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Bioengineering

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821762/multi-tissue-interactions-in-an-integrated-three-tissue-organ-on-a-chip-platform
#1
Aleksander Skardal, Sean V Murphy, Mahesh Devarasetty, Ivy Mead, Hyun-Wook Kang, Young-Joon Seol, Yu Shrike Zhang, Su-Ryon Shin, Liang Zhao, Julio Aleman, Adam R Hall, Thomas D Shupe, Andre Kleensang, Mehmet R Dokmeci, Sang Jin Lee, John D Jackson, James J Yoo, Thomas Hartung, Ali Khademhosseini, Shay Soker, Colin E Bishop, Anthony Atala
Many drugs have progressed through preclinical and clinical trials and have been available - for years in some cases - before being recalled by the FDA for unanticipated toxicity in humans. One reason for such poor translation from drug candidate to successful use is a lack of model systems that accurately recapitulate normal tissue function of human organs and their response to drug compounds. Moreover, tissues in the body do not exist in isolation, but reside in a highly integrated and dynamically interactive environment, in which actions in one tissue can affect other downstream tissues...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814761/transplantation-of-bioengineered-rat-lungs-recellularized-with-endothelial-and-adipose-derived-stromal-cells
#2
Ryoichiro Doi, Tomoshi Tsuchiya, Norisato Mitsutake, Satoshi Nishimura, Mutsumi Matsuu-Matsuyama, Yuka Nakazawa, Tomoo Ogi, Sadanori Akita, Hiroshi Yukawa, Yoshinobu Baba, Naoya Yamasaki, Keitaro Matsumoto, Takuro Miyazaki, Ryotaro Kamohara, Go Hatachi, Hideyori Sengyoku, Hironosuke Watanabe, Tomohiro Obata, Laura E Niklason, Takeshi Nagayasu
Bioengineered lungs consisting of a decellularized lung scaffold that is repopulated with a patient's own cells could provide desperately needed donor organs in the future. This approach has been tested in rats, and has been partially explored in porcine and human lungs. However, existing bioengineered lungs are fragile, in part because of their immature vascular structure. Herein, we report the application of adipose-derived stem/stromal cells (ASCs) for engineering the pulmonary vasculature in a decellularized rat lung scaffold...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814145/-express-analgesia-by-deletion-of-spinal-neurokinin-1-receptor-expressing-neurons-using-a-bioengineered-substance-p-pseudomonas-exotoxin-conjugate
#3
Michael J Iadarola, Matthew R Sapio, Xunde Wang, Hector Carrero, Maria Luisa Virata-Theimer, Robert Sarnovsky, Andrew J Mannes, David J FitzGerald
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811674/regenerative-medicine-and-cell-based-approaches-to-restore-pancreatic-function
#4
REVIEW
Cara Ellis, Adam Ramzy, Timothy J Kieffer
The pancreas is a complex organ with exocrine and endocrine components. Many pathologies impair exocrine function, including chronic pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Conversely, when the endocrine pancreas fails to secrete sufficient insulin, patients develop diabetes mellitus. Pathology in either the endocrine or exocrine pancreas results in devastating economic and personal consequences. The current standard therapy for treating patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus is daily exogenous insulin injections, but cell sources of insulin provide superior glycaemic regulation and research is now focused on the goal of regenerating or replacing β cells...
August 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809828/bioengineering-of-humanized-bone-marrow-microenvironments-in-mouse-and-their-visualization-by-live-imaging
#5
Diana Passaro, Ander Abarrategi, Katie Foster, Linda Ariza-McNaughton, Dominique Bonnet
Human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) reside in the bone marrow (BM) niche, an intricate, multifactorial network of components producing cytokines, growth factors, and extracellular matrix. The ability of HSCs to remain quiescent, self-renew or differentiate, and acquire mutations and become malignant depends upon the complex interactions they establish with different stromal components. To observe the crosstalk between human HSCs and the human BM niche in physiological and pathological conditions, we designed a protocol to ectopically model and image a humanized BM niche in immunodeficient mice...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808436/ewald-an-extended-wide-angle-laue-diffractometer-for-the-second-target-station-of-the-spallation-neutron-source
#6
Leighton Coates, Lee Robertson
Visualizing hydrogen atoms in biological materials is one of the biggest remaining challenges in biophysical analysis. While X-ray techniques have unrivaled capacity for high-throughput structure determination, neutron diffraction is uniquely sensitive to hydrogen atom positions in crystals of biological materials and can provide a more complete picture of the atomic and electronic structures of biological macromolecules. This information can be essential in providing predictive understanding and engineering control of key biological processes, for example, in catalysis, ligand binding and light harvesting, and to guide bioengineering of enzymes and drug design...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Applied Crystallography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808103/a-bioarchitectonic-approach-to-the-modular-engineering-of-metabolism
#7
REVIEW
Cheryl A Kerfeld
Dissociating the complexity of metabolic processes into modules is a shift in focus from the single gene/gene product to functional and evolutionary units spanning the scale of biological organization. When viewing the levels of biological organization through this conceptual lens, modules are found across the continuum: domains within proteins, co-regulated groups of functionally associated genes, operons, metabolic pathways and (sub)cellular compartments. Combining modules as components or subsystems of a larger system typically leads to increased complexity and the emergence of new functions...
September 26, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805010/characterization-of-hydrogels-made-of-a-novel-spider-silk-protein-emasp1s-and-evaluation-for-3d-printing
#8
Christopher Thamm, Elise DeSimone, Thomas Scheibel
Recombinantly produced spider silk proteins have high potential for bioengineering and various biomedical applications because of their biocompatibility, biodegradability, and low immunogenicity. Here, the recently described small spider silk protein eMaSp1s is assembled into hydrogels, which can be 3D printed into scaffolds. Further, blending with a recombinantly produced MaSp2 derivative eADF4(C16) alters the mechanical properties of the resulting hydrogels. Different spider silk hydrogels also show a distinct recovery after a high shear stress deformation, exhibiting the tunability of their features for selected applications...
August 14, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800674/the-genetic-encoded-toolbox-for-electron-microscopy-and-connectomics
#9
REVIEW
Ryuichi Shigemoto, Maximilian Joesch
Developments in bioengineering and molecular biology have introduced a palette of genetically encoded probes for identification of specific cell populations in electron microscopy. These probes can be targeted to distinct cellular compartments, rendering them electron dense through a subsequent chemical reaction. These electron densities strongly increase the local contrast in samples prepared for electron microscopy, allowing three major advances in ultrastructural mapping of circuits: genetic identification of circuit components, targeted imaging of regions of interest and automated analysis of the tagged circuits...
August 11, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798200/wearable-physiological-monitoring-for-human-thermal-work-strain-optimization
#10
Mark J Buller, Alexander Pearson Welles, Karl E Friedl
Safe performance limits of soldiers and athletes have typically relied on predictive work-rest models of ambient conditions, average work intensity, and characteristics of the population. Bioengineering advances in noninvasive sensor technologies including miniaturization, reduced cost, power requirements, and comfort now make it possible to produce individual predictions of safe thermal-work limits. These precision medicine assessments depend on the development of thoughtful algorithms based on physics and physiology...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794102/optogenetics-and-pharmacogenetics-principles-and-applications
#11
Jingwei Jiang, Huxing Cui, Kamal Rahmouni
Remote and selective spatiotemporal control of the activity of neurons to regulate behavior and physiological functions has been a long-sought goal in system neuroscience. Identification and subsequent bioengineering of light-sensitive ion channels (e.g., channelrhodopsins, halorhodopsin and archaerhodopsins) from the bacteria has made it possible to utilize light to artificially modulate neuronal activity, namely optogenetics. Recent advance in genetics has also allowed development of novel pharmacological tools to selectively and remotely control neuronal activity using engineered G-protein coupled receptors which can be activated by otherwise inert drug-like small molecules such as the Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drug (DREADD) - a form of chemogenetics...
August 9, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790449/single-cell-analyses-identify-bioengineered-niches-for-enhanced-maintenance-of-hematopoietic-stem-cells
#12
Aline Roch, Sonja Giger, Mukul Girotra, Vasco Campos, Nicola Vannini, Olaia Naveiras, Samy Gobaa, Matthias P Lutolf
The in vitro expansion of long-term hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) remains a substantial challenge, largely because of our limited understanding of the mechanisms that control HSC fate choices. Using single-cell multigene expression analysis and time-lapse microscopy, here we define gene expression signatures and cell cycle hallmarks of murine HSCs and the earliest multipotent progenitors (MPPs), and analyze systematically single HSC fate choices in culture. Our analysis revealed twelve differentially expressed genes marking the quiescent HSC state, including four genes encoding cell-cell interaction signals in the niche...
August 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783156/hydrogels-with-precisely-controlled-integrin-activation-dictate-vascular-patterning-and%C3%A2-permeability
#13
Shuoran Li, Lina R Nih, Haylee Bachman, Peng Fei, Yilei Li, Eunwoo Nam, Robert Dimatteo, S Thomas Carmichael, Thomas H Barker, Tatiana Segura
Integrin binding to bioengineered hydrogel scaffolds is essential for tissue regrowth and regeneration, yet not all integrin binding can lead to tissue repair. Here, we show that through engineering hydrogel materials to promote α3/α5β1 integrin binding, we can promote the formation of a space-filling and mature vasculature compared with hydrogel materials that promote αvβ3 integrin binding. In vitro, α3/α5β1 scaffolds promoted endothelial cells to sprout and branch, forming organized extensive networks that eventually reached and anastomosed with neighbouring branches...
August 7, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782183/pectin-nanocoating-reduces-proinflammatory-fibroblast-response-to-bacteria
#14
A Mieszkowska, J Folkert, T Gaber, K Miksch, K Gurzawska
Implant failures are primarily related to bacterial infections and inflammation. Nanocoating of implant devices with organic molecules is a method used for improving their integration into host tissues and limiting inflammation. Bioengineered plant-derived rhamnogalacturonan-Is (RG-Is) from pectins improve tissue regeneration and exhibit anti-inflammatory properties. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the in vitro effect of RG-I nanocoating on human gingival primary fibroblast (HGF) activity and proinflammatory response following Porphyromonas gingivalis (P...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777940/a-little-bit-of-guidance-mini-brains-on-their-route-to-adolescence
#15
Philipp Koch, Julia Ladewig
Cerebral organoids represent a new model in which to study human brain development outside the human body. Recently in Nature Biotechnology, Lancaster et al. (2017) tackled the lack of reproducibility, tissue homogeneity, and complexity of this system by bioengineering organoids to establish the next generation of human mini brains.
August 3, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776693/a-comparison-of-tracheal-scaffold-strategies-for-pediatric-transplantation-in-a-rabbit-model
#16
Elizabeth F Maughan, Colin R Butler, Claire Crowley, Gui Zhen Teoh, Margot Den Hondt, Nicholas J Hamilton, Robert E Hynds, Peggy Lange, Tahera Ansari, Luca Urbani, Samuel M Janes, Paolo De Coppi, Martin A Birchall, Martin J Elliott
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Despite surgical advances, childhood tracheal stenosis is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Various tracheal scaffold strategies have been developed as the basis for bioengineered substitutes, but there is no consensus on which may be superior in vivo. We hypothesized that there would be no difference in morbidity and mortality between three competing scaffold strategies in rabbits. STUDY DESIGN: Pilot preclinical study. METHODS: Tracheal scaffolds were prepared by three methods that have been applied clinically and reported: preserved cadaveric ("Herberhold") allografts, detergent-enzymatically decellularized allografts, and synthetic scaffolds (nanocomposite polymer [polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane poly(carbonate-urea) urethane (POSS-PCU)])...
August 4, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773007/magnetically-assisted-bilayer-composites-for-soft-bending-actuators
#17
Sung-Hwan Jang, Seon-Hong Na, Yong-Lae Park
This article presents a soft pneumatic bending actuator using a magnetically assisted bilayer composite composed of silicone polymer and ferromagnetic particles. Bilayer composites were fabricated by mixing ferromagnetic particles to a prepolymer state of silicone in a mold and asymmetrically distributed them by applying a strong non-uniform magnetic field to one side of the mold during the curing process. The biased magnetic field induces sedimentation of the ferromagnetic particles toward one side of the structure...
June 12, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771375/recent-development-and-biomedical-applications-of-self-healing-hydrogels
#18
Yinan Wang, Christian K Adokoh, Ravin Narain
Hydrogels are of special importance, owing to their high-water content and various applications in biomedical and bio-engineering research. Self-healing properties is a common phenomenon in living organisms. Their endowed property of being able to self-repair after physical/chemical/mechanical damage to fully or partially its original properties demonstrates their prospective therapeutic applications. Due to complicated preparation and selection of suitable materials, the application of many host-guest supramolecular polymeric hydrogels are so limited...
August 3, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768507/book-review-further-understanding-of-the-human-machine-the-road-to-bioengineering
#19
Alvin Wald
Max E. Valentinuzzi (editor) Further understanding of the human machine. The road to bioengineering Series on bioengineering and biomedical engineering, volume 7.Singapore/New Jersey: World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd.pp. xxxi+546. ISBN 9789813147256.
August 2, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761685/two-year-clinical-outcomes-of-patients-treated-with-the-dual-therapy-stent-in-a-1000-patient-all-comers-registry
#20
Deborah N Kalkman, Pier Woudstra, Ian B A Menown, Peter den Heijer, Arnoud Wj Van't Hof, Andrejs Erglis, Harry Suryapranata, Karin E Arkenbout, Andrés Iñiguez, Philippe Muller, Jan G Tijssen, Marcel A M Beijk, Robbert J de Winter
OBJECTIVE: The dual-therapy stent combines an abluminal biodegradable drug-eluting coating, with a 'pro-healing' luminal layer. This bioengineered layer attracts circulating endothelial progenitor cells that can differentiate into normal endothelium. Rapid endothelialisation of the stent might allow safe short dual antiplatelet therapy. We aim to assess clinical outcomes in patients treated with this novel device at 2-year follow-up. METHODS: A total of 1000 patients were included in the REMEDEE Registry to evaluate clinical outcomes after treatment with the dual-therapy stent...
2017: Open Heart
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