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Solid tumor oncology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640844/the-g8-screening-tool-enhances-prognostic-value-to-ecog-performance-status-in-elderly-cancer-patients-a-retrospective-single-institutional-study
#1
Masahiro Takahashi, Masanobu Takahashi, Keigo Komine, Hideharu Yamada, Yuki Kasahara, Sonoko Chikamatsu, Akira Okita, Shukuei Ito, Kota Ouchi, Yoshinari Okada, Hiroo Imai, Ken Saijo, Hidekazu Shirota, Shin Takahashi, Takahiro Mori, Hideki Shimodaira, Chikashi Ishioka
BACKGROUND: Some elderly cancer patients, even with good Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG-PS), have poor survival outcomes and cannot tolerate standard therapy. Few studies have detailed the associations between the G8 screening tool, ECOG-PS, and overall survival (OS) in such patients. METHODS: Cancer patients, aged 70 years or older, were assessed for G8 and classified into three groups according to their G8 score: <11 as the low score group, 11-14 as the intermediate score group, and >14 as the high score group...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636421/analysis-of-origins-of-admission-for-solid-tumor-oncology-inpatients-disease-severity-and-outcomes
#2
Christopher E Wee, Lindsey M Goodman, Leticia Varella, Lisa A Rybicki, Alberto J Montero, Bassam N Estfan, Carolyn H Best, James P Stevenson
PURPOSE: Hospital transfers may affect clinical outcomes. Evaluation of admission by source of transfer, time of admission, and provider type may identify opportunities to improve inpatient outcomes. METHODS: We reviewed charts of patients admitted to the solid tumor oncology service between July and December 2014 from the Cleveland Clinic Foundation (CCF) Main Campus emergency department (ED), CCF Regional EDs, outside hospital (OSH) ED, OSH inpatient services, and CCF outpatient clinics...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Oncology Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634671/venous-thromboembolism-is-an-independent-predictor-of-mortality-among-patients-with-gastric-cancer
#3
Harry E Fuentes, D M Oramas, L H Paz, Y Wang, X A Andrade, A J Tafur
BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is an independent predictor of death among patients with cancer. Patients with gastric cancer (GC) are at higher risk for VTE when compared to other solid tumors, and if one considers its prevalence, GC may be responsible for one of the highest incidences of cancer-associated thrombosis. The impact of VTE on mortality is not well defined among patients with GC. AIM: The aim of this study is to measure the impact of VTE as independent predictor of GC mortality...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625332/considerations-of-developing-an-ngs-assay-for-clinical-applications-in-precision-oncology-the-nci-match-ngs-assay-experience
#4
Chih-Jian Lih, Naoko Takebe
Next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have been widely adapted in clinical oncology by utilizing the profiled genetic mutation information to select patients and to guide the choice of target therapy. To fulfill the regulatory compliance, development of an NGS assay that will be used in clinical trials requires an analytical validation to meet its intend clinical use. NCI-MATCH trial is the largest precision oncology basket trial which uses a single NGS assay (NCI-MATHC NGS assay) to screen the actionable mutations in 6000 patients, who have relapsed/refractory solid tumors and lymphomas after standard systemic treatment, and assigns matched treatment...
May 2017: Current Problems in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623376/eanm-earl-harmonization-strategies-in-pet-quantification-from-daily-practice-to-multicentre-oncological-studies
#5
REVIEW
Nicolas Aide, Charline Lasnon, Patrick Veit-Haibach, Terez Sera, Bernhard Sattler, Ronald Boellaard
Quantitative positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) can be used as diagnostic or prognostic tools (i.e. single measurement) or for therapy monitoring (i.e. longitudinal studies) in multicentre studies. Use of quantitative parameters, such as standardized uptake values (SUVs), metabolic active tumor volumes (MATVs) or total lesion glycolysis (TLG), in a multicenter setting requires that these parameters be comparable among patients and sites, regardless of the PET/CT system used. This review describes the motivations and the methodologies for quantitative PET/CT performance harmonization with emphasis on the EANM Research Ltd...
June 16, 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619538/synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-2-3-4-dimethoxyphenyl-6-2-18-f-fluoroethoxy-benzothiazole-18-f-fedbt-for-pet-imaging-of-breast-cancer
#6
Geng-Ying Li, Daria D Vaulina, Jia-Je Li, Olga S Fedorova, Hsin-Ell Wang, Ren-Shyan Liu, Raisa N Krasikova, Chuan-Lin Chen
Given the ever-present demand for improved PET radiotracer in oncology imaging, we have synthesized 2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-6-(2-[(18)F]fluoroethoxy)benzothiazole ([(18)F]FEDBT), a fluorine-18-containing fluoroethylated benzothiazole to explore its utility as a PET imaging tracer. [(18)F]FEDBT was prepared via kryptofix-mediated nucleophilic substitution of the tosyl group precursor. Fractionated ethanol-based solid-phase (SPE cartridge-based) purification afforded [(18)F]FEDBT in 60% radiochemical yield (EOB), with radiochemical purity in excess of 98% and the specific activity was 35GBq/μmol...
May 26, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600472/precision-medicine-in-pediatric-oncology-translating-genomic-discoveries-into-optimized-therapies
#7
Thai Hoa Tran, Avanthi Tayi Shah, Mignon L Loh
Survival of children with cancers has dramatically improved over the past several decades.  This success has been achieved through improvement of combined modalities in treatment approaches, intensification of cytotoxic chemotherapy for those with high-risk disease and refinement of risk stratification incorporating novel biologic markers in addition to traditional clinical and histologic features. Advances in cancer genomics have shed important mechanistic insights on disease biology and have identified "driver" genomic alterations, aberrant activation of signaling pathways, and epigenetic modifiers that can be targeted by novel agents...
June 9, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597689/circulating-endothelial-cells-and-their-subsets-novel-biomarkers-for-cancer
#8
Fangbin Zhou, Yaying Zhou, Jun Dong, Wenyong Tan
Angiogenesis contributes to the growth of solid tumors. Antiangiogenic agents are widely used in various cancers and considerable efforts have been made in the development of novel biomarkers that can predict the outcome of an anticancer treatment. Of those, circulating endothelial cells (CECs) and their subsets constitute a surrogate tool for monitoring disease activity. However, owing to the lack of standardization on the phenotypes and detection of CECs and their subsets, results have always been inconsistent and uninterpretable...
June 9, 2017: Biomarkers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594662/patient-derived-tumor-xenografts-of-lymphoproliferative-disorders-are-they-surrogates-for-the-human-disease
#9
Marco Pizzi, Giorgio Inghirami
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Patient-derived tumor xenografts (PDTXs) have emerged as powerful platforms in medical oncology. A plethora of PDTXs were generated to study solid cancers, but limited data are as yet available on hematological diseases. The aim of this review is to describe the state of art of lymphoma PDTXs, discussing future directions for the development of integrated/personalized cancer programs. RECENT FINDINGS: In the last decades, several PDTXs of lymphoproliferative disorders have been produced...
July 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594589/mek-inhibitors-in-oncology-a-patent-review-2015-present
#10
Debarshi Kar Mahapatra, Vivek Asati, Sanjay Kumar Bharti
The RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK and PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathways have been identified as promising therapeutic targets for cancer therapy. Over-activation of these pathways and their components including gene mutations has been considered as one of the major causes of melanoma. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK) is a downstream kinase of RAS pathway found in two different forms MEK1/2. The MEK inhibitors in combination with other kinase/mutant gene inhibitors have shown promising results in patients with metastatic melanoma...
June 19, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592624/prolonged-pemetrexed-infusion-plus-gemcitabine-in-refractory-metastatic-colorectal-cancer-preclinical-rationale-and-phase-ii-study-results
#11
Alessandro Passardi, Francesca Fanini, Livia Turci, Flavia Foca, Paola Rosetti, Silvia Ruscelli, Andrea Casadei Gardini, Martina Valgiusti, Claudio Dazzi, Maurizio Marangolo
LESSONS LEARNED: Difficulties in translating in vitro results into clinical practice are inevitable.Further efforts to verify the efficacy of alternative schedules of pemetrexed in solid tumors are encouraged. BACKGROUND: We investigated the cytotoxic activity of pemetrexed in combination with several drugs (gemcitabine, carboplatin, vinorelbine, and mitomycin C) using different exposure schedules in three colon cancer cell lines. The best results were obtained with the following schedule: a prolonged pemetrexed exposure followed by a 48-hour wash-out and then gemcitabine...
June 7, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590426/down-s-syndrome-and-triple-negative-breast-cancer-a-rare-occurrence-of-distinctive-clinical-relationship
#12
Nandini Dey, Amy Krie, Jessica Klein, Kirstin Williams, Amanda McMillan, Rachel Elsey, Yuliang Sun, Casey Williams, Pradip De, Brian Leyland-Jones
Down's syndrome (DS), the most common genetic cause of significant intellectual disability in children and adults is caused by the trisomy of either all or a part of human chromosome 21 (HSA21). Patients with DS mostly suffer from characteristic tumor types. Although individual patients of DS are at a higher risk for acute leukemia and testicular cancers, other types of solid tumors including breast cancers are mostly uncommon and have significantly lower-than-expected age-adjusted incidence rates. Except for an increased risk of retinoblastomas, and lymphomas, the risk of developing solid tumors has been found to be lower in both children and adults, and breast cancer was found to be almost absent (Hasle H...
June 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590039/emt-present-and-future-in-clinical-oncology
#13
REVIEW
Patricia G Santamaria, Gema Moreno-Bueno, Francisco Portillo, Amparo Cano
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has emerged as a key regulator of metastasis by facilitating tumor cell invasion and dissemination to distant organs. Recent evidences support that the reverse mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) is required for metastatic outgrowth; moreover, the existence of hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal (E/M) phenotypes is increasingly being reported in different tumor contexts. The accumulated data strongly support that plasticity between epithelial and mesenchymal states underlies the dissemination and metastatic potential of carcinoma cells...
June 7, 2017: Molecular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588582/nanoparticle-based-magnetic-resonance-imaging-on-tumor-associated-macrophages-and-inflammation
#14
REVIEW
Natalie J Serkova
The inflammatory response, mediated by tissue-resident or newly recruited macrophages, is an underlying pathophysiological condition for many diseases, including diabetes, obesity, neurodegeneration, atherosclerosis, and cancer. Paradoxically, inflammation is a double-edged sword in oncology. Macrophages are, generally speaking, the major drivers of inflammatory insult. For many solid tumors, high density of cells expressing macrophage-associated markers have generally been found in association with a poor clinical outcome, characterized by inflamed microenvironment, a high level of dissemination and resistance to conventional chemotherapies...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584690/unusual-patterns-of-thoracic-metastasis-of-urinary-bladder-carcinoma
#15
Robert Hiensch, Habtamu Belete, Mahsan Rashidfarokhi, Irene Galperin, Fouzia Shakil, Oleg Epelbaum
Urinary bladder carcinoma (UBC) is the ninth most common malignancy and the second most common urological malignancy after prostate cancer in men. Thoracic metastases occur in more than half of those with muscle-invasive disease, and these generally assume the form of multiple solid parenchymal lesions characteristic of hematogenous seeding of the lung. Unusual patterns of thoracic spread of UBC have also been described albeit sporadically in the form of case reports and series. The aim of our case series is to provide illustrations of several atypical patterns of thoracic involvement by UBC such as isolated mediastinal lymphadenopathy, cavitary lung metastases, malignant pleural effusion, endobronchial disease, and pulmonary tumor embolism...
2017: Journal of Clinical Imaging Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579151/validation-of-the-association-of-recist-changes-with-survival-in-men-with-metastatic-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-treated-on-swog-study-s0421
#16
Guru Sonpavde, Gregory R Pond, Melissa Plets, Catherine M Tangen, Maha H A Hussain, Primo N Lara, Amir Goldkorn, Mark G Garzotto, Philip C Mack, Celestia S Higano, Nicholas J Vogelzang, Ian M Thompson, Przemyslaw W Twardowski, Peter J Van Veldhuizen, Neeraj Agarwal, Michael A Carducci, J Paul Monk, David I Quinn
BACKGROUND: Phase 2 trials evaluating new agents for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) have relied on bone scan and prostate-specific antigen changes to assess activity. Given the increasing detection of measurable disease, Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) changes warrant consideration to evaluate activity. We validated the association of RECIST 1.0 changes with survival in men with mCRPC receiving docetaxel. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data for men with measurable disease from the Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG) S0421, a phase 3 trial in men with mCRPC receiving docetaxel and prednisone plus placebo or atrasentan, were used...
May 10, 2017: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578991/oncolytic-vsv-primes-differential-responses-to-immuno-oncology-therapy
#17
Nicholas M Durham, Kathy Mulgrew, Kelly McGlinchey, Noel R Monks, Hong Ji, Ronald Herbst, JoAnn Suzich, Scott A Hammond, Elizabeth J Kelly
Vesicular stomatitis virus encoding the IFNβ transgene (VSV-IFNβ) is a mediator of potent oncolytic activity and is undergoing clinical evaluation for the treatment of solid tumors. Emerging preclinical and clinical data suggest treatment of tumors with oncolytic viruses may sensitize tumors to checkpoint inhibitors and increase the anti-tumor immune response. New generations of immuno-oncology molecules including T cell agonists are entering clinical development and could be hypothesized to enhance the activity of oncolytic viruses, including VSV-IFNβ...
June 1, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572266/cancer-screening-recommendations-for-individuals-with-li-fraumeni-syndrome
#18
REVIEW
Christian P Kratz, Maria Isabel Achatz, Laurence Brugières, Thierry Frebourg, Judy E Garber, Mary-Louise C Greer, Jordan R Hansford, Katherine A Janeway, Wendy K Kohlmann, Rose McGee, Charles G Mullighan, Kenan Onel, Kristian W Pajtler, Stefan M Pfister, Sharon A Savage, Joshua D Schiffman, Katherine A Schneider, Louise C Strong, D Gareth R Evans, Jonathan D Wasserman, Anita Villani, David Malkin
Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is an autosomal dominantly inherited condition caused by germline mutations of the TP53 tumor suppressor gene encoding p53, a transcription factor triggered as a protective cellular mechanism against different stressors. Loss of p53 function renders affected individuals highly susceptible to a broad range of solid and hematologic cancers. It has recently become evident that children and adults with LFS benefit from intensive surveillance aimed at early tumor detection. In October 2016, the American Association for Cancer Research held a meeting of international LFS experts to evaluate the current knowledge on LFS and propose consensus surveillance recommendations...
June 1, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572263/recommendations-for-surveillance-for-children-with-leukemia-predisposing-conditions
#19
REVIEW
Christopher C Porter, Todd E Druley, Ayelet Erez, Roland P Kuiper, Kenan Onel, Joshua D Schiffman, Kami Wolfe Schneider, Sarah R Scollon, Hamish S Scott, Louise C Strong, Michael F Walsh, Kim E Nichols
Leukemia, the most common childhood cancer, has long been recognized to occasionally run in families. The first clues about the genetic mechanisms underlying familial leukemia emerged in 1990 when Li-Fraumeni syndrome was linked to TP53 mutations. Since this discovery, many other genes associated with hereditary predisposition to leukemia have been identified. Although several of these disorders also predispose individuals to solid tumors, certain conditions exist in which individuals are specifically at increased risk to develop myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and/or acute leukemia...
June 1, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561686/advances-in-the-treatment-of-pediatric-bone-sarcomas
#20
Patrick J Grohar, Katherine A Janeway, Luke D Mase, Joshua D Schiffman
Bone tumors make up a significant portion of noncentral nervous system solid tumor diagnoses in pediatric oncology patients. Ewing sarcoma and osteosarcoma, both with distinct clinical and pathologic features, are the two most commonly encountered bone cancers in pediatrics. Although mutations in the germline have classically been more associated with osteosarcoma, there is recent evidence germline alterations in patients with Ewing sarcoma also play a significant role in pathogenesis. Treatment advances in this patient population have lagged behind that of other pediatric malignancies, particularly targeted interventions directed at the biologic underpinnings of disease...
2017: American Society of Clinical Oncology Educational Book
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