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Phosphogluconate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713273/inhibition-of-6-phosphogluconate-dehydrogenase-reverses-cisplatin-resistance-in-ovarian-and-lung-cancer
#1
Wujian Zheng, Qi Feng, Jiao Liu, Yanke Guo, Lvfen Gao, Ruiman Li, Meng Xu, Guizhen Yan, Zhinan Yin, Shuai Zhang, Shuangping Liu, Changliang Shan
Cisplatin (DDP) is currently one of the most commonly used chemotherapeutic drugs for treating ovarian and lung cancer. However, resistance to cisplatin is common and it often leads to therapy failure. In addition, the precise mechanism of cisplatin resistance is still in its infancy. In this study, we demonstrated that the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway enzyme 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD) promotes cisplatin resistance. We showed that cisplatin-resistant cancer cells (C13(∗) and A549DDP), had higher levels of 6PGD compared to their cisplatin-sensitive counterparts (OV2008 and A549)...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711923/acute-myeloid-leukemia-cells-require-6-phosphogluconate-dehydrogenase-for-cell-growth-and-nadph-dependent-metabolic-reprogramming
#2
Haymanti Bhanot, Ellen L Weisberg, Mamatha M Reddy, Atsushi Nonami, Donna Neuberg, Richard M Stone, Klaus Podar, Ravi Salgia, James D Griffin, Martin Sattler
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells are highly dependent on glycolytic pathways to generate metabolic energy and support cell growth, hinting at specific, targetable vulnerabilities as potential novel targets for drug development. Elevated levels of NADPH, a central metabolic factor involved in redox reactions, are common in myeloid leukemia cells, but the significance or biochemical basis underlying this increase is unknown. Using a small molecule analog that efficiently inhibits NADPH-producing enzymes, we found that AML cells require NADPH homeostasis for cell growth...
June 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667014/the-gluconate-shunt-is-an-alternative-route-for-directing-glucose-into-the-pentose-phosphate-pathway-in-fission-yeast
#3
Mark E Corkins, Stevin Wilson, Jean-Christophe Cocuron, Ana P Alonso, Amanda J Bird
Glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway both play a central role in the degradation of glucose in all domains of life. Another metabolic route that can facilitate glucose breakdown is the gluconate shunt. In this shunt glucose dehydrogenase and gluconate kinase catalyze the two-step conversion of glucose into the pentose phosphate pathway intermediate 6-phosphogluconate. Despite the presence of these enzymes in many organisms, their only established role is in the production of 6-phosphogluconate for the Entner-Doudoroff pathway...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665548/effect-of-astaxanthin-and-aluminum-chloride-on-erythrocyte-g6pd-and-6pgd-enzyme-activities-in-vivo-and-on-erythrocyte-g6pd-in-vitro-in-rats
#4
Yusuf Temel, Aydın Şükrü Bengü, Hurrem Turan Akkoyun, Mahire Akkoyun, Mehmet Ciftci
In this study, we investigated the effect of astaxanthin (Ast) and aluminum (Al) on the erythrocyte glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD) enzymes activities in vivo and on G6PD enzyme in vitro in rats. For in vitro studies, G6PD enzyme was purified from rat erythrocyte by using 2',5'-ADP-Sepharose 4B affinity gel. The effects of Ast and Al(3+) ion were investigated on the purified enzyme. It was determined that Ast increased the enzyme activity, whereas Al(3+) inhibited the enzyme activity noncompetitively (IC50 values; 0...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658302/one-ligand-two-regulators-and-three-binding-sites-how-kdpg-controls-primary-carbon-metabolism-in-pseudomonas
#5
Rosaria Campilongo, Rowena K Y Fung, Richard H Little, Lucia Grenga, Eleftheria Trampari, Simona Pepe, Govind Chandra, Clare E M Stevenson, Davide Roncarati, Jacob G Malone
Effective regulation of primary carbon metabolism is critically important for bacteria to successfully adapt to different environments. We have identified an uncharacterised transcriptional regulator; RccR, that controls this process in response to carbon source availability. Disruption of rccR in the plant-associated microbe Pseudomonas fluorescens inhibits growth in defined media, and compromises its ability to colonise the wheat rhizosphere. Structurally, RccR is almost identical to the Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway regulator HexR, and both proteins are controlled by the same ED-intermediate; 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconate (KDPG)...
June 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651026/binding-of-human-plasminogen-and-high-molecular-mass-kininogen-by-cell-surface-exposed-proteins-of-candida-parapsilosis
#6
Justyna Karkowska-Kuleta, Dorota Zajac, Grazyna Bras, Oliwia Bochenska, Maria Rapala-Kozik, Andrzej Kozik
Pathogenic microbes can recruit to their cell surface human proteins that are components of important proteolytic cascades involved in coagulation, fibrinolysis and innate immune response. Once located at the bacterial or fungal surface, such deployed proteins might be utilized by pathogens to facilitate invasion and dissemination within the host organism by interfering with functionality of these systems or by exploiting specific activity of the bound enzymes. Aim of the study presented here was to characterize this phenomenon in Candida parapsilosis (Ashford) Langeron et Talice - an important causative agent of systemic fungal infections (candidiases and candidemias) in humans...
June 24, 2017: Acta Biochimica Polonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648642/hpi-amf-inhibition-halts-the-development-of-the-aggressive-phenotype-of-breast-cancer-stem-cells
#7
Juan Carlos Gallardo-Pérez, Alhelí Adán-Ladrón de Guevara, Alvaro Marín-Hernández, Rafael Moreno-Sánchez, Sara Rodríguez-Enríquez
Cancer stem cells are responsible for tumor recurrence and metastasis. A new highly reproducible procedure for human breast cancer MCF-7 stem cells (BCSC) isolation and selection was developed by using a combination of hypoxia/hypoglycemia plus taxol and adriamycin for 24h. The BCSC enriched fraction (i) expressed (2-15 times) the typical stemness protein markers CD44+, ALDH1A3 and Oct 3/4; (ii) increased its clonogenicity index (20-times), invasiveness profile (>70%), migration capacity (100%) and ability to form mammospheres, compared to its non-metastatic MCF-7 counterpart...
June 23, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623560/zebra-chip-disease-enhances-respiration-and-oxidative-stress-of-potato-tubers-solanum-tuberosum-l
#8
G N Mohan Kumar, Lisa O Knowles, N Richard Knowles
The physiological phenotype of potato tubers afflicted by zebra chip disease is characterized by increased oxidative stress metabolism and upregulation of systems for its mitigation. Starch catabolism and extensive buildup of reducing sugars render potatoes infected with zebra chip (ZC) pathogen (Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum) unsuitable for fresh market and processing into chips/fries. Here we show that the disease inflicts considerable oxidative stress, which likely constitutes a substantial sink for metabolic energy, resulting in increased respiration rate of afflicted tubers...
June 16, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550409/lipid-droplets-accumulation-and-other-biochemical-changes-induced-in-the-fungal-pathogen-ustilago-maydis-under-nitrogen-starvation
#9
Lucero Romero Aguilar, Juan Pablo Pardo, Mónica Montero Lomelí, Oscar Ivan Luqueño Bocardo, Marco A Juárez Oropeza, Guadalupe Guerra Sánchez
In many organisms, the growth under nitrogen-deprivation or a poor nitrogen source impacts on the carbon flow distribution and causes accumulation of neutral lipids, which are stored as lipid droplets (LDs). Efforts are in progress to find the mechanism of LDs synthesis and degradation, and new organisms capable of accumulating large amounts of lipids for biotechnological applications. In this context, when Ustilago maydis was cultured in the absence of a nitrogen source, there was a large accumulation of lipid bodies containing mainly triacylglycerols...
May 26, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539187/heterologous-expression-of-bacterial-phosphoenol-pyruvate-carboxylase-and-entner-doudoroff-pathway-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-for-improvement-of-isobutanol-production
#10
Keisuke Morita, Yuta Nomura, Jun Ishii, Fumio Matsuda, Akihiko Kondo, Hiroshi Shimizu
Bacterial phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase (PPC) and enzymes in the Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway were heterologously expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to improve the NADPH supply required for the bio-production of chemicals such as isobutanol. The heterologous expression of PPC from Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 increased in the isobutabol titer 1.45-fold (93.2±1.6 mg/L) in metabolically engineered S. cerevisiae strains producing isobutanol. This result suggested that the pyruvate and NADPH supply for isobutanol biosynthesis was activated by PPC overexpression...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516502/differential-effects-of-exposure-to-parasites-and-bacteria-on-stress-response-in-turbot-scophthalmus-maximus-simultaneously-stressed-by-low-water-depth
#11
J J Rodríguez-Quiroga, C Otero-Rodiño, P Suárez, T P Nieto, J M García Estévez, F San Juan, J L Soengas
The stress response of turbot Scophthalmus maximus was evaluated in fish maintained 8 days under different water depths, normal (NWD, 30 cm depth, total water volume 40 l) or low (LWD, 5 cm depth, total water volume 10 l), in the additional presence of infection-infestation of two pathogens of this species. This was caused by intraperitoneal injection of sublethal doses of the bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida or the parasite Philasterides dicentrarchi (Ciliophora:Scuticociliatida)...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473643/g6pd-deficiency-does-not-affect-the-cytosolic-glutathione-or-thioredoxin-antioxidant-defense-in-mouse-cochlea
#12
Karessa White, Mi-Jung Kim, Dalian Ding, Chul Han, Hyo-Jin Park, Zaimary Meneses, Masaru Tanokura, Paul Linser, Richard Salvi, Shinichi Someya
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is the first and rate-limiting enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway; it catalyzes the conversion of glucose-6-phosphate to 6-phosphogluconate and NADP(+) to NADPH and is thought to be the principal source of NADPH for the cytosolic glutathione and thioredoxin antioxidant defense systems. We investigated the roles of G6PD in the cytosolic antioxidant defense in the cochlea of G6pd hypomorphic mice that were backcrossed onto normal-hearing CBA/CaJ mice. Young G6pd-deficient mice displayed a significant decrease in cytosolic G6PD protein levels and activities in the inner ears...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430821/dietary-dha-epa-ratio-affected-tissue-fatty-acid-profiles-antioxidant-capacity-hematological-characteristics-and-expression-of-lipid-related-genes-but-not-growth-in-juvenile-black-seabream-acanthopagrus-schlegelii
#13
Min Jin, Óscar Monroig, You Lu, Ye Yuan, Yi Li, Liyun Ding, Douglas R Tocher, Qicun Zhou
An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary docosahexaenoic to eicosapentaenoic acid ratio (DHA/EPA) on growth performance, fatty acid profiles, antioxidant capacity, hematological characteristics and expression of some lipid metabolism related genes of juvenile black seabream (Acanthopagrus schlegelii) of initial weight 9.47 ± 0.03 g. Five isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets (45% crude protein and 14% crude lipid) were formulated to contain graded DHA/EPA ratios of 0.65, 1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424262/magnesium-reduces-hepatic-lipid-accumulation-in-yellow-catfish-pelteobagrus-fulvidraco-and-modulates-lipogenesis-and-lipolysis-via-ppara-jak-stat-and-ampk-pathways-in-hepatocytes
#14
Chuan-Chuan Wei, Kun Wu, Yan Gao, Li-Han Zhang, Dan-Dan Li, Zhi Luo
Background: Magnesium influences hepatic lipid deposition in vertebrates, but the underlying mechanism is unknown.Objective: We used yellow catfish and their isolated hepatocytes to test the hypothesis that magnesium influences lipid deposition by modulating lipogenesis and lipolysis.Methods: Juvenile yellow catfish (mean ± SEM weight: 3.43 ± 0.02 g, 3 mo old, mixed sex) were fed a 0.14- (low), 0.87- (intermediate) or 2.11- (high) g Mg/kg diet for 56 d. Primary hepatocytes were incubated for 48 h in control or MgSO4-containing medium with or without 2-h pretreatment with an inhibitor (AG490, GW6471, or Compound C)...
June 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409884/altered-protein-expression-pattern-in-colon-tissue-of-mice-upon-supplementation-with-distinct-selenium-compounds
#15
Jette Rahn, Claudia Lennicke, Anna P Kipp, Andreas S Müller, Ludger A Wessjohann, Rudolf Lichtenfels, Barbara Seliger
The essential trace element Selenium (Se) is controversially discussed concerning its role in health and disease. Its various physiological functions are largely mediated by Se incorporation in the catalytic center of selenoproteins. To gain insights into the impact of Se deficiency and of supplementation with different Se compounds (selenite, selenate, selenomethionine) at defined concentrations (recommended, 150 μg/ kg diet; excessive, 750 μg/ kg diet) in murine colon tissues a twenty week feeding experiment was performed followed by analysis of the protein expression pattern of colon tissue specimens by 2D-DIGE and MALDI-TOF MS...
April 14, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404985/culture-independent-analysis-using-gnd-as-a-target-gene-to-assess-escherichia-coli-diversity-and-community-structure
#16
Adrian L Cookson, Patrick J Biggs, Jonathan C Marshall, Angela Reynolds, Rose M Collis, Nigel P French, Gale Brightwell
Current culture methods to investigate changes in Escherichia coli community structure are often slow and laborious. Genes such as gnd (6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase) have a highly variable nucleotide sequence and may provide a target for E. coli microbiome analysis using culture-independent methods. Metabarcoded PCR primers were used to generate separate libraries from calf faecal samples for high throughput sequencing. Although a total of 348 separate gnd sequence types (gSTs) were identified, 188 were likely to be due to sequencing errors...
April 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360941/co-production-of-hydrogen-and-ethanol-from-glucose-in-escherichia-coli-by-activation-of-pentose-phosphate-pathway-through-deletion-of-phosphoglucose-isomerase-pgi-and-overexpression-of-glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-zwf-and-6-phosphogluconate-dehydrogenase
#17
Balaji Sundara Sekar, Eunhee Seol, Sunghoon Park
BACKGROUND: Biologically, hydrogen (H2) can be produced through dark fermentation and photofermentation. Dark fermentation is fast in rate and simple in reactor design, but H2 production yield is unsatisfactorily low as <4 mol H2/mol glucose. To address this challenge, simultaneous production of H2 and ethanol has been suggested. Co-production of ethanol and H2 requires enhanced formation of NAD(P)H during catabolism of glucose, which can be accomplished by diversion of glycolytic flux from the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) pathway to the pentose-phosphate (PP) pathway in Escherichia coli...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352301/functional-overexpression-of-genes-involved-in-erythritol-synthesis-in-the-yeast-yarrowia-lipolytica
#18
Aleksandra M Mirończuk, Anna Biegalska, Adam Dobrowolski
BACKGROUND: Erythritol, a four-carbon polyol synthesized by microorganisms as an osmoprotectant, is a natural sweetener produced on an industrial scale for decades. Despite the fact that the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica has been reported since the 1970s as an erythritol producer, the metabolic pathway of this polyol has never been characterized. It was shown that erythritol synthesis in yeast occurs via the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). The oleaginous yeast Y. lipolytica is a good host for converting inexpensive glycerol into a value-added product such as erythritol...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295163/cyanobacterial-carbon-metabolism-fluxome-plasticity-and-oxygen-dependence
#19
Ni Wan, Drew M DeLorenzo, Lian He, Le You, Cheryl M Immethun, George Wang, Edward E K Baidoo, Whitney Hollinshead, Jay D Keasling, Tae Seok Moon, Yinjie J Tang
Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 has been widely used as a photo-biorefinery chassis. Based on its genome annotation, this species contains a complete TCA cycle, an Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway (EMPP), an oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (OPPP), and an Entner-Doudoroff pathway (EDP). To evaluate how Synechocystis 6803 catabolizes glucose under heterotrophic conditions, we performed (13) C metabolic flux analysis, metabolite pool size analysis, gene knockouts, and heterologous expressions. The results revealed a cyclic mode of flux through the OPPP...
July 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272754/hyperpolarized-%C3%AE-1-13-c-gluconolactone-as-a-probe-of-the-pentose-phosphate-pathway
#20
Karlos X Moreno, Crystal E Harrison, Matthew E Merritt, Zoltan Kovacs, Craig R Malloy, A Dean Sherry
The pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) is thought to be upregulated in trauma (to produce excess NADPH) and in cancer (to provide ribose for nucleotide biosynthesis), but simple methods for detecting changes in flux through this pathway are not available. MRI of hyperpolarized (13) C-enriched metabolites offers considerable potential as a rapid, non-invasive tool for detecting changes in metabolic fluxes. In this study, hyperpolarized δ-[1-(13) C]gluconolactone was used as a probe to detect flux through the oxidative portion of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPPox ) in isolated perfused mouse livers...
June 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
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