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Martina M De Santis, Deniz A Bölükbas, Sandra Lindstedt, Darcy E Wagner
Chronic respiratory diseases remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The only option at end-stage disease is lung transplantation, but there are not enough donor lungs to meet clinical demand. Alternative options to increase tissue availability for lung transplantation are urgently required to close the gap on this unmet clinical need. A growing number of tissue engineering approaches are exploring the potential to generate lung tissue ex vivo for transplantation. Both biologically derived and manufactured scaffolds seeded with cells and grown ex vivo have been explored in pre-clinical studies, with the eventual goal of generating functional pulmonary tissue for transplantation...
June 14, 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Nor Hazla Mohamed Haflah, Min Hwei Ng, Mohd Heikal Mohd Yunus, Amaramalar Selvi Naicker, Ohnmar Htwe, Kamarul Arifin Abdul Razak, Ruszymah Idrus
CASE: A 22-year-old man sustained a laceration that measured 180 cm, after debridement, over the anterolateral aspect of the right leg following a road traffic accident. The wound was treated with MyDerm (Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia), a cell-based, bilayered, bioengineered dermal substitute that contains no animal-derived components and is fully autologous. For its construction, only a small area of skin was harvested from the left groin, which was closed primarily with absorbable sutures...
June 13, 2018: JBJS Case Connector
Qian-Yu Zhang, Pui Yan Ho, Mei-Juan Tu, Joseph L Jilek, Qiu-Xia Chen, Su Zeng, Ai-Ming Yu
Recently we have established a novel approach to produce bioengineered noncoding RNA agents (BERAs) in living cells that carry target RNAi molecules (e.g., siRNA and miRNA) and thus act as "prodrugs". Using GFP-siRNA-loaded BERA (BERA/GFP-siRNA) as a model molecule, this study was to define the in vitro and in vivo knockdown efficiency of BERAs delivered by liposome-polyethylenimine nanocomplex (lipopolyplex or LPP). Compared to in vivo-jetPEI® (IVJ-PEI) and polyplex formulations, LPP offered greater protection of BERA/GFP-siRNA against degradation by serum RNases...
June 9, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Natalia Perez-Moral, Jean-Michel Plankeele, Claire Domoney, Frederick J Warren
Starch has a complex molecular structure, with properties dependent on the relative chain lengths and branching structure of its constituent molecules, which varies due to polymorphisms in starch biosynthetic genes, as well as environmental factors. Here we present the application of ultra-high performance size exclusion chromatography to the separation of starch chains from plant seeds. Several methods, have been used to analyse chain length distributions in starch, all with limitations in terms of analysis time, sample preparation and molecular weight range...
September 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Vincenzo Cavalieri, Elena Baiamonte, Melania Lo Iacono
Lentiviruses have a number of molecular features in common, starting with the ability to integrate their genetic material into the genome of non-dividing infected cells. A peculiar property of non-primate lentiviruses consists in their incapability to infect and induce diseases in humans, thus providing the main rationale for deriving biologically safe lentiviral vectors for gene therapy applications. In this review, we first give an overview of non-primate lentiviruses, highlighting their common and distinctive molecular characteristics together with key concepts in the molecular biology of lentiviruses...
June 9, 2018: Viruses
Michael S Hu, Mimi R Borrelli, H Peter Lorenz, Michael T Longaker, Derrick C Wan
Cutaneous wound repair is a highly coordinated cascade of cellular responses to injury which restores the epidermal integrity and its barrier functions. Even under optimal healing conditions, normal wound repair of adult human skin is imperfect and delayed healing and scarring are frequent occurrences. Dysregulated wound healing is a major concern for global healthcare, and, given the rise in diabetic and aging populations, this medicoeconomic disease burden will continue to rise. Therapies to reliably improve nonhealing wounds and reduce scarring are currently unavailable...
2018: Stem Cells International
Hanny Al-Samkari, Stacy E Croteau
Clinical coagulation assays are an integral part of diagnosing and managing patients with hemophilia; however, in this new era of bioengineered factor products and non-factor therapeutics, problems have arisen with use of traditional coagulation tests for the quantification of several of these new products. Discussion over the use of one-stage clotting assays versus chromogenic substrate assays for clinical decision making and potency labeling has been ongoing for many years. Emerging factor concentrates have heightened concern over assay selection and availability...
June 8, 2018: American Journal of Hematology
Makoto Takeo, Takashi Tsuji
In this decade, great progress has been made in the field of organ regeneration by incorporating emerging concepts from the fields of stem cell biology and developmental biology, and this progress has pioneered a new frontier in regenerative medicine. The generation of bioengineered organ germ-utilizing, fate-determined, organ-inductive epithelial and mesenchymal cells has provided evidence for the concept of functional organ regeneration in vivo. Organoid studies have verified that nearly all organs can be generated in the form of a mini-organ by recapitulating embryonic body patterning and establishing an organ-forming field among self-organizing pluripotent stem cells by utilizing cytokines that mimic the patterning and positional signals of organogenesis...
June 5, 2018: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
Joao Paulo Zambon, In Kap Ko, Mehran Abolbashari, Jennifer Huling, Cara Clouse, Tae Hyoung Kim, Charesa Smith, Anthony Atala, James J Yoo
Kidney transplantation is currently the only definitive solution for the treatment of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), however transplantation is severely limited by the shortage of available donor kidneys. Recent progress in whole organ engineering based on decellularization/recellularization techniques has enabled pre-clinical in vivo studies using small animal models; however, these in vivo studies have been limited to short-term assessments. We previously developed a decellularization system that effectively removes cellular components from porcine kidneys...
June 5, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Irina Etobayeva, Sara B Linden, Farhang Alem, Laith Harb, Lucas Rizkalla, Philip D Mosier, Allison A Johnson, Louise Temple, Ramin M Hakami, Daniel C Nelson
Three Bacillus bacteriophage-derived endolysins, designated PlyP56, PlyN74, and PlyTB40, were identified, cloned, purified, and characterized for their antimicrobial properties. Sequence alignment reveals these endolysins have an N-terminal enzymatically active domain (EAD) linked to a C-terminal cell wall binding domain (CBD). PlyP56 has a Peptidase_M15_4/VanY superfamily EAD with a conserved metal binding motif and displays biological dependence on divalent ions for activity. In contrast, PlyN74 and PlyTB40 have T7 lysozyme-type Amidase_2 and carboxypeptidase T-type Amidase_3 EADs, respectively, which are members of the MurNAc-LAA superfamily, but are not homologs and thus do not have a shared protein fold...
May 21, 2018: Viruses
Sumithra Y Srinivasan, Kishore M Paknikar, Dhananjay Bodas, Virendra Gajbhiye
Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are very attractive especially for biomedical applications, among which, iron oxide nanoparticles have received substantial attention in the past decade due to the elemental composition that makes them biocompatible and degradable. However recently, other magnetic nanomaterials such as spinel ferrites that can provide improved magnetic properties such as coercivity and anisotropy without compromising on inherent advantages of iron oxide nanoparticles are being researched for better applicability of MNPs...
June 8, 2018: Nanomedicine
Valery A Petrenko
The development of phage engineering technology has led to the construction of a novel type of phage display library-a collection of nanofiber materials with diverse molecular landscapes accommodated on the surface of phage particles. These new nanomaterials, called the "landscape phage", serve as a huge resource of diagnostic/detection probes and versatile construction materials for the preparation of phage-functionalized biosensors and phage-targeted nanomedicines. Landscape-phage-derived probes interact with biological threat agents and generate detectable signals as a part of robust and inexpensive molecular recognition interfaces introduced in mobile detection devices...
June 7, 2018: Viruses
Katharina Schimek, Hao-Hsiang Hsu, Moritz Boehme, Jacob Jan Kornet, Uwe Marx, Roland Lauster, Ralf Pörtner, Gerd Lindner
The human skin is involved in protecting the inner body from constant exposure to outer environmental stimuli. There is an evident need to screen for toxicity and the efficacy of drugs and cosmetics applied to the skin. To date, animal studies are still the standard method for substance testing, although they are currently controversially discussed Therefore, the multi-organ chip is an attractive alternative to replace animal testing. The two-organ chip is designed to hold 96-well cell culture inserts (CCIs)...
June 7, 2018: Bioengineering
George Kerry Rout, Han-Seung Shin, Sushanto Gouda, Sabuj Sahoo, Gitishree Das, Leonardo Fernandes Fraceto, Jayanta Kumar Patra
Nanodrug delivery systems sometimes referred to as nanocarriers (NCs) are nanoengineered biocompatible materials or devices, which in conjugation with desired bioactive compounds plays an indispensable functional role in the field of pharmaceutical and allied sciences. The diversified ability of this bioengineered colloidal or noncolloidal molecule to breach the biological barriers to reach the targeted location in the biological system uplifts its other versatile natures of mono- or polydispersity in biodistribution...
June 7, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
E E Smith, S Angstadt, N Monteiro, W Zhang, A Khademhosseini, P C Yelick
Tooth loss is a significant health issue currently affecting millions of people worldwide. Artificial dental implants, the current gold standard tooth replacement therapy, do not exhibit many properties of natural teeth and can be associated with complications leading to implant failure. Here we propose bioengineered tooth buds as a superior alternative tooth replacement therapy. We describe improved methods to create highly cellularized bioengineered tooth bud constructs that formed hallmark features that resemble natural tooth buds such as the dental epithelial stem cell niche, enamel knot signaling centers, transient amplifying cells, and mineralized dental tissue formation...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
M Strub, L Keller, Y Idoux-Gillet, H Lesot, F Clauss, N Benkirane-Jessel, S Kuchler-Bopp
Transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMDCs) into a denervated side of the spinal cord was reported to be a useful option for axonal regeneration. The innervation of teeth is essential for their function and protection but does not occur spontaneously after injury. Cultured reassociations between dissociated embryonic dental mesenchymal and epithelial cells and implantation lead to a vascularized tooth organ regeneration. However, when reassociations were coimplanted with a trigeminal ganglion (TG), innervation did not occur...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
S W Pipe
Recombinant DNA technology has led to accelerating introduction of novel therapeutics for the treatment of haemophilia. This technology has driven the development of recombinant clotting factors, extended half-life clotting factors, alternative biologics to promote haemostasis and enabled the launch of the gene therapy era for haemophilia. At the core of this technology is the ability to study the structure and function of the native molecules and to apply rational bioengineering to overcome limitations to the existing therapies...
May 2018: Haemophilia: the Official Journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia
Sam P de Visser
Nonheme iron dioxygenases catalyze vital reactions for human health particularly related to aging processes. They are involved in the biosynthesis of amino acids, but also the biodegradation of toxic compounds. Typically they react with their substrate(s) through oxygen atom transfer, although often with the assistance of a co-substrate like α-ketoglutarate that is converted to succinate and CO2 . Many reaction processes catalyzed by the nonheme iron dioxygenases are stereoselective or regiospecific and hence understanding the mechanism and protein involvement in the selectivity is important for the design of biotechnological applications of these enzymes...
June 7, 2018: Chemical Record: An Official Publication of the Chemical Society of Japan ... [et Al.]
A B M Sharif Hossain, Musamma M Uddin, Vajid N Veettil, Mohammad Fawzi
The nanocellulose derived biodegradable plant biomaterial as nano-coating can be used in the medical, biomedical cosmetics, and bioengineering products. Bio-plastic and some synthetic derived materials are edible and naturally biodegradable. The study was conducted to investigate edible nano-biopolymer based nano-coating of capsules and drugs or other definite biomedical materials from corn leaf biomass. Corn leaf biomass was used as an innovative sample to produce edible nano-coating bioplastic for drug and capsule coating and other industrial uses...
April 2018: Data in Brief
Evren Erten, Yavuz Emre Arslan
Thanks to novel approaches and emerging technologies, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have made a great effort to regenerate damaged tissue or organ with no donor needed. The approaches involve two fundamental components: bioengineered scaffolds and stem cells. Bioengineered scaffolds which can also be enriched with bioactive molecules such as cytokines, growth factors, and so on have been fabricated using a wide range of synthetically or naturally derived biodegradable and biocompatible polymers...
June 7, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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