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Single channel pharynx receptors

Dan Zhang, Xiaolong Liu, John D Chan, Jonathan S Marchant
Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP₃Rs) are intracellular Ca²⁺ channels that elevate cytoplasmic Ca²⁺ in response to the second messenger IP3. Here, we describe the identification and in vivo functional characterization of the planarian IP₃R, the first intracellular Ca²⁺ channel to be defined in flatworms. A single IP₃R gene in Dugesia japonica encoded a 2666 amino acid protein (Dj.IP₃R) that shared well conserved structural features with vertebrate IP₃R counterparts. Expression of an NH₂-terminal Dj...
May 2013: Cell Calcium
Catherine Peyrot des Gachons, Kunitoshi Uchida, Bruce Bryant, Asako Shima, Jeffrey B Sperry, Luba Dankulich-Nagrudny, Makoto Tominaga, Amos B Smith, Gary K Beauchamp, Paul A S Breslin
Oleocanthal, a major phenolic compound in extra-virgin olive oil with antiinflammatory properties, elicits an unusual oral pungency sensed almost exclusively in the throat. This contrasts with most other common oral irritants, such as cinnamaldehyde, capsaicin, and alcohol, which irritate mucus membranes throughout the oral cavity. Here, we show that this rare irritation pattern is a consequence of both the specificity of oleocanthal for a single sensory receptor and the anatomical restriction of this sensory receptor to the pharynx, within the oral cavity...
January 19, 2011: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Jerry Yu
A mechanosensory unit is a functional unit that contains multiple receptors (or encoders) with different characteristics, including rapidly adapting receptors, slowly adapting receptors, and deflation-activated-receptors. Each is capable of sensing different aspects of lung mechanics. The sensory unit is both a transducer and a processor. Significant information integration occurs at the intra-encoder and inter-encoder levels. Within an encoder, the information is encoded as analog signals and integrated by amplitude modulation...
October 12, 2005: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Paula R Towers, Ben Edwards, Janet E Richmond, David B Sattelle
We have cloned Caenorhabditis elegans lev-8 and demonstrated that it encodes a novel nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunit (previously designated ACR-13), which has functional roles in body wall and uterine muscles as part of a levamisole-sensitive receptor. LEV-8 is an alpha subunit and is the first to be described from the ACR-8-like group, a new class of nAChR with atypical acetylcholine-binding site (loop C) and channel-lining motifs. A single base pair change in the first intron of lev-8 in lev-8(x15) mutants leads to alternative splicing and the introduction of a premature stop codon...
April 2005: Journal of Neurochemistry
Denise S Walker, Sung Ly, Nicholas J D Gower, Howard A Baylis
Inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate receptors (IP(3)Rs) are ligand-gated Ca(2+) channels that control Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores. They are central to a wide range of cellular responses. IP(3)Rs in Caenorhabditis elegans are encoded by a single gene, itr-1, and are widely expressed. Signaling through IP(3) and IP(3)Rs is important in ovulation, control of the defecation cycle, modulation of pharyngeal pumping rate, and embryogenesis. To further elucidate the molecular basis of the diversity of IP(3)R function, we used a yeast two-hybrid screen to search for proteins that interact with ITR-1...
July 2004: Molecular Biology of the Cell
H A Baylis, T Furuichi, F Yoshikawa, K Mikoshiba, D B Sattelle
Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) activates receptors (InsP3Rs) that mediate intracellular Ca(2+ )release, thereby modulating intracellular calcium signals and regulating important aspects of cellular physiology and gene expression. To further our understanding of InsP3Rs we have characterised InsP3Rs and the InsP3R gene, itr-1, from the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. cDNAs encoding InsP3Rs were cloned enabling us to: (a) identify three putative transcription start sites that result in alternative mRNA 5' ends: (b) detect alternative splicing at three sites and: (c) determine the full genomic organisation of the itr-1 gene...
November 26, 1999: Journal of Molecular Biology
E B Maryon, B Saari, P Anderson
Ryanodine receptor channels regulate contraction of striated muscle by gating the release of calcium ions from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Ryanodine receptors are expressed in excitable and non-excitable cells of numerous species, including the nematode C. elegans. Unlike vertebrates, which have at least three ryanodine receptor genes, C. elegans has a single gene encoded by the unc-68 locus. We show that unc-68 is expressed in most muscle cells, and that the phenotypic defects exhibited by unc-68 null mutants result from the loss of unc-68 function in pharyngeal and body-wall muscle cells...
October 1998: Journal of Cell Science
M A Hashim, G T Bolger, D Bieger
The ability of the dihydropyridine calcium channel activators, (-)-S-BAY K 8644 and (+)-S-202-791 and the calcium channel inhibitor, (+)-R-BAY K 8644, to modify the differential deglutitive actions of glutamate and muscarine at premotor loci in the nucleus tractus solitarii was investigated in urethane-anaesthetised rats. At subnuclei ventralis and intermedialis loci, pneumophoretic application (20-100 pl) from multibarrelled glass micropipettes (tip diameter 2-5 microns) of glutamate (10-20 pmol) evoked aminophosphonovaleric acid (APV)-insensitive pharyngeal swallows; at sites in the subnucleus centralis of the nucleus tractus solitarii glutamate evoked an APV-sensitive single-wave oesophageal response, whereas muscarine (5-10 pmol) evoked rhythmic oesophageal contractions...
September 1989: Neuropharmacology
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