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Phosphogluconate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29849117/pentose-conversions-support-the-tumorigenesis-of-pancreatic-cancer-distant-metastases
#1
Matthew E Bechard, Anna E Word, Amanda V Tran, Xiaojing Liu, Jason W Locasale, Oliver G McDonald
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) adopts several unique metabolic strategies to support primary tumor growth. Whether additional metabolic strategies are adopted to support metastatic tumorigenesis is less clear. This could be particularly relevant for distant metastasis, which often follows a rapidly progressive clinical course. Here we report that PDAC distant metastases evolve a unique series of metabolic reactions to maintain activation of the anabolic glucose enzyme phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGD)...
May 30, 2018: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29812914/insights-into-substrate-specificity-of-archaeal-entner-doudoroff-aldolases-the-structures-of-picrophilus-torridus-2-keto-3-deoxygluconate-aldolase-and-sulfolobus-solfataricus-2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phospho-gluconate-aldolase-in-complex-with-2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconate
#2
Viatcheslav Zaitsev, Ulrike Johnsen, Matthias Reher, Marius Ortjohann, Garry L Taylor, Michael J Danson, Peter Schönheit, Susan Crennell
The thermoacidophilic archaea Picrophilus torridus and Sulfolobus solfataricus catabolise glucose via a non-phosphorylative Entner-Doudoroff pathway and a branched Entner-Doudoroff pathway, respectively. Key enzymes for these Entner-Doudoroff pathways are the aldolases, 2-keto-3-deoxygluconate aldolase (KDG-aldolase) and 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconate aldolase (KD(P)G-aldolase). KDG-aldolase from P. torridus (Pt-KDG-aldolase) is highly specific for the non-phosphorylated substrate, 2-keto-3-deoxygluconate (KDG), whereas KD(P)G-aldolase from S...
May 29, 2018: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793167/improvement-of-neuronal-differentiation-by-carbon-monoxide-role-of-pentose-phosphate-pathway
#3
Ana S Almeida, Nuno L Soares, Catarina O Sequeira, Sofia A Pereira, Ursula Sonnewald, Helena L A Vieira
Over the last decades, the silent-killer carbon monoxide (CO) has been shown to also be an endogenous cytoprotective molecule able to inhibit cell death and modulate mitochondrial metabolism. Neuronal metabolism is mostly oxidative and neurons also use glucose for maintaining their anti-oxidant status by generation of reduced glutathione (GSH) via the pentose-phosphate pathway (PPP). It is established that neuronal differentiation depends on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and signalling, however there is a lack of information about modulation of the PPP during adult neurogenesis...
May 15, 2018: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778095/establishing-an-innovative-carbohydrate-metabolic-pathway-for-efficient-production-of-2-keto-l-gulonic-acid-in-ketogulonicigenium-robustum-initiated-by-intronic-promoters
#4
Cai-Yun Wang, Ye Li, Zi-Wei Gao, Li-Cheng Liu, Meng-Yue Zhang, Tian-Yuan Zhang, Chun-Fu Wu, Yi-Xuan Zhang
BACKGROUND: 2-Keto-L-gulonic acid (2-KGA), the precursor of vitamin C, is currently produced by two-step fermentation. In the second step, L-sorbose is transformed into 2-KGA by the symbiosis system composed of Ketogulonicigenium vulgare and Bacillus megaterium. Due to the different nutrient requirements and the uncertain ratio of the two strains, the symbiosis system significantly limits strain improvement and fermentation optimization. RESULTS: In this study, Ketogulonicigenium robustum SPU_B003 was reported for its capability to grow well independently and to produce more 2-KGA than that of K...
May 19, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682102/expression-of-pentose-phosphate-pathway-related-proteins-in-breast-cancer
#5
Junjeong Choi, Eun-Sol Kim, Ja Seung Koo
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the expression of pentose phosphate pathway- (PPP-) related proteins and their significance in clinicopathologic factors of breast cancer. Methods: Immunohistochemical staining for PPP-related proteins (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase [G6PDH], 6-phosphogluconolactonase [6PGL], 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase [6PGDH], and nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 [NRF2]) was performed using tissue microarray (TMA) of 348 breast cancers...
2018: Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607620/regulation-of-carbohydrate-degradation-pathways-in-pseudomonas-involves-a-versatile-set-of-transcriptional-regulators
#6
REVIEW
Zulema Udaondo, Juan-Luis Ramos, Ana Segura, Tino Krell, Abdelali Daddaoua
Bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas are widespread in nature. In the last decades, members of this genus, especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas putida, have acquired great interest because of their interactions with higher organisms. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that colonizes the lung of cystic fibrosis patients, while P. putida is a soil bacterium able to establish a positive interaction with the plant rhizosphere. Members of Pseudomonas genus have a robust metabolism for amino acids and organic acids as well as aromatic compounds; however, these microbes metabolize a very limited number of sugars...
May 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604498/oxidative-stress-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction-mediated-cd-induced-hepatic-lipid-accumulation-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#7
Ya-Xiong Pan, Zhi Luo, Mei-Qing Zhuo, Chuan-Chuan Wei, Guang-Hui Chen, Yu-Feng Song
The present study was performed to determine the effect of waterborne CdCl2 exposure influencing lipid deposition and metabolism, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, and explore the underlying molecular mechanism of cadmium (Cd)-induced disorder of hepatic lipid metabolism in fish. To this end, adult zebrafish were exposed to three waterborne CdCl2 concentrations (0(control), 5 and 25 μg Cd/l, respectively) for 30 days. Lipid accumulation, the activities of enzymes related to lipid metabolism and oxidative stress, as well as the expression level of genes involved in lipid metabolism and mitophagy were determined in the liver of zebrafish...
June 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567533/high-salt-diet-induces-metabolic-alterations-in-multiple-biological-processes-of-dahl-salt-sensitive-rats
#8
Yanjun Wang, Xiangyang Liu, Chen Zhang, Zhengjun Wang
High salt induced renal disease is a condition resulting from the interactions of genetic and dietary factors causing multiple complications. To understand the metabolic alterations associated with renal disease, we comprehensively analyzed the metabonomic changes induced by high salt intake in Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats using GC-MS technology and biochemical analyses. Physiological features, serum chemistry, and histopathological data were obtained as complementary information. Our results showed that high salt (HS) intake for 16 weeks caused significant metabolic alterations in both the renal medulla and cortex involving a variety pathways involved in the metabolism of organic acids, amino acids, fatty acids, and purines...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558858/metabolic-engineering-of-corynebacterium-glutamicum-for-production-of-sunscreen-shinorine
#9
Yota Tsuge, Hideo Kawaguchi, Shogo Yamamoto, Yoshiko Nishigami, Masahiro Sota, Chiaki Ogino, Akihiko Kondo
Ultraviolet-absorbing chemicals are useful in cosmetics and skin care to prevent UV-induced skin damage. We demonstrate here that heterologous production of shinorine, which shows broad absorption maxima in the UV-A and UV-B region. A shinorine producing Corynebacterium glutamicum strain was constructed by expressing four genes from Actinosynnema mirum DSM 43827, which are responsible for the biosynthesis of shinorine from sedoheptulose-7-phosphate in the pentose phosphate pathway. Deletion of transaldolase encoding gene improved shinorine production by 5...
March 20, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29537830/ionic-hydrogel-based-on-chitosan-cross-linked-with-6-phosphogluconic-trisodium-salt-as-a-drug-delivery-system
#10
Mayte Martínez-Martínez, Guillermo Rodríguez-Berna, Isabel Gonzalez-Alvarez, Ma Jesús Hernández, Avelino Corma, Marival Bermejo, Virginia Merino, Marta Gonzalez-Alvarez
In this work, 6-phosphogluconic trisodium salt (6-PG- Na+ ) is introduced as a new aqueous and nontoxic cross-linking agent to obtain ionic hydrogels. Here, it is shown the formation of hydrogels based on chitosan cross-linked with 6-PG- Na+ . This formulation is obtained by ionic interaction of cationic groups of polymer with anionic groups of the cross-linker. These hydrogels are nontoxic, do not cause dermal irritation, are easy to extend, and have an adequate adhesion force to be applied as polymeric film over the skin...
April 9, 2018: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534964/inhibiting-6-phosphogluconate-dehydrogenase-reverses-doxorubicin-resistance-in-anaplastic-thyroid-cancer-via-inhibiting-nadph-dependent-metabolic-reprogramming
#11
Ling Ma, Qiao Cheng
Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is the most aggressive type of thyroid malignancies and resistant to chemotherapy. Little is known on the underlying mechanisms of ATC resistance to chemotherapy. In our work, we identified that 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD) is critically involved in the development of ATC resistance to doxorubicin. We found that 6PGD mRNA, protein and enzyme activity levels are significantly upregulated in ATC cells during the prolonged exposure to doxorubicin in a time-dependent manner...
April 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503646/pentose-phosphate-shunt-modulates-reactive-oxygen-species-and-nitric-oxide-production-controlling-trypanosoma-cruzi-in-macrophages
#12
Sue-Jie Koo, Bartosz Szczesny, Xianxiu Wan, Nagireddy Putluri, Nisha Jain Garg
Metabolism provides substrates for reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) generation, which are a part of the macrophage (Mφ) anti-microbial response. Mφs infected with Trypanosoma cruzi ( Tc ) produce insufficient levels of oxidative species and lower levels of glycolysis compared to classical Mφs. How Mφs fail to elicit a potent ROS/NO response during infection and its link to glycolysis is unknown. Herein, we evaluated for ROS, NO, and cytokine production in the presence of metabolic modulators of glycolysis and the Krebs cycle...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499375/metabolic-engineering-of-mevalonate-producing-escherichia-coli-strains-based-on-thermodynamic-analysis
#13
Hikaru Nagai, Ami Masuda, Yoshihiro Toya, Fumio Matsuda, Hiroshi Shimizu
Thermodynamic states of the central metabolism in a metabolically engineered Escherichia coli strain producing mevalonate (MVA) were studied to identify metabolic reactions with regulatory function for improvement of the specific rate of MVA production. Intracellular concentrations of metabolites were determined for E. coli strains expressing Enterococcus faecalis genes mvaE and mvaS (strain MV) by gas chromatography (GC)- and liquid chromatography (LC)-mass spectrometry (MS). Mixtures of 13 C-labeled metabolites served as internal standards were prepared from E...
February 27, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483187/comparative-and-integrative-metabolomics-reveal-that-s-nitrosation-inhibits-physiologically-relevant-metabolic-enzymes
#14
Joel J Bruegger, Brian C Smith, Sarah L Wynia-Smith, Michael A Marletta
Cysteine S -nitrosation is a reversible post-translational modification mediated by nitric oxide (• NO)-derived agents. S -Nitrosation participates in cellular signaling and is associated with several diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and neuronal disorders. Despite the physiological importance of this nonclassical • NO-signaling pathway, little is understood about how much S -nitrosation affects protein function. Moreover, identifying physiologically relevant targets of S -nitrosation is difficult because of the dynamics of transnitrosation and a limited understanding of the physiological mechanisms leading to selective protein S -nitrosation...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379012/antimicrobial-activity-of-apple-cider-vinegar-against-escherichia-coli-staphylococcus-aureus-and-candida-albicans-downregulating-cytokine-and-microbial-protein-expression
#15
Darshna Yagnik, Vlad Serafin, Ajit J Shah
The global escalation in antibiotic resistance cases means alternative antimicrobials are essential. The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial capacity of apple cider vinegar (ACV) against E. coli, S. aureus and C. albicans. The minimum dilution of ACV required for growth inhibition varied for each microbial species. For C. albicans, a 1/2 ACV had the strongest effect, S. aureus, a 1/25 dilution ACV was required, whereas for E-coli cultures, a 1/50 ACV dilution was required (p < 0.05)...
January 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356139/rates-of-chemical-reactions-embedded-in-a-metabolic-network-by-dissolution-dynamic-nuclear-polarisation-nmr
#16
Aude Sadet, Emmanuelle M M Weber, Aditya Jhajharia, Dennis Kurzbach, Geoffrey Bodenhausen, Emeric Miclet, Daniel Abergel
The isomerisation of 6-phosphogluconolactones and their hydrolyses into 6-phosphogluconic acid form a non enzymatic side cycle of the pentose-phosphate pathway (PPP) in cells. Dissolution dynamic nuclear polarisation can be used for determining the kinetic rates of the involved transformations in real time. It is found that the hydrolysis of both lactones is significantly slower than the isomerisation process, thereby shedding new light onto this subtle chemical process.
April 11, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352728/differential-proteomic-analysis-of-synovial-fluid-from-hip-arthroplasty-patients-with-a-pseudotumor-vs-periprosthetic-osteolysis
#17
Isabelle Catelas, Eric A Lehoux, Zhibin Ning, Daniel Figeys, Stephen J Baskey, Paul E Beaulé
Adverse tissue reactions to metal implants, including pseudotumors, can compromise implant functionality and survivorship. The identification of specific proteins in the synovial fluid (SF) of hip arthroplasty patients with a pseudotumor may lead to a better understanding of the underlying pathomechanisms. The objective of the present study was to compare the protein content of SF from patients with a short-term metal-on-metal hip implant associated with a pseudotumor and patients with a long-term metal-on-polyethylene hip implant associated with periprosthetic osteolysis...
January 20, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340974/inhibiting-6-phosphogluconate-dehydrogenase-selectively-targets-breast-cancer-through-ampk-activation
#18
Xiaoyu Yang, Xiaochun Peng, Jiangrong Huang
PURPOSE: 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD), a key enzyme of the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, is involved in tumor growth and metabolism. Although high 6PGD activity has been shown to be associated with poor prognosis, its role and therapeutic value in breast cancer remain unknown. METHODS: The levels and roles of 6PGD were analyzed in breast cancer cells and their normal counterparts. The underlying mechanisms of 6PGD's roles are also analyzed. RESULTS: We found that 6PGD is aberrantly activated in breast cancer as shown by its increased transcriptional and translational levels as well as enzyme activity in breast cancer tissues and cell lines compared to normal counterparts...
January 16, 2018: Clinical & Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339766/the-crystal-structure-of-d-xylonate-dehydratase-reveals-functional-features-of-enzymes-from-the-ilv-ed-dehydratase-family
#19
Mohammad Mubinur Rahman, Martina Andberg, Anu Koivula, Juha Rouvinen, Nina Hakulinen
The Ilv/ED dehydratase protein family includes dihydroxy acid-, gluconate-, 6-phosphogluconate- and pentonate dehydratases. The members of this family are involved in various biosynthetic and carbohydrate metabolic pathways. Here, we describe the first crystal structure of D-xylonate dehydratase from Caulobacter crescentus (CcXyDHT) at 2.7 Å resolution and compare it with other available enzyme structures from the IlvD/EDD protein family. The quaternary structure of CcXyDHT is a tetramer, and each monomer is composed of two domains in which the N-terminal domain forms a binding site for a [2Fe-2S] cluster and a Mg2+ ion...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187207/metabolomic-effects-of-ceo-2-sio-2-and-cuo-metal-oxide-nanomaterials-on-hepg2-cells
#20
Kirk T Kitchin, Steve Stirdivant, Brian L Robinette, Benjamin T Castellon, Xinhua Liang
BACKGROUND: To better assess potential hepatotoxicity of nanomaterials, human liver HepG2 cells were exposed for 3 days to five different CeO2 (either 30 or 100 μg/ml), 3 SiO2 based (30 μg/ml) or 1 CuO (3 μg/ml) nanomaterials with dry primary particle sizes ranging from 15 to 213 nm. Metabolomic assessment of exposed cells was then performed using four mass spectroscopy dependent platforms (LC and GC), finding 344 biochemicals. RESULTS: Four CeO2 , 1 SiO2 and 1 CuO nanomaterials increased hepatocyte concentrations of many lipids, particularly free fatty acids and monoacylglycerols but only CuO elevated lysolipids and sphingolipids...
November 29, 2017: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
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