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Nk cell activation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103115/involvement-of-autophagy-in-nk-cell-development-and-function
#1
Alejandro López-Soto, José Manuel Bravo-San Pedro, Guido Kroemer, Lorenzo Galluzzi, Segundo Gonzalez
Natural killer (NK) cells are the prototypical members of the recently identified family of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). Thanks to their cytotoxic and secretory functions, NK cells play a key role in the immune response to cells experiencing various forms of stress, including viral infection and malignant transformation. Autophagy is a highly conserved network of degradative pathways that participate in the maintenance of cellular and organismal homeostasis as they promote adaptation to adverse microenvironmental conditions...
January 19, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100849/the-role-genes-encoding-of-killer-cell-immunoglobulin-like-receptors-kirs-and-their-ligands-in-susceptibility-to-and-progression-of-hiv-infection
#2
Olga Błachowicz, Katarzyna Zwolińska
NK cells are a part of the innate antiviral response. Their activity is regulated by signals from the surface receptors. Some of them, known as killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs), determine the quality and intensity of the immunological response, together with their ligands (HLA class I). KIR genes are very polymorphic, and this is reflected in the NK activity modulation. The stimulation of NK cells, especially in the early stages of the infection, can reduce the transmission of HIV or slow down the progression of infection...
December 31, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100681/lfa-1-activation-in-nk-cells-and-their-subsets-influence-of-receptors-maturation-and-cytokine-stimulation
#3
Doris Urlaub, Kristine Höfer, Martha-Lena Müller, Carsten Watzl
The integrin LFA-1 is essential for efficient activation and for cytotoxicity of NK cells because it initiates the assembly of the immunological synapse and mediates firm adhesion to the target. LFA-1 is also needed to polarize the cytotoxic machinery of the NK cell toward the target cell. The binding affinity and avidity of integrins can be regulated via inside-out signals from other receptors. In this article, we investigate the signals necessary to activate LFA-1 in human NK cells. Our data show that LFA-1 has a low ligand-binding activity in resting human NK cells, but it can be stimulated by triggering activating receptors, such as 2B4 or CD16, or by coactivation of different receptor combinations...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099502/clinical-and-immune-effects-of-lenalidomide-in-combination-with-gemcitabine-in-patients-with-advanced-pancreatic-cancer
#4
Gustav J Ullenhag, Fariba Mozaffari, Mats Broberg, Håkan Mellstedt, Maria Liljefors
PURPOSE: To assess the immunomodulatory and clinical effects of lenalidomide with standard treatment of gemcitabine in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with advanced pancreatic cancer were treated in first line with lenalidomide orally for 21 days of a 28 days cycle and the standard regimen for gemcitabine. In Part I, which we previously have reported, the dose of lenalidomide was defined (n = 12). In Part II, every other consecutive patient was treated with either lenalidomide (Group A, n = 11) or gemcitabine (Group B, n = 10) during cycle 1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098874/mica-il-12-a-novel-bifunctional-protein-for-killer-cell-activation
#5
Ashlee Tietje, Xi Yang, Xianzhong Yu, Yanzhang Wei
Natural killer (NK) cells have the potential to be effective killers of tumor cells. They are governed by inhibitory and activating receptors such as NKG2D, whose ligands are normally upregulated in cells that are stressed, like cancer cells. Advanced cancer cells, however, have ways to reduce the expression of these ligands, leaving them less detectable by NK cells. Along with these receptors, NK cells also require activating cytokines, such as IL-12. A previous study in our laboratory showed that a fusion protein of the extracellular domain of mouse UL-16 binding protein-like transcript 1 (MULT1E) and mouse interleukin 12 (IL-12) can effectively activate mouse NK cells by in vitro assays and in vivo in animal tumor models...
January 16, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093337/nk-cell-phenotypic-and-functional-shifts-coincide-with-specific-clinical-phases-in-the-natural-history-of-chronic-hbv-infection
#6
Rik A de Groen, Jun Hou, Gertine W van Oord, Zwier M A Groothuismink, Marieke van der Heide, Robert J de Knegt, André Boonstra
BACKGROUND: Chronic HBV infection can be divided into 4 distinct clinical phases: immune tolerant, immune active, inactive carrier, and HBeAg-negative hepatitis. Using a systems biology approach, we recently identified innate immune response components, specifically NK cells as a distinctive factor of specific HBV clinical phases. To expand on this study and identify the underlying immunological mechanisms, we performed a comprehensive profiling of NK cells in chronic HBV infection. METHODS: Peripheral blood from untreated chronic HBV patients was used to analyze phenotypic markers, as well as cytokine production and cytoxicity of NK cells...
January 13, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092804/enhancement-of-nk-cell-mediated-lysis-of-non-small-lung-cancer-cells-by-npkc-activator-ingenol-3-20-dibenzoate
#7
Chenyuan Gong, Chao Yao, Zihang Xu, Zhongya Ni, Xiaowen Zhu, Lixin Wang, Xuewei Yan, Wuxiong Zhou, Shiguo Zhu
The IFN-γ production is crucial for NK cell-mediated lysis of cancer cells. Thus increasing the IFN-γ production by NK cells may be an ideal strategy to improve their tumoricidal effect. Since the focus on new drug development has shifted towards natural products, limited information is out there about natural products that enhance the IFN-γ production by NK cells. In this study, through a high-throughput screening, we have identified a natural product ingenol 3,20 dibenzoate (IDB), an activator of tumor suppressor protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes, could increase the IFN-γ production and degranulation by NK cells, especially when NK cells were stimulated by non-small lung cancer (NSCLC) cells...
January 13, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090796/impact-of-c-rel-inhibition-of-cord-blood-derived-b-t-and-nk-cells
#8
Shirin Fallahi, Seyede Momeneh Mohammadi, Hamid Tayefi Nasrabadi, Alireza Alihemmati, Naser Samadi, Sanaz Gholami, Dariush Shanehbandi, Hojjatollah Nozad Charoudeh
The c-Rel transcription factor is a unique member of the nuclear factor (NF)-κB family that has a role in curtailing the proliferation, differentiation, cytokine production, and overall activity of B- and T-cells. In addition, c-Rel is a key regulator of apoptosis in that it influences the expression of anti-apoptotic genes such as Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL; conversely, inhibition of c-Rel increases cell apoptosis. To better understand the relationship between c-Rel expression and effects on B- and T-cell expansion, the current study evaluated c-Rel expression in cord blood mononuclear cells...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Immunotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090599/mas-related-g-protein-coupled-receptor-x2-a-potential-new-target-for-modulating-mast-cell-mediated-allergic-and-inflammatory-diseases
#9
Hydar Ali
Mast cells (MCs) are tissue resident immune cells that are best known for their roles in allergic and inflammatory diseases. In addition to the high affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI), MCs express numerous G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), which are the most common targets of drug therapy. Neurokinin 1 receptor (NK-1R) is expressed on MCs and contributes to IgE and non-IgE-mediated responses in mice. Although NK-1R antagonists are highly effective in modulating experimental allergic and inflammatory responses in mice they lack efficacy in humans...
December 2016: Journal of Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089340/activation-of-nk-cell-cytotoxicity-by-aerosolized-cpg-odn-poly-i-c-against-lung-melanoma-metastases-is-mediated-by-alveolar-macrophages
#10
Michele Sommariva, Valentino Le Noci, Chiara Storti, Francesca Bianchi, Elda Tagliabue, Andrea Balsari, Lucia Sfondrini
Controversies remain about NK cells direct responsiveness to Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists or dependence on macrophages. In a melanoma lung metastasis model, aerosolized TLR9 and TLR3 agonists have been reported to induce antitumor immunity through NK cells activation. In the current study, we demonstrated that in vitro TLR9/TLR3 stimulation induced IFN-γ secretion by NK cells, but an increase in their cytotoxicity was detected only after NK cells co-culture with in vitro TLR9/TLR3 agonists pretreated alveolar macrophages...
January 5, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089218/nkg2d-signaling-the-immune-subversive-side-of-hdac3
#11
Alicia R Folgueras, Segundo Gonzalez, Alejandro López-Soto
Natural killer (NK) cells are alerted to infected and transformed cells by local upregulation of ligands for the NK-activating receptor NKG2D. In a recent report, Greene et al. unveil a new mechanism that induces the expression of the NKG2D ligand retinoic acid early-inducible (RAE-1) in response to murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection through inhibition of casein kinase 2 (CK2), an activator of the repressor histone deacetylase HDAC3.
January 11, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088355/kir-genes-and-hla-class-i-ligands-in-a-caucasian-brazilian-population-with-colorectal-cancer
#12
Pâmela Portela, Joice Merzoni, Juliana D Lindenau, Daniel C Damin, Timothy John Wilson, Rafael Roesler, Gilberto Schwartsmann, Luiz Mariana Fernando Jobim Jobim
Colorectal cancer (CRC) can occur anywhere in the colon or rectum and represents the third most common cancer in the world in both sexes. Natural killer cells (NK) are part of the innate immune system recognizing class I HLA molecules on target cells through their membrane receptors, called killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR). The aim of our study was to evaluate the association between the KIR genes and HLA ligands in patients with colorectal cancer and healthy controls. We examined the polymorphism of 16 KIR genes and their HLA ligands in 154 caucasoid CRC patients and 216 controls...
January 11, 2017: Human Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087665/nkg2d-promotes-b1a-cell-development-and-protection-against-bacterial-infection
#13
Maja Lenartić, Vedrana Jelenčić, Biljana Zafirova, Mateja Ožanič, Valentina Marečić, Slaven Jurković, Veronika Sexl, Marina Šantić, Felix M Wensveen, Bojan Polić
NKG2D is a potent activating receptor that is expressed on cytotoxic immune cells such as CD8 T and NK cells, where it promotes cytotoxicity after binding stress ligands on infected or transformed cells. On NK cell precursors NKG2D modulates proliferation and maturation. Previously, we observed that NKG2D deficiency affects peripheral B cell numbers. In this study, we show that NKG2D regulates B1a cell development and function. We find that mice deficient for NKG2D have a strong reduction of B1a cell numbers...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087292/loss-of-cd28-within-cd4-t-cell-subsets-from-cervical-cancer-patients-is-accompanied-by-the-acquisition-of-intracellular-perforin-and-is-further-enhanced-by-nkg2d-expression
#14
Marta Escarra-Senmarti, Miriam Ruth Bueno-Topete, Luis Felipe Jave-Suarez, Eduardo Gomez-Bañuelos, Jorge Gutierrez-Franco, Natali Vega-Magaña, Adriana Aguilar-Lemarroy, Ana Laura Pereira-Suarez, Jesse Haramati, Susana Del Toro-Arreola
CD28 is well characterized as an essential co-stimulatory receptor critical for activation, proliferation and survival processes in CD4(+) T cells. Populations of CD4(+)CD28(null) T cells, with apparently contradictory physiological roles, have recently been reported, along with the co-expression of the NK activating receptor NKG2D, in autoimmune diseases and chronic viral inflammation. Paradoxically, studies in cancer suggest that an expanded CD4(+)NKG2D(+) population may be armed with immunosuppressive properties...
January 10, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087106/charge-variant-analysis-of-proposed-biosimilar-to-trastuzumab
#15
Pravinkumar Dakshinamurthy, Pavithra Mukunda, Bhargav Prasad Kodaganti, Bharath Ravindra Shenoy, Bairavabalakumar Natarajan, Amol Maliwalave, Vivek Halan, Sathyabalan Murugesan, Sunit Maity
Trastuzumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody (mAb) employed for the treatment of HER2 Positive Breast Cancer. A HER2 overexpressing tumor cell binds to Trastuzumab and attracts immune cells which lead to induction of Antibody Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity (ADCC) by binding to Fc receptors (CD16a or FcγRIIIa) on an effector cell, such as natural killer (NK) cells. The most commonly expressed receptor on NK cell is CD16a which binds to the Fc portion of Trastuzumab. The ligand-independent HER2-HER3 dimerization is the most potent stimulator of downstream pathways for regulation of cell growth and survival...
January 10, 2017: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086772/scutellaria-barbata-d-don-extract-inhibits-the-tumor-growth-through-down-regulating-of-treg-cells-and-manipulating-th1-th17-immune-response-in-hepatoma-h22-bearing-mice
#16
Xuefeng Kan, Wanli Zhang, Ruxu You, Yanfeng Niu, Jianrong Guo, Jun Xue
BACKGROUND: Previous studies showed Scutellaria barbata D. Don extract (SBE) is a potent inhibitor in hepatoma and could improve immune function of hepatoma H22-bearing mice. However, the immunomodulatory function of SBE on the tumor growth of hepatoma remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the anti-tumor effects of SBE on hepatoma H22-bearing mice and explore the underlying immunomodulatory function. METHODS: The hepatoma H22-bearing mice were treated by SBE for 30 days...
January 13, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078578/cd95-stimulation-with-cd95l-and-disc-analysis
#17
Matthieu Le Gallo, Patrick Legembre
CD95 and its ligand CD95L play a major role in immune surveillance and homeostasis. CD95L is expressed by activated T lymphocytes and NK cells to induce apoptosis in cancer and virus-infected cells. The goal of this chapter is to describe a method used to immunoprecipitate CD95 and analyze its associated protein complex in cells stimulated with a cytotoxic CD95L (i.e., Ig-CD95L).
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076903/slamf7-engagement-restores-defective-effector-cd8-t-cells-activity-in-response-to-foreign-antigens-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#18
Denis Comte, Maria P Karampetsou, Nobuya Yoshida, Katalin Kis-Toth, Vasileios C Kyttaris, George C Tsokos
OBJECTIVE: Effector CD8+ T cell function is impaired in SLE and associated with compromised ability to fight infections. SLAMF7 engagement has been shown to enhance NK cell degranulation. Thus, we characterized the expression and function of SLAMF7 on CD8+ T cells subsets isolated from peripheral blood of SLE patients and healthy subjects. METHODS: CD8+ T cell subset distribution, SLAMF7 expression and cytolytic enzyme expression (perforin, GzmA, GzmB) were monitored on cells isolated from SLE patients and healthy controls by flow cytometry...
January 11, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076614/association-between-asthma-and-female-sex-hormones
#19
Raquel Prudente de Carvalho Baldaçara, Ivaldo Silva
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The relationship between sex hormones and asthma has been evaluated in several studies. The aim of this review article was to investigate the association between asthma and female sex hormones, under different conditions (premenstrual asthma, use of oral contraceptives, menopause, hormone replacement therapy and pregnancy). DESIGN AND SETTING: Narrative review of the medical literature, Universidade Federal do Tocantins (UFT) and Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp)...
January 5, 2017: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076376/increased-natural-killer-cell-activation-in-hiv-infected-immunologic-non-responders-correlates-with-cd4-t-cell-recovery-after-antiretroviral-therapy-and-viral-suppression
#20
Zhenwu Luo, Zhen Li, Lisa Martin, Zhiliang Hu, Hao Wu, Zhuang Wan, Michael Kilby, Sonya L Heath, Lei Huang, Wei Jiang
The role of natural killer (NK) cell function in HIV disease especially in the setting of long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART) and viral suppression is not fully understood. In the current study, we have investigated NK cell activation in healthy controls and aviremic ART-treated HIV+ subjects with different degrees of immune restoration. We performed a cross sectional study in 12 healthy controls and 24 aviremic ART-treated HIV-infected subjects including 13 HIV+ subjects with CD4+ T cells above 500 cells/μL defined as "immunologic responders" and 11 HIV+ subjects with CD4+ T cells below 350 cells/μL defined as "immunologic non-responders"...
2017: PloS One
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