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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350947/traumatic-spinal-cord-injury-repair-and-regeneration
#1
Christopher S Ahuja, Satoshi Nori, Lindsay Tetreault, Jefferson Wilson, Brian Kwon, James Harrop, David Choi, Michael G Fehlings
BACKGROUND: Traumatic spinal cord injuries (SCI) have devastating consequences for the physical, financial, and psychosocial well-being of patients and their caregivers. Expediently delivering interventions during the early postinjury period can have a tremendous impact on long-term functional recovery. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY: This is largely due to the unique pathophysiology of SCI where the initial traumatic insult (primary injury) is followed by a progressive secondary injury cascade characterized by ischemia, proapoptotic signaling, and peripheral inflammatory cell infiltration...
March 1, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346104/bioengineered-3d-glial-cell-culture-systems-and-applications-for-neurodegeneration-and-neuroinflammation
#2
P Marc D Watson, Edel Kavanagh, Gary Allenby, Matthew Vassey
Neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation are key features in a range of chronic central nervous system (CNS) diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, as well as acute conditions like stroke and traumatic brain injury, for which there remains significant unmet clinical need. It is now well recognized that current cell culture methodologies are limited in their ability to recapitulate the cellular environment that is present in vivo, and there is a growing body of evidence to show that three-dimensional (3D) culture systems represent a more physiologically accurate model than traditional two-dimensional (2D) cultures...
February 1, 2017: SLAS Discov
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344823/forty-nine-years-in-biomaterials-science-an-interview-with-buddy-ratner
#3
Buddy Ratner
Buddy Ratner talks to Francesca Lake, Managing Editor. After receiving his PhD in polymer chemistry from the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn (USA) in 1972, Ratner moved to the University of Washington (USA), where he has since become joint professor of bioengineering and chemical engineering and Michael L & Myrna Darland Endowed Chair in Technology Commercialization. Since 1996, he has led the UWEB Research Center for Biomaterials at the University of Washington, originally funded by the National Science Foundation...
March 2017: Future Science OA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343003/essential-design-considerations-for-the-resazurin-reduction-assay-to-noninvasively-quantify-cell-expansion-within-perfused-extracellular-matrix-scaffolds
#4
Joseph S Uzarski, Michael D DiVito, Jason A Wertheim, William M Miller
Precise measurement of cellularity within bioartificial tissues and extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffolds is necessary to augment rigorous characterization of cellular behavior, as accurate benchmarking of tissue function to cell number allows for comparison of data across experiments and between laboratories. Resazurin, a soluble dye that is reduced to highly fluorescent resorufin in proportion to the metabolic activity of a cell population, is a valuable, noninvasive tool to measure cell number. We investigated experimental conditions in which resazurin reduction is a reliable indicator of cellularity within three-dimensional (3D) ECM scaffolds...
February 16, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342056/formulation-delivery-and-stability-of-bone-morphogenetic-proteins-for-effective-bone-regeneration
#5
REVIEW
Inas El Bialy, Wim Jiskoot, M Reza Nejadnik
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are responsible for bone formation during embryogenesis and bone regeneration and remodeling. The osteoinductive action of BMPs, especially BMP-2 and BMP-7, has led to their use in a range of insurmountable treatments where intervention is required for effective bone regeneration. Introduction of BMP products to the market, however, was not without reports of multiple complications and side effects. Aiming for optimization of the therapeutic efficacy and safety, efforts have been focused on improving the delivery of BMPs to lower the administered dose, localize the protein, and prolong its retention time at the site of action...
March 24, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342024/towards-optimization-of-odonto-osteogenic-bioengineering-in-vitro-comparison-of-simvastatin-sodium-fluoride-melanocyte-stimulating-hormone
#6
Vahid Zijah, Roya Salehi, Marziyeh Aghazadeh, Mohammad Samiei, Effat Alizadeh, Soodabeh Davaran
Tissue engineering has emerged as a potential therapeutic option for dental problems in recent years. One of the policies in tissue engineering is to use both scaffolds and additive factors for enhancing cell responses. This study aims to evaluate and compare the effect of three types of biofactors on poly-caprolactone-poly-ethylene glycol-poly caprolactone (PCL-PEG-PCL) nanofibrous scaffold on human dental pulp stem cell (hDPSCs) engineering. The PCL-PEG-PCL copolymer was synthesized with ring opening polymerization method, and its nanofiber scaffold was prepared by electrospinning method...
March 25, 2017: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339553/de-and-recellularization-of-the-pig-uterus-a-bioengineering-pilot-study%C3%A2
#7
Hannes Campo, Pedro M Baptista, Nuria López-Pérez, Amparo Faus, Irene Cervelló, Carlos Simón
Absolute uterine factor infertility, or the absence of a functional uterus, has a prevalence of 3%-5% in the general population. Despite the great strides being made in reproductive medicine, patients diagnosed with absolute uterine factor infertility remain untreatable. The only available solution has been gestational surrogacy, but recently the Brannström group presented a viable alternative by reporting the first successful live birth after uterus transplantation. Similar to other transplantations, this approach has inherent limitations such as the paucity of donor organs and the need for long-term immunosuppression...
December 27, 2016: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338428/a-surgical-device-to-study-the-efficacy-of-bioengineered-skin-substitutes-in-mice-wound-healing-models
#8
Marc G Jeschke, Ali-Reza Sadri, Cassandra Belo, Saeid Amini-Nik
Due to the poor regenerative capacity of adult mammalian skin, there is a need to develop effective skin substitutes for promoting skin regeneration after a severe wound. However, the complexity of skin biology has made it difficult to enable perfect regeneration of skin. Thus, animal models are being used to test potential skin substitutes. Murine models are valuable but their healing process involves dermal contraction. We have developed a device called a dome that is able to eliminate the contraction effect of rodent skin while simultaneously housing a bioengineered skin graft...
March 23, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337717/injectable-bioengineered-hydrogel-therapy-in-the-treatment-of-ischemic-cardiomyopathy
#9
REVIEW
John W MacArthur, Amanda N Steele, Andrew B Goldstone, Jeffrey E Cohen, William Hiesinger, Y Joseph Woo
Over the past two decades, the field of cardiovascular medicine has seen the rapid development of multiple different modalities for the treatment of ischemic myocardial disease. Most research efforts have focused on strategies aimed at coronary revascularization, with significant technological advances made in percutaneous coronary interventions as well as coronary artery bypass graft surgery. However, recent research efforts have shifted towards ways to address the downstream effects of myocardial infarction on both cellular and molecular levels...
April 2017: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337437/bioengineering-approaches-to-mature-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes
#10
REVIEW
Xuetao Sun, Sara S Nunes
Human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CM) represent a potential unlimited cell supply for cardiac tissue engineering and possibly regenerative medicine applications. However, hPSC-CMs produced by current protocols are not representative of native adult human cardiomyocytes as they display immature gene expression profile, structure and function. In order to improve hPSC-CM maturity and function, various approaches have been developed, including genetic manipulations to induce gene expression, delivery of biochemical factors, such as triiodothyronine and alpha-adrenergic agonist phenylephrine, induction of cell alignment in 3D tissues, mechanical stress as a mimic of cardiac load and electrical stimulation/pacing or a combination of these...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335993/biomaterials-innovation-for-next-generation-ex%C3%A2-vivo-immune-tissue-engineering
#11
REVIEW
Ankur Singh
Primary and secondary lymphoid organs are tissues that facilitate differentiation of B and T cells, leading to the induction of adaptive immune responses. These organs are present in the body from birth and are also recognized as locations where self-reactive B and T cells can be eliminated during the natural selection process. Many insights into the mechanisms that control the process of immune cell development and maturation in response to infection come from the analysis of various gene-deficient mice that lack some or all hallmark features of lymphoid tissues...
March 15, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334406/male-and-female-cervical-spine-biomechanics-and-anatomy-implication-for-scaling-injury-criteria
#12
Narayan Yoganandan, Cameron R Bass, Liming Voo, Frank A Pintar
There is an increased need to develop female-specific injury criteria and anthropomorphic test devices (dummies) for automotive and military environments, especially as women take occupational roles traditionally reserved for men. Although some exhaustive reviews on the biomechanics and injuries of the human spine have appeared in clinical and bioengineering literatures, focus on the difference between male and female cervical spine responses and characteristics has largely been ignored. Current neck injury criteria for automotive dummies for assessing crashworthiness and occupant safety are obtained from animal and human cadaver experiments, computational modeling and human volunteer studies...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332412/drug-safety-evaluation-of-parathyroid-hormone-for-hypocalcemia-in-patients-with-hypoparathyroidism
#13
Gemma Marcucci, Giuseppe Della Pepa, Maria Luisa Brandi
Hypoparathyroidism is a rare disorder characterized by low serum calcium levels and high serum phosphate levels. This disease is commonly treated with calcium supplements and active vitamin D metabolites or analogues, but large doses of these supplements are often utilized to relieve the symptoms caused by hypocalcemia, without guarantee of a physiological normalization of calcium-phosphate homeostasis. Areas covered: Several studies have investigated replacement therapy with recombinant human PTH [rhPTH (1-84) and rhPTH (1-34)] for subjects with hypoparathyroidism...
March 23, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324865/biomaterials-for-intervertebral-disc-regeneration-and-repair
#14
REVIEW
Robert D Bowles, Lori A Setton
The intervertebral disc contributes to motion, weight bearing, and flexibility of the spine, but is susceptible to damage and morphological changes that contribute to pathology with age and injury. Engineering strategies that rely upon synthetic materials or composite implants that do not interface with the biological components of the disc have not met with widespread use or desirable outcomes in the treatment of intervertebral disc pathology. Here we review bioengineering advances to treat disc disorders, using cell-supplemented materials, or acellular, biologically based materials, that provide opportunity for cell-material interactions and remodeling in the treatment of intervertebral disc disorders...
March 15, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324637/biotechnology-and-bioengineering-volume-114-number-5-may-2017
#15
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323545/creation-of-a-bioengineered-skin-flap-scaffold-with-a-perfusable-vascular-pedicle
#16
Bernhard J Jank, Jeremy Goverman, Jacques P Guyette, Jon M Charest, Mark A Randolph, Glenn R Gaudette, Joshua R Gershlak, Martin Purschke, Emilia Javorsky, Rosalynn M Nazarian, David A Leonard, Curtis L Cetrulo, William G Austen, Harald Christian Ott
Full thickness skin loss is a challenging problem due to limited reconstructive options, demanding 75 million surgical procedures annually in the United States. Autologous skin grafting is the gold standard treatment, but results in donor site morbidity and poor aesthetics. Numerous skin substitutes are available on the market to date, however, none truly function as full thickness skin due to their lack of a vascular network. The creation of an autologous full thickness skin analogue with a vascular pedicle would result in a paradigm shift in the management of wounds and in reconstruction of full thickness skin defects...
March 21, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322271/mechanistic-and-structural-basis-of-bioengineered-bovine-cathelicidin-5-with-optimized-therapeutic-activity
#17
Bikash R Sahoo, Kenta Maruyama, Jyotheeswara R Edula, Takahiro Tougan, Yuxi Lin, Young-Ho Lee, Toshihiro Horii, Toshimichi Fujiwara
Peptide-drug discovery using host-defense peptides becomes promising against antibiotic-resistant pathogens and cancer cells. Here, we customized the therapeutic activity of bovine cathelicidin-5 targeting to bacteria, protozoa, and tumor cells. The membrane dependent conformational adaptability and plasticity of cathelicidin-5 is revealed by biophysical analysis and atomistic simulations over 200 μs in thymocytes, leukemia, and E. coli cell-membranes. Our understanding of energy-dependent cathelicidin-5 intrusion in heterogeneous membranes aided in designing novel loss/gain-of-function analogues...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321651/effects-of-strontium-ranelate-treatment-on-osteoblasts-cultivated-onto-scaffolds-of-trabeculae-bovine-bone
#18
Gerluza Aparecida Borges Silva, Bruno Machado Bertassoli, Cristiane Aparecida Sousa, Juliano Douglas Albergaria, Rayan Silva de Paula, Erika Cristina Jorge
Blocks of Bovine bone have shown promising results as implantable scaffolds to promote bone regeneration. Strontium ranelate (SrR) is both an antiresorptive and an anabolic drug that has been indicated for oral administration to treat osteoporosis. Few studies, however, have investigated the local effects of SrR and its use in association with biomaterials thus far. In this work, we investigated SrR effects in cultures of primary osteoblasts (PO, from Wistar rats calvaria) and immortalized osteoblasts (IO, from MC3T3-E1 cell line) cultivated as a monolayer or in association with scaffolds of bovine bone in mineralized (MBB) and demineralized (DBB) forms...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316988/bioengineered-plants-can-be-a-useful-source-of-omega-3-fatty-acids
#19
REVIEW
Waleed Amjad Khan, Hu Chun-Mei, Nadeem Khan, Amjad Iqbal, Shan-Wu Lyu, Farooq Shah
Omega-3 fatty acids have proven to be very essential for human health due to their multiple health benefits. These essential fatty acids (EFAs) need to be uptaken through diet because they are unable to be produced by the human body. These are important for skin and hair growth as well as for proper visual, neural, and reproductive functions of the body. These fatty acids are proven to be extremely vital for normal tissue development during pregnancy and infancy. Omega-3 fatty acids can be obtained mainly from two dietary sources: marine and plant oils...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315412/engineering-bacterial-translation-initiation-do-we-have-all-the-tools-we-need
#20
REVIEW
Justin Vigar, Hans-Joachim Wieden
BACKGROUND: Reliable tools that allow precise and predictable control over gene expression are critical for the success of nearly all bioengineering applications. Translation initiation is the most regulated phase during protein biosynthesis, and is therefore a promising target for exerting control over gene expression. At the translational level, the copy number of a protein can be fine-tuned by altering the interaction between the translation initiation region of an mRNA and the ribosome...
March 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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