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Spinal cord stimulator

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645599/biplanar-fluoroscopy-guided-percutaneous-lead-implantation-for-spinal-cord-stimulation-a-technical-note
#1
Aaron Lawson McLean, Susanne Frank, Daniel Staribacher, Rolf Kalff, Rupert Reichart
INTRODUCTION: The correct positioning of spinal cord stimulator leads is assessed radiographically during their percutaneous implantation for trial stimulation. Usually the C-arm is repositioned several times to allow imaging in different planes, which may extend the total duration of surgery. The study aimed to evaluate whether the concurrent intraoperative use of two C-arms could safely reduce the duration of surgery. MATERIALS: This retrospective study included cases of percutaneous implantation of an SCS lead for trial neurostimulation between 2006 and 2011...
June 20, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643358/maximizing-functional-axon-repair-in-the-injured-cns-lessons-from-neuronal-development
#2
Andrew Kaplan, Mardja Bueno, Luyang Hua, Alyson E Fournier
The failure of damaged axons to regrow underlies disability in central nervous system injury and disease. Therapies that stimulate axon repair will be critical to restore function. Extensive axon regeneration can be induced by manipulation of oncogenes and tumor suppressors, however it has been difficult to translate this into functional recovery in models of spinal cord injury. The current challenge is to maximize the functional integration of regenerating axons to recover motor and sensory behaviours. Insights into axonal growth and wiring during nervous system development are helping guide new approaches to boost regeneration and functional connectivity after injury in the mature nervous system...
June 23, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642680/weight-bearing-over-ground-stepping-in-an-exoskeleton-with-non-invasive-spinal-cord-neuromodulation-after-motor-complete-paraplegia
#3
Parag Gad, Yury Gerasimenko, Sharon Zdunowski, Amanda Turner, Dimitry Sayenko, Daniel C Lu, V Reggie Edgerton
We asked whether coordinated voluntary movement of the lower limbs could be regained in an individual having been completely paralyzed (>4 year) and completely absent of vision (>15 year) using two novel strategies-transcutaneous electrical spinal cord stimulation at selected sites over the spine as well as pharmacological neuromodulation by buspirone. We also asked whether these neuromodulatory strategies could facilitate stepping assisted by an exoskeleton (EKSO, EKSO Bionics, CA) that is designed so that the subject can voluntarily complement the work being performed by the exoskeleton...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636927/noxious-but-not-innocuous-thermal-stimuli-evoke-perk-expression-in-dorsal-horn-neurons-after-spared-nerve-injury-in-adult-rats
#4
Mohamad S Samour, Sumaiya M Shaikh, David A Mahns, Peter J Shortland
Noxious stimulation of sensory afferents evokes phosphorylated extracellular signal regulated kinase (pERK) expression in spinal cord neurons. This study investigated the expression of pERK in the dorsal horn neurons in response to innocuous and noxious cold stimuli in naïve versus spared nerve injury (SNI) rats. Noxious cold or hot stimuli (0 or 45°C) elicited pERK expression in laminae I-II whereas cooling stimuli from 32°C to 25, 15 or 5°C produced no or little pERK expression in dorsal horn neurons...
June 18, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635523/long-term-paired-associative-stimulation-enhances-motor-output-of-the-tetraplegic-hand
#5
Aleksandra Tolmacheva, Sarianna Savolainen, Erika Kirveskari, Pantelis Lioumis, Linda Kuusela, Nina Maria Brandstack, Aarne Ylinen, Jyrki Mäkelä, Anastasia Shulga
A large proportion of spinal cord injuries are incomplete. Even in clinically complete injuries, silent nonfunctional connections can be present. Therapeutic approaches that can strengthen transmission in weak neural connections to improve motor performance are needed. Our aim was to determine whether long-term delivery of paired associative stimulation (PAS, a combination of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS)) can enhance motor output in the hands of patients with chronic traumatic tetraplegia, and to compare this technique with long-term PNS...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634406/enhancing-kcc2-function-counteracts-morphine-induced-hyperalgesia
#6
Francesco Ferrini, Louis-Etienne Lorenzo, Antoine G Godin, Miorie Le Quang, Yves De Koninck
Morphine-induced hyperalgesia (MIH) is a severe adverse effect accompanying repeated morphine treatment, causing a paradoxical decrease in nociceptive threshold. Previous reports associated MIH with a decreased expression of the Cl(-) extruder KCC2 in the superficial dorsal horn (SDH) of the spinal cord, weakening spinal GABAA/glycine-mediated postsynaptic inhibition. Here, we tested whether the administration of small molecules enhancing KCC2, CLP257 and its pro-drug CLP290, may counteract MIH. MIH was typically expressed within 6-8 days of morphine treatment...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631809/anabolic-steroids-for-treating-pressure-ulcers
#7
REVIEW
Cho Naing, Maxine A Whittaker
BACKGROUND: Pressure ulcers, also known as bed sores, pressure sores or decubitus ulcers develop as a result of a localised injury to the skin or underlying tissue, or both. The ulcers usually arise over a bony prominence, and are recognised as a common medical problem affecting people confined to a bed or wheelchair for long periods of time. Anabolic steroids are used as off-label drugs (drugs which are used without regulatory approval) and have been used as adjuvants to usual treatment with dressings, debridement, nutritional supplements, systemic antibiotics and antiseptics, which are considered to be supportive in healing of pressure ulcers...
June 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631746/prevalence-of-androgen-deficiency-in-chronic-spinal-cord-injury-patients-suffering-from-erectile-dysfunction
#8
M Behnaz, Z Majd, M Radfar, H Ajami, M Qorbani, A Kokab
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of biochemical androgen deficiency in Iranian spinal cord injured men suffering from erectile dysfunction (ED) and to determine factors related to this problem. SETTING: An andrology clinic of a teaching hospital in Tehran. METHODS: Men, 18 years of age and older, with chronic (>2 years) spinal cord injury (SCI) suffering from ED were recruited...
June 20, 2017: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631619/modeling-trans-spinal-direct-current-stimulation-for-the-modulation-of-the-lumbar-spinal-motor-pathways
#9
Alexander Kuck, Dick Stegeman, Edwin van Asseldonk
OBJECTIVE: Trans-spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) is a potential new technique for the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). TsDCS aims to facilitate plastic changes in the neural pathways of the spinal cord with a positive effect on SCI recovery. To establish tsDCS as a possible treatment option for SCI, it is essential to gain a better understanding of its cause and effects. We seek to understand the acute effect of tsDCS, including the generated electric field (EF) and its polarization effect on the spinal circuits, to determine a cellular target...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629562/3t-mr-defecography-a-feasibility-study-in-sensorimotor-complete-spinal-cord-injured-patients-with-neurogenic-bowel-dysfunction
#10
Cornelia Putz, Celine D Alt, Cornelia Hensel, Björn Wagner, Simone Gantz, Hans-Jürgen Gerner, Norbert Weidner, Lars Grenacher
INTRODUCTION: To investigate whether MR-defecography can be employed in sensorimotor complete spinal cord injury (SCI) subjects as a potential diagnostic tool to detect defecational disorders associated with neurogenic bowel dysfunction (NBD) using standard parameters for obstructed defecation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a prospective single centre clinical trial, we developed MR-defecography in traumatic sensorimotor complete paraplegic SCI patients with upper motoneuron type injury (neurological level of injury T1 to T10) using a conventional 3T scanner...
June 2017: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628595/activity-based-therapy-from-basic-science-to-clinical-application-for-recovery-after-spinal-cord-injury
#11
Andrea L Behrman, Elizabeth M Ardolino, Susan J Harkema
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Collaboration between scientists and clinicians effectively accelerated translation of scientific evidence for activity-based therapies (ABTs) into rehabilitation. This article addresses the basic scientific findings of activity-dependent plasticity that led to locomotor training, an ABT, and its principles to advance recovery in adult and pediatric populations with spinal cord injury (SCI). Expansion to new therapies based on these common principles is highlighted, for example, epidural stimulation...
July 2017: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626016/the-mtor-substrate-s6-kinase-1-s6k1-is-a-negative-regulator-of-axon-regeneration-and-a-potential-drug-target-for-central-nervous-system-injury
#12
Hassan Al-Ali, Ying Ding, Tatiana Slepak, Wei Wu, Yan Sun, Yania Martinez, Xiao-Ming Xu, V P Lemmon, J L Bixby
The mammalian target of Rapamycin (mTOR) positively regulates axon growth in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). Though axon regeneration and functional recovery from CNS injuries are typically limited, knockdown or deletion of PTEN, a negative regulator of mTOR, increases mTOR activity and induces robust axon growth and regeneration. It has been suggested that inhibition of S6 Kinase 1 (S6K1, gene symbol: RPS6KB1), a prominent mTOR target, would blunt mTOR's positive effect on axon growth. In contrast to this expectation, we demonstrate that inhibition of S6K1 in CNS neurons promotes neurite outgrowth in vitro by 2-3 fold...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623098/acquired-inhibition-of-microrna-124-protects-against-spinal-cord-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-partially-through-a-mitophagy-dependent-pathway
#13
Kun Liu, Lihui Yan, Xiaojing Jiang, Yang Yu, Hongbo Liu, Tianxiang Gu, Enyi Shi
OBJECTIVE: Mitophagy results in selective clearance of damaged mitochondria. We investigated whether mitophagy was involved in the neuroprotection by inhibiting microRNA (miRNA)-124 on ischemic spinal cords. METHODS: Inhibition of miRNA-124 was conducted by intrathecal injection of lentivirus vectors containing antagomiR-124. Spinal cord ischemia was induced in rats by crossclamping the descending aorta just distal to the left subclavian artery for 14 minutes. Hind-limb motor function was assessed with the motor deficit index (MDI)...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622196/spinal-cord-stimulation-for-cancer-related-pain-in-adults
#14
Carolyn W White
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Cancer Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621025/dorsal-root-ganglion-stimulation-as-a-salvage-treatment-for-complex-regional-pain-syndrome-refractory-to-dorsal-column-spinal-cord-stimulation-a-case-series
#15
Ajax Yang, Corey W Hunter
OBJECTIVE: The efficacy of traditional spinal cord stimulation (t-SCS) tends to decay over time in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). While it has been shown that dorsal root ganglion (DRG) stimulation is extremely effective in t-SCS-naïve patients with CRPS, its efficacy in patients who had previously failed t-SCS is unknown. Given that DRG-SCS and t-SCS target different spinal pathways, a failure with t-SCS should not automatically preclude a patient from attempting DRG-SCS...
June 16, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615976/clinical-utility-of-neurostimulation-devices-in-the-treatment-of-overactive-bladder-current-perspectives
#16
REVIEW
Dick Aw Janssen, Frank Mj Martens, Liesbeth L de Wall, Hendrikje Mk van Breda, John Pfa Heesakkers
OBJECTIVES: This review describes the evidence from established and experimental therapies that use electrical nerve stimulation to treat lower urinary tract dysfunction. METHODS: Clinical studies on established treatments such as percutaneous posterior tibial nerve stimulation (P-PTNS), transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) and sacral anterior root stimulation (SARS) are evaluated. In addition, clinical evidence from experimental therapies such as dorsal genital nerve (DGN) stimulation, pudendal nerve stimulation, magnetic nerve stimulation and ankle implants for tibial nerve stimulation are evaluated...
2017: Medical Devices: Evidence and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615341/high-frequency-epidural-stimulation-across-the-respiratory-cycle-evokes-phrenic-short-term-potentiation-after-incomplete-cervical-spinal-cord-injury
#17
Elisa J Gonzalez-Rothi, Kristi A Streeter, Marie H Hanna, Anna C Stamas, Paul J Reier, David M Baekey, David D Fuller
C2 spinal hemilesion (C2Hx) paralyzes the ipsilateral diaphragm, but recovery is possible through activation of "crossed spinal" synaptic inputs to ipsilateral phrenic motoneurons. We tested the hypothesis that high frequency epidural stimulation (HF-ES) would potentiate ipsilateral phrenic output after subacute and chronic C2Hx. HF-ES (300 Hz) was applied to the ventrolateral C4 or T2 spinal cord ipsilateral to C2Hx in anesthetized and mechanically ventilated adult rats. Stimulus duration was 60-sec and currents ranged from 100-1000 µA...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612319/involvement-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-the-cx3cr1-signaling-network-in-mechanical-allodynia-induced-by-tetanic-sciatic-stimulation
#18
Zhe-Chen Wang, Li-Hong Li, Chao Bian, Liu Yang, Ning Lv, Yu-Qiu Zhang
Tetanic stimulation of the sciatic nerve (TSS) triggers long-term potentiation in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and long-lasting pain hypersensitivity. CX3CL1-CX3CR1 signaling is an important pathway in neuronal-microglial activation. Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) is a key signal transduction molecule that regulates neuroinflammation and neuropathic pain. Here, we set out to determine whether and how NF-κB and CX3CR1 are involved in the mechanism underlying the pathological changes induced by TSS. After unilateral TSS, significant bilateral mechanical allodynia was induced, as assessed by the von Frey test...
June 13, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606836/cephalad-lead-migration-during-a-spinal-cord-stimulation-trial-a-case-presentation
#19
Ogoegbunam Agubuzu, William J Beckworth
Spinal cord stimulation is used in the treatment of a variety of pain conditions. Lead migration is among the most common complications associated with spinal cord stimulation. Although there have been reports of caudal lead migration, there have been no reports of significant cephalad lead migration during a spinal cord stimulation trial. Here we report what is potentially the first case of significant cephalad lead migration (from the initial T8 position to C2) during a spinal cord stimulation trial. This case demonstrates that significant lead migration is possible, and this case highlights the importance of adequately securing leads during a trial...
June 9, 2017: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606109/neurophysiological-assessment-of-spinal-cord-injuries-in-dogs-using-somatosensory-and-motor-evoked-potentials
#20
REVIEW
Maria Claudia Campos Mello Inglez de Souza, Ricardo José Rodriguez Ferreira, Geni Cristina Fonseca Patricio, Julia Maria Matera
Somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) and motor evoked potentials (MEPs) are non-invasive neurophysiological tests that reflect the functional integrity of sensory and motor pathways. Despite their extensive use and description in human medicine, reports in veterinary medicine are scarce. SSEPs are obtained via peripheral stimulation of sensory or mixed nerves; stimulation induces spinal and cortical responses, which are recorded when sensory pathways integrity is preserved. MEPs can be obtained via transcranial electrical or magnetic stimulation; in this case, thoracic and pelvic limb muscle responses are captured if motor pathways are preserved...
June 12, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
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