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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333899/-stem-progenitor-cells-in-diseases-of-the-respiratory-tract
#1
EDITORIAL
Tadeusz Płusa
Stem cells (SCs - stem cells) are characterized by plasticity and the ability to differentiate into other cell types. They are obtained from bone marrow, peripheral blood and cord blood. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) shows a broad immunomodulating, increases the number of regulatory T cells (Treg), modifies the activity of T cells, dendritic cells and NK (natural killer). Direct impact on reducing the release of proinflammatory cytokines and increased release of proinflammatory cytokines. Within the respiratory tract has a number of resident stem and progenitor cells referred to as L-MSCs (lung mesenchymal stem cells) whose presence was confirmed by markers as defined in the trachea, epithelial cells and alveolar...
March 21, 2017: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332637/evaluation-of-the-immunomodulatory-activity-of-the-chicken-nk-lysin-derived-peptide-cnk-2
#2
Woo H Kim, Hyun S Lillehoj, Wongi Min
Chicken NK-lysin (cNK-lysin), the chicken homologue of human granulysin, is a cationic amphiphilic antimicrobial peptide (AMP) that is produced by cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells. We previously demonstrated that cNK-lysin and cNK-2, a synthetic peptide incorporating the core α-helical region of cNK-lysin, have antimicrobial activity against apicomplexan parasites such as Eimeria spp., via membrane disruption. In addition to the antimicrobial activity of AMPs, the immunomodulatory activity of AMPs mediated by their interactions with host cells is increasingly recognized...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331190/natural-killer-cell-activation-contributes-to-hepatitis-b-viral-control-in-a-mouse-model
#3
Shiwen Tong, Guangze Liu, Minghong Li, Xiumei Li, Qian Liu, Hong Peng, Shiying Li, Hong Ren, Wenwei Yin
The roles of CD4 + T cells and CD8 + T cells in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection have been well documented. However, the role of innate immunity in HBV infection remains obscure. Here we examined the effect of activation of innate immunity by polyinosinic: polycytidylic acid (PolyI:C) on HBV infection. A chronic HBV replication mouse model was established by hydrodynamical injection of pAAV/HBV1.2 plasmid into C57BL/6 mice. We found that HBV did not seem to induce an active NK-cell response in the mouse model...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329286/short-course-tlr9-agonist-treatment-impacts-innate-immunity-and-plasma-viremia-in-individuals-with-hiv-infection
#4
Line Vibholm, Mariane H Schleimann, Jesper F Højen, Thomas Benfield, Rasmus Offersen, Katrine Rasmussen, Rikke Olesen, Anders Dige, Jørgen Agnholt, Judith Grau, Maria Buzon, Burghardt Wittig, Mathias Lichterfeld, Andreas Munk Petersen, Xutao Deng, Mohammed Abdel-Mohsen, Satish K Pillai, Sofie Rutsaert, Wim Trypsteen, Ward De Spiegelaere, Linos Vandekerchove, Lars Østergaard, Thomas A Rasmussen, Paul W Denton, Martin Tolstrup, Ole S Søgaard
Background: Treatment with latency reversing agents (LRA) enhances HIV-1 transcription in vivo but only leads to modest reductions in the size of the reservoir, possibly due to insufficient immune-mediated elimination of infected cells. We hypothesized that a single drug molecule - a novel toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) agonist, MGN1703 - could function as an enhancer of innate immunity and an LRA in vivo. Methods: We conducted a single-arm, open-label study, where 15 virologically suppressed HIV-1 infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy received 60 mg MGN1703 s...
March 9, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328926/frequency-and-role-of-nkp46-and-nkg2a-in-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#5
Teppei Yoshioka, Tomohide Tatsumi, Takuya Miyagi, Kaori Mukai, Kumiko Nishio, Akira Nishio, Yoshinobu Yokoyama, Takahiro Suda, Tadashi Kegasawa, Minoru Shigekawa, Hayato Hikita, Ryotaro Sakamori, Tetsuo Takehara
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Natural Killer (NK) cells are involved in the control of viral infection. However, the role of NK cells in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) remains unclear. This study investigated the frequencies and roles of NK cells in CHB, with a focus on activating receptor NKp46 and inhibitory receptor NKG2A. PATIENTS/METHOD: Peripheral blood lymphocytes were obtained from 71 CHB patients and 37 healthy subjects (HS). The expressions of NKp46 and NKG2A were analyzed using flow cytometry...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328614/a-newborn-with-familial-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-complicated-with-transfusion-associated-graft-versus-host-disease
#6
Ahmet Ozdemir, Tamer Gunes, Samuel C C Chiang, Ekrem Unal
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is characterized by activation of cytotoxic T and natural killer (NK) cells, and macrophages related to a spectrum of hyperinflammatory disorders. The clinical findings mainly include high fever, cytopenia, splenomegaly, phagocytosis, and proliferation of histiocytes in lymphoreticular tissue. To the best of our knowledge, transfusion-associated graft versus host disease (TA-GVHD) in a 13-day old male newborn with HLH is being reported first time in the literature. The aim of this report was to emphasize the importance of blood products irradiation in the prevention of the development of graft versus host disease especially among high-risk subjects such as newborns with HLH...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328098/plasma-exchange-successfully-treated-macrophage-activation-syndrome-in-rheumatoid-factor-positive-polyarticular-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis-with-combined-pneumonia
#7
Lianjie Shi, Fanlei Hu, Chuanhui Xu, Huaqun Zhu, Di Qie, Chuanjie Yuan, Yuhong Tao, Hanmin Liu
Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is one of the serious complications associated with rheumatic diseases, especially systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA). Here we describe a 9-year-old girl with rheumatoid factor (RF)-positive polyarticular JIA, not sJIA, combined with pneumonia who was successfully treated by plasma exchange. She was diagnosed with RF-positive polyarticular JIA based on positive RF and multiple joint swelling and tenderness 3 years ago. She was admitted in our hospital with myalgia for 2 days and a high fever for half a day...
March 22, 2017: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326171/large-scale-isolation-and-cytotoxicity-of-extracellular-vesicles-derived-from-activated-human-natural-killer-cells
#8
Ambrose Y Jong, Chun-Hua Wu, Jingbo Li, Jianping Sun, Muller Fabbri, Alan S Wayne, Robert C Seeger
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been the focus of great interest, as they appear to be involved in numerous important cellular processes. They deliver bioactive macromolecules such as proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, allowing intercellular communication in multicellular organisms. EVs are secreted by all cell types, including immune cells such as natural killer cells (NK), and they may play important roles in the immune system. Currently, a large-scale procedure to obtain functional NK EVs is lacking, limiting their use clinically...
2017: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326081/the-smac-mimetic-bv6-improves-nk-cell-mediated-killing-of-rhabdomyosarcoma-cells-by-simultaneously-targeting-tumor-and-effector-cells
#9
Kyra Fischer, Sara Tognarelli, Stefanie Roesler, Cathinka Boedicker, Ralf Schubert, Alexander Steinle, Thomas Klingebiel, Peter Bader, Simone Fulda, Evelyn Ullrich
Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), the most common cancer of connective tissues in pediatrics, is often resistant to conventional therapies. One underlying mechanism of this resistance is the overexpression of Inhibitor of Apoptosis (IAP) proteins, leading to a dysfunctional cell death program within tumor cells. Smac mimetics (SM) are small molecules that can reactivate the cell death program by antagonizing IAP proteins and thereby compensating their overexpression. Here, we report that SM sensitize two RMS cell lines (RD and RH30) toward natural killer (NK) cell-mediated killing on the one hand, and increase the cytotoxic potential of NK cells on the other...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323187/activation-of-cytotoxic-natural-killer-cells-after-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-haemorrhage
#10
Daniel Spitzer, Nina Johanna Spitzer, Monika Deininger, Christian Rainer Wirtz, Ralph König, Timo Burster, Thomas Kapapa
OBJECTIVE: Cell-mediated inflammation is critical in development of cerebrovascular complications after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH). We analysed the course for activated CD16(bright)CD56(dim) cytotoxic NKCSF cells (NK) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 15 patients. METHODS: Patients were classified by occurrence of cerebral vasospasm and delayed cerebral ischemia. NK were monitored by flow cytometry between day 1 and 14 after haemorrhage. RESULTS: 12 (80%) patients developed CV with a mean day of detection at 3...
March 16, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322797/transcriptional-activation-of-the-mica-gene-with-an-engineered-crispr-cas9-system
#11
Kazuma Sekiba, Mari Yamagami, Motoyuki Otsuka, Tatsunori Suzuki, Takahiro Kishikawa, Rei Ishibashi, Motoko Ohno, Masaya Sato, Kazuhiko Koike
Major histocompatibility complex class I polypeptide-related sequence A (MICA) is a prototypical NKG2D ligand. Because immune cells, such as natural killer (NK) cells, recognize virally infected or transformed cells and eliminate them through the interaction between NKG2D receptors on NK cells and NKG2D ligands on pathogenic cells, MICA expression levels are associated with NK cell-mediated immunity. Here, we report that an engineered clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-Cas9-related complex targeting MICA gene promoter sequences activates transcription of the MICA gene from its endogenous locus...
March 18, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321815/immune-therapy-for-sarcomas
#12
Peter M Anderson
Absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) recovery rapidly occurring at 14 days after start of chemotherapy for osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma is a good prognostic factor. Conversely, lymphopenia is associated with significantly decreased sarcoma survival. Clearly, the immune system can contribute towards better survival from sarcoma. This chapter will describe treatment and host factors that influence immune function and how effective local control and systemic interventions of sarcoma therapy can cause inflammation and/or immune suppression but are currently the standard of care...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321811/interleukin-2-old-and-new-approaches-to-enhance-immune-therapeutic-efficacy
#13
Pooja Dhupkar, Nancy Gordon
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a very well-known cytokine that has been studied for the past 35 years. It plays a major role in the growth and proliferation of many immune cells such NK and T cells. It is an important immunotherapy cytokine for the treatment of various diseases including cancer. Systemic delivery of IL-2 has shown clinical benefit in renal cell carcinoma and melanoma patients. However, its use has been limited by the numerous toxicities encountered with the systemic delivery. Intravenous IL-2 causes the well-known "capillary leak syndrome," or the leakage of fluid from the circulatory system to the interstitial space resulting in hypotension (low blood pressure), edema, and dyspnea that can lead to circulatory shock and eventually cardiopulmonary collapse and multiple organ failure...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318408/bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-attenuate-immune-mediated-liver-injury-and-compromise-virus-control-during-acute-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-mice
#14
Mengmeng Qu, Xu Yuan, Dan Liu, Yuhong Ma, Jun Zhu, Jun Cui, Mengxue Yu, Changyong Li, Deyin Guo
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been used as therapeutic tools not only for their ability to differentiate toward different cells, but also for their unique immunomodulatory properties. However, it is still unknown how MSCs may affect immunity during hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. This study was designed to explore the effect of bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) on hepatic natural killer (NK) cells in a mouse model of acute HBV infection. Mice were injected with 1 × 10(6) BM-MSCs, which stained with chloromethyl derivatives of fluorescein diacetate fluorescent probe, 24 h before hydrodynamic injection of viral DNA (pHBV1...
February 2, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317093/non-neutralizing-epitopes-induce-robust-hcv-specific-antibody-dependent-cd56-nk-cell-responses-in-chronic-hcv-infected-patients
#15
Lu Long, Manxue Jia, Xueying Fan, Hua Liang, Jiahua Wang, Liyan Zhu, Zhe Xie, Tao Shen
NK cell-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (NK-ADCC) is of considerable interest in viral infection. However, little is known about NK-ADCC responses in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. In this study, impaired nonspecific antibody-dependent CD56(+) NK cell responses were observed in chronic HCV infection, as shown by decreased degranulation (extracellular CD107a expression) and IFN-γ production in response to antibody-bound P815 cells. A peptide pool composed of epitopes recognized by anti-HCV-E1/E2 antibodies could induce pronounced HCV-specific antibody-dependent NK cell responses in sera from approximately half of the chronic HCV carriers...
March 20, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314594/brain-ischemia-suppresses-immunity-in-the-periphery-and-brain-via-different-neurogenic-innervations
#16
Qiang Liu, Wei-Na Jin, Yaou Liu, Kaibin Shi, Haoran Sun, Fang Zhang, Chao Zhang, Rayna J Gonzales, Kevin N Sheth, Antonio La Cava, Fu-Dong Shi
Brain ischemia inhibits immune function systemically, with resulting infectious complications. Whether in stroke different immune alterations occur in brain and periphery and whether analogous mechanisms operate in these compartments remains unclear. Here we show that in patients with ischemic stroke and in mice subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion, natural killer (NK) cells display remarkably distinct temporal and transcriptome profiles in the brain as compared to the periphery. The activation of catecholaminergic and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis leads to splenic atrophy and contraction of NK cell numbers in the periphery through a modulated expression of SOCS3, whereas cholinergic innervation-mediated suppression of NK cell responses in the brain involves RUNX3...
March 21, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314212/gene-delivery-of-tipe2-inhibits-breast-cancer-development-and-metastasis-via-cd8-t-and-nk-cell-mediated-antitumor-responses
#17
Zhenhua Zhang, Li Liu, Shousong Cao, Yizhun Zhu, Qibing Mei
Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the female patients which was mainly caused by metastasis. Development of target gene therapy for breast cancer to suppress tumor progress and metastasis will improve the therapeutic options and be of great benefit to the patients. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced protein 8-like 2 is a novel molecule for maintaining immune homeostasis and is involved in cancer development. In the present study, we overexpressed TIPE2 in breast cancer cells to investigate the role of TIPE2 in the development of breast cancer...
March 14, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303368/tramadol-differentially-regulates-m1-and-m2-macrophages-from-human-umbilical-cord-blood
#18
Jun Zhang, Liang Chen, Yunyun Sun, Yuanhai Li
Tramadol is an analgesic drug and relieves pain through activating μ-opioid receptors and inhibiting serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake. Emerging evidence shows that it also stimulates immune cells, including NK cells, splenocytes, and lymphocytes, and elevates IL-2 production. However, it remains unknown whether and how tramadol directly affects macrophages. To answer these questions, we collected human umbilical cord blood, isolated macrophages, and examined their responses to tramadol. Although tramadol did not alter resting macrophages and the antigen-presenting function in lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages, it regulated M1 and M2 macrophages, which are, respectively, transformed by IFN-γ and IL-4...
March 17, 2017: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296255/breg-dependent-islet-transplant-tolerance-is-also-nk-cell-dependent
#19
Christian Schuetz, Kang Mi Lee, Ryan Scott, Lisa Kojima, Laura Washburn, Liye Liu, Wei-Hui Liu, Haley Tector, Ji Lei, Heidi Yeh, James Kim, James F Markmann
Immunologic tolerance to solid organ and islet cell grafts has been achieved in various rodent models using antibodies directed at CD45RB and Tim-1. We have shown that this form of tolerance depends on regulatory B-cells. To elucidate further the mechanism by which Bregs induce tolerance we investigated the requirement of NK and NKT cells in this model. To do so, hyperglycemic B6, μMT, Beige or CD1d(-/-) mice received Balb/c islet grafts and treatment with the tolerance inducing regimen consisting of anti-CD45RB and anti -TIM1...
March 10, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295463/immune-phenotype-and-function-of-nk-and-t-cells-in-chronic-hepatitis-c-patients-who-received-a-single-dose-of-anti-mir-122-rg-101
#20
Femke Stelma, Meike H van der Ree, Marjan J Sinnige, Anthony Brown, Leo Swadling, J Marleen L de Vree, Sophie B Willemse, Marc van der Valk, Paul Grint, Steven Neben, Paul Klenerman, Eleanor Barnes, Neeltje A Kootstra, Hendrik W Reesink
MicroRNA-122 (miR-122) is an important host factor for the hepatitis C (HCV) virus. Treatment with RG-101, a GalNAc conjugated anti-miR-122 oligonucleotide, resulted in a significant viral load reduction in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) infection. Here, we analyzed the effects of RG-101 therapy on antiviral immunity. 32 CHC patients HCV genotype 1, 3 and 4 received a single subcutaneous administration with RG-101 at 2 mg/kg (n=14), 4 mg/kg (n=14) or placebo (n=2 per dosing group). Plasma and PBMCs were collected at multiple time points and comprehensive immunological analyses were performed...
March 11, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
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