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Single channel pharynx

Magis Mandapathil, Brandon Greene, Thomas Wilhelm
The transoral resection of pharyngeal and laryngeal tumors is challenging due to their location in a narrow anatomic space. In this study, the visualization and resection in the area of the pharynx and larynx using a novel computer-assisted flexible endoscopic robotic system are evaluated. The Medrobotics(®) Flex(®) System (Medrobotics Corp., Raynham, MA, USA) is an operator-controlled flexible endoscope robotic system that includes a flexible endoscope and computer-assisted controllers, with two accessory channels for the use of compatible, 3...
September 2015: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Maggie-Lee Huckabee, Kristin Lamvik, Richard Jones
OBJECTIVE: Clinical data are submitted as documentation of a pathophysiologic feature of dysphagia termed pharyngeal mis-sequencing and to encourage clinicians and researchers to adopt more critical approaches to diagnosis and treatment planning. BACKGROUND: Recent clinical experience has identified a cohort of patients who present with an atypical dysphagia not specifically described in the literature: mis-sequenced constriction of the pharynx when swallowing. As a result, they are unable to coordinate streamlined bolus transfer from the pharynx into the esophagus...
August 15, 2014: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Min Lin, Jeff T Hatcher, Robert D Wurster, Qin-Hui Chen, Zixi Jack Cheng
Large-conductance Ca2(+)-activated K+ channels (BK) regulate action potential (AP) properties and excitability in many central neurons. However, the properties and functional roles of BK channels in parasympathetic cardiac motoneurons (PCMNs) in the nucleus ambiguus (NA) have not yet been well characterized. In this study, the tracer X-rhodamine-5 (and 6)-isothiocyanate (XRITC) was injected into the pericardial sac to retrogradely label PCMNs in FVB mice at postnatal 7-9 days. Two days later, XRITC-labeled PCMNs in brain stem slices were identified...
January 15, 2014: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Dan Zhang, Xiaolong Liu, John D Chan, Jonathan S Marchant
Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP₃Rs) are intracellular Ca²⁺ channels that elevate cytoplasmic Ca²⁺ in response to the second messenger IP3. Here, we describe the identification and in vivo functional characterization of the planarian IP₃R, the first intracellular Ca²⁺ channel to be defined in flatworms. A single IP₃R gene in Dugesia japonica encoded a 2666 amino acid protein (Dj.IP₃R) that shared well conserved structural features with vertebrate IP₃R counterparts. Expression of an NH₂-terminal Dj...
May 2013: Cell Calcium
Catherine Peyrot des Gachons, Kunitoshi Uchida, Bruce Bryant, Asako Shima, Jeffrey B Sperry, Luba Dankulich-Nagrudny, Makoto Tominaga, Amos B Smith, Gary K Beauchamp, Paul A S Breslin
Oleocanthal, a major phenolic compound in extra-virgin olive oil with antiinflammatory properties, elicits an unusual oral pungency sensed almost exclusively in the throat. This contrasts with most other common oral irritants, such as cinnamaldehyde, capsaicin, and alcohol, which irritate mucus membranes throughout the oral cavity. Here, we show that this rare irritation pattern is a consequence of both the specificity of oleocanthal for a single sensory receptor and the anatomical restriction of this sensory receptor to the pharynx, within the oral cavity...
January 19, 2011: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Mitsuhiro Asakuma, Silvana Perretta, Pierre Allemann, Ronan Cahill, Bernard Dallemagne, Nobuhiko Tanigawa, Jacques Marescaux
BACKGROUND: Several working groups have already demonstrated the feasibility of transgastric surgery procedures using flexible endoscopes. However, technical limitations in natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) (e.g., exposure, retraction, insufflations, and triangulation) currently still require the use of at least one external instrument. Therefore, "pure NOTES" transgastric cholecystectomy has not yet been described. The authors successfully performed "pure NOTES" transgastric cholecystectomy using a transoral dual-scope technique (similar to the approach the authors previously reported for gastric closure) that allows completion of the procedure by pure NOTES without an external instrument...
October 2010: Surgical Endoscopy
C Norris, A M Pappenheimer
THE FOLLOWING CONCLUSIONS MAY BE DRAWN, BASED UPON THE RESULT OF OUR RESEARCHES: 1. Organisms of the pneumococcus or streptococcus group are present in the lungs of practically all cases, whether normal or showing a variety of lesions; strictly speaking, they were found by us in forty out of forty-two cases, or in 95% of our series. 2. The pneumococci and the streptococci were obtained in practically similar percentages-that is, in 50 % of the cases. 3. Pneumococci were not obtained more frequently in the small series of patients exposed for some time to hospital atmosphere; our tables show the contrary to obtain...
August 25, 1905: Journal of Experimental Medicine
M R Fox, A J Bredenoord
Manometry measures pressure within the oesophageal lumen and sphincters, and provides an assessment of the neuromuscular activity that dictates function in health and disease. It is performed to investigate the cause of functional dysphagia, unexplained "non-cardiac" chest pain, and in the pre-operative work-up of patients referred for anti-reflux surgery. Manometric techniques have improved in a step-wise fashion from a single pressure channel to the development of high-resolution manometry (HRM) with up to 36 pressure sensors...
March 2008: Gut
Irina Vinogradova, Alan Cook, Lindy Holden-Dye
The pharynx of Caenorhabditis elegans consists of a syncytium of radially orientated muscle cells that contract synchronously and rhythmically to ingest and crush bacteria and pump them into the intestine of the animal. The action potentials that support this activity are superficially similar to vertebrate cardiac action potentials in appearance with a long, calcium-dependent plateau phase. Although the pharyngeal muscle can generate action potentials in the absence of external calcium ions, action potentials are absent when sodium is removed from the extracellullar solution (Franks et al...
June 2006: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
Jerry Yu
A mechanosensory unit is a functional unit that contains multiple receptors (or encoders) with different characteristics, including rapidly adapting receptors, slowly adapting receptors, and deflation-activated-receptors. Each is capable of sensing different aspects of lung mechanics. The sensory unit is both a transducer and a processor. Significant information integration occurs at the intra-encoder and inter-encoder levels. Within an encoder, the information is encoded as analog signals and integrated by amplitude modulation...
October 12, 2005: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Paula R Towers, Ben Edwards, Janet E Richmond, David B Sattelle
We have cloned Caenorhabditis elegans lev-8 and demonstrated that it encodes a novel nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunit (previously designated ACR-13), which has functional roles in body wall and uterine muscles as part of a levamisole-sensitive receptor. LEV-8 is an alpha subunit and is the first to be described from the ACR-8-like group, a new class of nAChR with atypical acetylcholine-binding site (loop C) and channel-lining motifs. A single base pair change in the first intron of lev-8 in lev-8(x15) mutants leads to alternative splicing and the introduction of a premature stop codon...
April 2005: Journal of Neurochemistry
Denise S Walker, Sung Ly, Nicholas J D Gower, Howard A Baylis
Inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate receptors (IP(3)Rs) are ligand-gated Ca(2+) channels that control Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores. They are central to a wide range of cellular responses. IP(3)Rs in Caenorhabditis elegans are encoded by a single gene, itr-1, and are widely expressed. Signaling through IP(3) and IP(3)Rs is important in ovulation, control of the defecation cycle, modulation of pharyngeal pumping rate, and embryogenesis. To further elucidate the molecular basis of the diversity of IP(3)R function, we used a yeast two-hybrid screen to search for proteins that interact with ITR-1...
July 2004: Molecular Biology of the Cell
R Fleischhauer, M W Davis, I Dzhura, A Neely, L Avery, R H Joho
The exp-2 gene in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans influences the shape and duration of the action potential of pharyngeal muscle cells. Several loss-of-function mutations in exp-2 lead to broadening of the action potential and to a concomitant slowing of the pumping action of the pharynx. In contrast, a gain-of-function mutation leads to narrow action potentials and shallow pumping. We cloned and functionally characterized the exp-2 gene. The exp-2 gene is homologous to genes of the family of voltage-gated K(+) channels (Kv type)...
January 15, 2000: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
H A Baylis, T Furuichi, F Yoshikawa, K Mikoshiba, D B Sattelle
Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) activates receptors (InsP3Rs) that mediate intracellular Ca(2+ )release, thereby modulating intracellular calcium signals and regulating important aspects of cellular physiology and gene expression. To further our understanding of InsP3Rs we have characterised InsP3Rs and the InsP3R gene, itr-1, from the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. cDNAs encoding InsP3Rs were cloned enabling us to: (a) identify three putative transcription start sites that result in alternative mRNA 5' ends: (b) detect alternative splicing at three sites and: (c) determine the full genomic organisation of the itr-1 gene...
November 26, 1999: Journal of Molecular Biology
E B Maryon, B Saari, P Anderson
Ryanodine receptor channels regulate contraction of striated muscle by gating the release of calcium ions from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Ryanodine receptors are expressed in excitable and non-excitable cells of numerous species, including the nematode C. elegans. Unlike vertebrates, which have at least three ryanodine receptor genes, C. elegans has a single gene encoded by the unc-68 locus. We show that unc-68 is expressed in most muscle cells, and that the phenotypic defects exhibited by unc-68 null mutants result from the loss of unc-68 function in pharyngeal and body-wall muscle cells...
October 1998: Journal of Cell Science
T S Dunn, W A Nizami, R E Hanna
The lymph system of three amphistome parasites from buffaloes, Gigantocotyle explanatum, Gastrothylax crumenifer and Srivastavaia indica was studied using light microscope histochemistry and electron microscopy. In each case the system comprised a single pair of main longitudinal vessels which gave rise to numerous sub-dividing lateral branches. Although the finer lymph channels associated with most internal systems, they did not penetrate the basement membrane of any organ. The lymph vessels were delimited by a unit membrane and separated from adjacent cells by interstitial material...
March 1985: Journal of Helminthology
M A Hashim, G T Bolger, D Bieger
The ability of the dihydropyridine calcium channel activators, (-)-S-BAY K 8644 and (+)-S-202-791 and the calcium channel inhibitor, (+)-R-BAY K 8644, to modify the differential deglutitive actions of glutamate and muscarine at premotor loci in the nucleus tractus solitarii was investigated in urethane-anaesthetised rats. At subnuclei ventralis and intermedialis loci, pneumophoretic application (20-100 pl) from multibarrelled glass micropipettes (tip diameter 2-5 microns) of glutamate (10-20 pmol) evoked aminophosphonovaleric acid (APV)-insensitive pharyngeal swallows; at sites in the subnucleus centralis of the nucleus tractus solitarii glutamate evoked an APV-sensitive single-wave oesophageal response, whereas muscarine (5-10 pmol) evoked rhythmic oesophageal contractions...
September 1989: Neuropharmacology
R L Parker, S P Haesaert, D M Kovnat, B Bachus, G L Snider
In a prospective study, varying the bronchial brushing technique through the flexible fiberoptic bronchoscope was examined for the effects of cellular yield and diagnostic accuracy. The yield of cells obtained from the 1.7-mm brush was increased by more than twofold when the brush and bronchoscope were withdrawn as a unit through the pharynx and nose, (nonwithdrawn brushing), rather than withdrawing the brush alone through the aspiration channel of the bronchoscope (withdrawn brushing). The greater number of total cells in the nonwithdrawn brushing specimen was largely due to squamous cells, and the yield of tumor cells by the two methods was similar...
March 1977: Chest
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