QOL Questionnaires (EORTC QLQ-C30 and FACT-G), Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey (MOSSSS), Charlson comorbidity scores (CCS) and Royal Marsden scores (RMS) were obtained at baseline...
June 26, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665128/discovery-of-the-irreversible-covalent-fgfr-inhibitor-8-3-4-acryloylpiperazin-1-yl-propyl-6-2-6-dichloro-3-5-dimethoxyphenyl-2-methylamino-pyrido-2-3-d-pyrimidin-7-8h-one-prn1371-for-the-treatment-of-solid-tumors
#10
Ken A Brameld, Timothy D Owens, Erik Verner, Eleni Venetsanakos, J Michael Bradshaw, Vernon T Phan, Danny Tam, Kwan H Leung, Jin Shu, Jacob LaStant, David G Loughhead, Dane E Karr, Mary E Gerritsen, David Michael Goldstein, Jens Oliver Funk
Aberrant signaling of the FGF/FGFR pathway occurs frequently in cancers and is an oncogenic driver in many solid tumors. Clinical validation of FGFR as a therapeutic target has been demonstrated in bladder, liver, lung, breast, and gastric cancers. Our goal was to develop an irreversible covalent inhibitor of FGFR1-4 for use in oncology indications. An irreversible covalent binding mechanism imparts many desirable pharmacological benefits including high potency, selectivity, and prolonged target inhibition...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657230/malignant-transformation-of-ovarian-mature-cystic-teratoma-into-squamous-cell-carcinoma-a-taiwanese-gynecologic-oncology-group-tgog-study
#11
An Jen Chiang, Min Yu Chen, Chia Sui Weng, Hao Lin, Chien Hsing Lu, Peng Hui Wang, Yu Fang Huang, Ying Cheng Chiang, Mu Hsien Yu, Chih Long Chang
OBJECTIVE: The malignant transformation (MT) of ovarian mature cystic teratoma (MCT) to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is very rare. This study analyzed cases from multiple medical centers in Taiwan to investigate the clinicopathologic characteristics, treatment, and prognostic factors of this disease and reviewed related literature. METHODS: Pathological reports of 16,001 patients with primary ovarian cancer who were treated at Taiwan medical centers from 1990 to 2011 were reviewed...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652837/a-pilot-study-of-zoledronic-acid-in-the-treatment-of-patients-with-advanced-malignant-pleural-mesothelioma
#12
Muhammad Omer Jamil, Mary S Jerome, Deborah Miley, Katri S Selander, Francisco Robert
PURPOSE: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare malignancy with a dismal median survival of <12 months with current therapy. Single and combination chemotherapy regimens have shown only modest clinical benefit. In preclinical studies, nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (zoledronic acid) inhibit growth of mesothelioma cells by different mechanisms: inhibition of mevalonate pathway, inhibition of angiogenesis, activation of apoptosis through caspase activation, and alteration in activity of matrix metalloproteinases, thereby affecting invasiveness of cancer cells...
2017: Lung Cancer: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651927/doxorubicin-plus-evofosfamide-versus-doxorubicin-alone-in-locally-advanced-unresectable-or-metastatic-soft-tissue-sarcoma-th-cr-406-sarc021-an-international-multicentre-open-label-randomised-phase-3-trial
#13
William D Tap, Zsuzsanna Papai, Brian A Van Tine, Steven Attia, Kristen N Ganjoo, Robin L Jones, Scott Schuetze, Damon Reed, Sant P Chawla, Richard F Riedel, Anders Krarup-Hansen, Maud Toulmonde, Isabelle Ray-Coquard, Peter Hohenberger, Giovanni Grignani, Lee D Cranmer, Scott Okuno, Mark Agulnik, William Read, Christopher W Ryan, Thierry Alcindor, Xavier F Garcia Del Muro, G Thomas Budd, Hussein Tawbi, Tillman Pearce, Stew Kroll, Denise K Reinke, Patrick Schöffski
BACKGROUND: Evofosfamide is a hypoxia-activated prodrug of bromo-isophosphoramide mustard. We aimed to assess the benefit of adding evofosfamide to doxorubicin as first-line therapy for advanced soft-tissue sarcomas. METHODS: We did this international, open-label, randomised, phase 3, multicentre trial (TH CR-406/SARC021) at 81 academic or community investigational sites in 13 countries. Eligible patients were aged 15 years or older with a diagnosis of an advanced unresectable or metastatic soft-tissue sarcoma, of intermediate or high grade, for which no standard curative therapy was available, an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-1, and measurable disease by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1...
June 23, 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648803/sorafenib-in-combination-with-transarterial-chemoembolisation-in-patients-with-unresectable-hepatocellular-carcinoma-tace-2-a-randomised-placebo-controlled-double-blind-phase-3-trial
#14
Tim Meyer, Richard Fox, Yuk Ting Ma, Paul J Ross, Martin W James, Richard Sturgess, Clive Stubbs, Deborah D Stocken, Lucy Wall, Anthony Watkinson, Nigel Hacking, T R Jeffry Evans, Peter Collins, Richard A Hubner, David Cunningham, John Neil Primrose, Philip J Johnson, Daniel H Palmer
BACKGROUND: Transarterial chemoembolisation (TACE) is the standard of care for patients with intermediate stage hepatocellular carcinoma, while the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib improves survival in patients with advanced disease. We aimed to determine whether TACE with sorafenib improves progression-free survival versus TACE with placebo. METHODS: We did a multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial (TACE 2) in 20 hospitals in the UK for patients with unresectable, liver-confined hepatocellular carcinoma...
June 22, 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640844/the-g8-screening-tool-enhances-prognostic-value-to-ecog-performance-status-in-elderly-cancer-patients-a-retrospective-single-institutional-study
#15
Masahiro Takahashi, Masanobu Takahashi, Keigo Komine, Hideharu Yamada, Yuki Kasahara, Sonoko Chikamatsu, Akira Okita, Shukuei Ito, Kota Ouchi, Yoshinari Okada, Hiroo Imai, Ken Saijo, Hidekazu Shirota, Shin Takahashi, Takahiro Mori, Hideki Shimodaira, Chikashi Ishioka
BACKGROUND: Some elderly cancer patients, even with good Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG-PS), have poor survival outcomes and cannot tolerate standard therapy. Few studies have detailed the associations between the G8 screening tool, ECOG-PS, and overall survival (OS) in such patients. METHODS: Cancer patients, aged 70 years or older, were assessed for G8 and classified into three groups according to their G8 score: <11 as the low score group, 11-14 as the intermediate score group, and >14 as the high score group...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636421/analysis-of-origins-of-admission-for-solid-tumor-oncology-inpatients-disease-severity-and-outcomes
#16
Christopher E Wee, Lindsey M Goodman, Leticia Varella, Lisa A Rybicki, Alberto J Montero, Bassam N Estfan, Carolyn H Best, James P Stevenson
PURPOSE: Hospital transfers may affect clinical outcomes. Evaluation of admission by source of transfer, time of admission, and provider type may identify opportunities to improve inpatient outcomes. METHODS: We reviewed charts of patients admitted to the solid tumor oncology service between July and December 2014 from the Cleveland Clinic Foundation (CCF) Main Campus emergency department (ED), CCF Regional EDs, outside hospital (OSH) ED, OSH inpatient services, and CCF outpatient clinics...
July 2017: Journal of Oncology Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634671/venous-thromboembolism-is-an-independent-predictor-of-mortality-among-patients-with-gastric-cancer
#17
Harry E Fuentes, D M Oramas, L H Paz, Y Wang, X A Andrade, A J Tafur
BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is an independent predictor of death among patients with cancer. Patients with gastric cancer (GC) are at higher risk for VTE when compared to other solid tumors, and if one considers its prevalence, GC may be responsible for one of the highest incidences of cancer-associated thrombosis. The impact of VTE on mortality is not well defined among patients with GC. AIM: The aim of this study is to measure the impact of VTE as independent predictor of GC mortality...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625332/considerations-of-developing-an-ngs-assay-for-clinical-applications-in-precision-oncology-the-nci-match-ngs-assay-experience
#18
Chih-Jian Lih, Naoko Takebe
Next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have been widely adapted in clinical oncology by utilizing the profiled genetic mutation information to select patients and to guide the choice of target therapy. To fulfill the regulatory compliance, development of an NGS assay that will be used in clinical trials requires an analytical validation to meet its intend clinical use. NCI-MATCH trial is the largest precision oncology basket trial which uses a single NGS assay (NCI-MATHC NGS assay) to screen the actionable mutations in 6000 patients, who have relapsed/refractory solid tumors and lymphomas after standard systemic treatment, and assigns matched treatment...
May 2017: Current Problems in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623376/eanm-earl-harmonization-strategies-in-pet-quantification-from-daily-practice-to-multicentre-oncological-studies
#19
REVIEW
Nicolas Aide, Charline Lasnon, Patrick Veit-Haibach, Terez Sera, Bernhard Sattler, Ronald Boellaard
Quantitative positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) can be used as diagnostic or prognostic tools (i.e. single measurement) or for therapy monitoring (i.e. longitudinal studies) in multicentre studies. Use of quantitative parameters, such as standardized uptake values (SUVs), metabolic active tumor volumes (MATVs) or total lesion glycolysis (TLG), in a multicenter setting requires that these parameters be comparable among patients and sites, regardless of the PET/CT system used. This review describes the motivations and the methodologies for quantitative PET/CT performance harmonization with emphasis on the EANM Research Ltd...
June 16, 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619538/synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-2-3-4-dimethoxyphenyl-6-2-18-f-fluoroethoxy-benzothiazole-18-f-fedbt-for-pet-imaging-of-breast-cancer
#20
Geng-Ying Li, Daria D Vaulina, Jia-Je Li, Olga S Fedorova, Hsin-Ell Wang, Ren-Shyan Liu, Raisa N Krasikova, Chuan-Lin Chen
Given the ever-present demand for improved PET radiotracer in oncology imaging, we have synthesized 2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-6-(2-[(18)F]fluoroethoxy)benzothiazole ([(18)F]FEDBT), a fluorine-18-containing fluoroethylated benzothiazole to explore its utility as a PET imaging tracer. [(18)F]FEDBT was prepared via kryptofix-mediated nucleophilic substitution of the tosyl group precursor. Fractionated ethanol-based solid-phase (SPE cartridge-based) purification afforded [(18)F]FEDBT in 60% radiochemical yield (EOB), with radiochemical purity in excess of 98% and the specific activity was 35GBq/μmol...
August 1, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
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