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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437861/three-stage-decision-making-model-under-restricted-conditions-for-emergency-response-to-ships-not-under-control
#1
Bing Wu, Xinping Yan, Yang Wang, Di Zhang, C Guedes Soares
A ship that is not under control (NUC) is a typical incident that poses serious problems when in confined waters close to shore. The emergency response to NUC ships is to select the best risk control options, which is a challenge in restricted conditions (e.g., time limitation, resource constraint, and information asymmetry), particularly in inland waterway transportation. To enable a quick and effective response, this article develops a three-stage decision-making framework for NUC ship handling. The core of this method is (1) to propose feasible options for each involved entity (e...
April 24, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437848/inferring-network-structure-in-non-normal-and-mixed-discrete-continuous-genomic-data
#2
Anindya Bhadra, Arvind Rao, Veerabhadran Baladandayuthapani
Inferring dependence structure through undirected graphs is crucial for uncovering the major modes of multivariate interaction among high-dimensional genomic markers that are potentially associated with cancer. Traditionally, conditional independence has been studied using sparse Gaussian graphical models for continuous data and sparse Ising models for discrete data. However, there are two clear situations when these approaches are inadequate. The first occurs when the data are continuous but display non-normal marginal behavior such as heavy tails or skewness, rendering an assumption of normality inappropriate...
April 24, 2017: Biometrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437843/a-bayesian-belief-network-model-assessing-the-risk-to-wastewater-workers-of-contracting-ebola-virus-disease-during-an-outbreak
#3
Joseph W Zabinski, Kelsey J Pieper, Jacqueline MacDonald Gibson
During an outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD), hospitals' connections to municipal wastewater systems may provide a path for patient waste bearing infectious viral particles to pass from the hospital into the wastewater treatment system, potentially posing risks to sewer and wastewater workers. To quantify these risks, we developed a Bayesian belief network model incorporating data on virus behavior and survival along with structural characteristics of hospitals and wastewater treatment systems. We applied the model to assess risks under several different scenarios of workers' exposure to wastewater for a wastewater system typical of a mid-sized U...
April 24, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436844/probabilistic-elastic-part-model-a-pose-invariant-representation-for-real-world-face-verification
#4
Haoxiang Li, Gang Hua
Pose variation remains to be a major challenge for real-world face recognition. We approach this problem through a probabilistic elastic part model. We extract local descriptors (e.g., LBP or SIFT) from densely sampled multi-scale image patches. By augmenting each descriptor with its location, a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) is trained to capture the spatial-appearance distribution of the face parts of all face images in the training corpus, namely the probabilistic elastic part (PEP) model. Each mixture component of the GMM is confined to be a spherical Gaussian to balance the influence of the appearance and the location terms, which naturally defines a part...
April 18, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435304/comparative-effectiveness-of-glycemic-control-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-treated-with-glp-1-receptor-agonists-a-network-meta-analysis-of-placebo-controlled-and-active-comparator-trials
#5
Michelle E Orme, Hiep Nguyen, Jackie Y Lu, Susan A Thomas
BACKGROUND: Clinical studies of patients with type 2 diabetes show that GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) improve glycemic control and promote weight loss. We conducted a Bayesian network meta-analysis (NMA) of placebo- and active-controlled randomized trials to assess the comparative effectiveness of liraglutide, albiglutide, dulaglutide, and exenatide twice daily and once weekly, with a focus on glycemic control. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library (up to December 2014) for core registration programs for US-approved GLP-1 RAs...
2017: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435173/how-attention-influences-perceptual-decision-making-single-trial-eeg-correlates-of-drift-diffusion-model-parameters
#6
Michael D Nunez, Joachim Vandekerckhove, Ramesh Srinivasan
Perceptual decision making can be accounted for by drift-diffusion models, a class of decision-making models that assume a stochastic accumulation of evidence on each trial. Fitting response time and accuracy to a drift-diffusion model produces evidence accumulation rate and non-decision time parameter estimates that reflect cognitive processes. Our goal is to elucidate the effect of attention on visual decision making. In this study, we show that measures of attention obtained from simultaneous EEG recordings can explain per-trial evidence accumulation rates and perceptual preprocessing times during a visual decision making task...
February 2017: Journal of Mathematical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435014/maximum-likelihood-estimates-of-pairwise-rearrangement-distances
#7
Stuart Serdoz, Attila Egri-Nagy, Jeremy Sumner, Barbara R Holland, Peter D Jarvis, Mark M Tanaka, Andrew R Francis
Accurate estimation of evolutionary distances between taxa is important for many phylogenetic reconstruction methods. Distances can be estimated using a range of different evolutionary models, from single nucleotide polymorphisms to large-scale genome rearrangements. Corresponding corrections for genome rearrangement distances fall into 3 categories: Empirical computational studies, Bayesian/MCMC approaches, and combinatorial approaches. Here, we introduce a maximum likelihood estimator for the inversion distance between a pair of genomes, using a group-theoretic approach to modelling inversions introduced recently...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432176/a-phase-i-study-of-the-cdk4-6-inhibitor-ribociclib-lee011-in-pediatric-patients-with-malignant-rhabdoid-tumors-neuroblastoma-and-other-solid-tumors
#8
Birgit Geoerger, Franck Bourdeaut, Steven G DuBois, Matthias Fischer, James I Geller, Nicholas G Gottardo, Aurélien Marabelle, Andrew D J Pearson, Shakeel Modak, Thomas Cash, Giles W Robinson, Marlyane Motta, Alessandro Matano, Suraj G Bhansali, Jason R Dobson, Sudha Parasuraman, Susan N Chi
Purpose: The cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4/6 inhibitor, ribociclib (LEE011), displayed preclinical activity in neuroblastoma and malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT) models. In this phase I study, the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and recommended phase II dose (RP2D), safety, pharmacokinetics (PK), and preliminary activity of single-agent ribociclib were investigated in pediatric patients with neuroblastoma, MRT, or other cyclin D-CDK4/6-INK4-retinoblastoma pathway-altered tumors.Experimental Design: Patients (aged 1-21 years) received escalating once-daily oral doses of ribociclib (3-weeks-on/1-week-off)...
April 21, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431361/uncertainty-quantification-and-validation-of-3d-lattice-scaffolds-for-computer-aided-biomedical-applications
#9
Recep M Gorguluarslan, Seung-Kyum Choi, Christopher J Saldana
A methodology is proposed for uncertainty quantification and validation to accurately predict the mechanical response of lattice structures used in the design of scaffolds. Effective structural properties of the scaffolds are characterized using a developed multi-level stochastic upscaling process that propagates the quantified uncertainties at strut level to the lattice structure level. To obtain realistic simulation models for the stochastic upscaling process and minimize the experimental cost, high-resolution finite element models of individual struts were reconstructed from the micro-CT scan images of lattice structures which are fabricated by selective laser melting...
April 12, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429965/bayesian-sem-for-specification-search-problems-in-testing-factorial-invariance
#10
Dexin Shi, Hairong Song, Xiaolan Liao, Robert Terry, Lori A Snyder
Specification search problems refer to two important but under-addressed issues in testing for factorial invariance: how to select proper reference indicators and how to locate specific non-invariant parameters. In this study, we propose a two-step procedure to solve these issues. Step 1 is to identify a proper reference indicator using the Bayesian structural equation modeling approach. An item is selected if it is associated with the highest likelihood to be invariant across groups. Step 2 is to locate specific non-invariant parameters, given that a proper reference indicator has already been selected in Step 1...
April 21, 2017: Multivariate Behavioral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429842/linking-macroecology-and-community-ecology-refining-predictions-of-species-distributions-using-biotic-interaction-networks
#11
Phillip P A Staniczenko, Prabu Sivasubramaniam, K Blake Suttle, Richard G Pearson
Macroecological models for predicting species distributions usually only include abiotic environmental conditions as explanatory variables, despite knowledge from community ecology that all species are linked to other species through biotic interactions. This disconnect is largely due to the different spatial scales considered by the two sub-disciplines: macroecologists study patterns at large extents and coarse resolutions, while community ecologists focus on small extents and fine resolutions. A general framework for including biotic interactions in macroecological models would help bridge this divide, as it would allow for rigorous testing of the role that biotic interactions play in determining species ranges...
April 21, 2017: Ecology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429470/meta-analysis-combining-parallel-and-cross-over-trials-with-random-effects
#12
François Curtin
Meta-analysis can necessitate the combination of parallel and cross-over trial designs. Because of the differences in the trial designs and potential biases notably associated with the crossover trials, one often combines trials of the same designs only, which decreases the power of the meta-analysis. To combine results of clinical trials from parallel and cross-over designs, we extend the method proposed in an accompanying study to account for random effects. We propose here a hierarchical mixed model allowing the combination of the 2 types of trial designs and accounting for additional covariates where random effects can be introduced to account for heterogeneity in trial, treatment effect, and interactions...
April 21, 2017: Research Synthesis Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429157/scenes-as-micro-cultures-examining-heterogeneity-of-hiv-risk-behavior-among-gay-bisexual-and-other-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-toronto-canada
#13
Syed W Noor, Barry D Adam, David J Brennan, David A Moskowitz, Sandra Gardner, Trevor A Hart
Using latent class analysis (LCA), we examined patterns of participation in multiple scenes, how sexual risk practices vary by scene, and psychosocial factors associated with these patterns among 470 gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBM) recruited from Toronto. We calculated posterior probability of being in a class from participation in nine separate scenes. We used Entropy, the Bayesian information criterion and the Lo-Mendel-Rubin likelihood ratio test to identify the best fit model. Fit indices suggested a four-class solution...
April 20, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428869/rapid-maximum-likelihood-ancestral-state-reconstruction-of-continuous-characters-a-rerooting-free-algorithm
#14
Eric W Goolsby
Ancestral state reconstruction is a method used to study the evolutionary trajectories of quantitative characters on phylogenies. Although efficient methods for univariate ancestral state reconstruction under a Brownian motion model have been described for at least 25 years, to date no generalization has been described to allow more complex evolutionary models, such as multivariate trait evolution, non-Brownian models, missing data, and within-species variation. Furthermore, even for simple univariate Brownian motion models, most phylogenetic comparative R packages compute ancestral states via inefficient tree rerooting and full tree traversals at each tree node, making ancestral state reconstruction extremely time-consuming for large phylogenies...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428322/glycemic-control-during-continuous-subcutaneous-insulin-infusion-versus-multiple-daily-insulin-injections-in-type-2-diabetes-individual-patient-data-meta-analysis-and-meta-regression-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#15
REVIEW
John C Pickup, Yves Reznik, Alex J Sutton
OBJECTIVE: To compare glycemic control during continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) and multiple daily insulin injections (MDI) in people with type 2 diabetes to identify patient characteristics that determine those best treated by CSII. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Randomized controlled trials were selected comparing HbA1c during CSII versus MDI in people with type 2 diabetes. Data sources included Cochrane database and Ovid Medline. We explored patient-level determinants of final HbA1c level and insulin dose using Bayesian meta-regression models of individual patient data and summary effects using two-step meta-analysis...
May 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427363/a-spatio-temporal-analysis-of-suicide-in-el-salvador
#16
Carlos Carcach
BACKGROUND: In 2012, international statistics showed El Salvador's suicide rate as 40th in the world and the highest in Latin America. Over the last 15 years, national statistics show the suicide death rate declining as opposed to an increasing rate of homicide. Though completed suicide is an important social and health issue, little is known about its prevalence, incidence, etiology and spatio-temporal behavior. The primary objective of this study was to examine completed suicide and homicide using the stream analogy to lethal violence within a spatio-temporal framework...
April 20, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427355/identifying-and-characterizing-hepatitis-c-virus-hotspots-in-massachusetts-a-spatial-epidemiological-approach
#17
Thomas J Stopka, Michael A Goulart, David J Meyers, Marga Hutcheson, Kerri Barton, Shauna Onofrey, Daniel Church, Ashley Donahue, Kenneth K H Chui
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections have increased during the past decade but little is known about geographic clustering patterns. METHODS: We used a unique analytical approach, combining geographic information systems (GIS), spatial epidemiology, and statistical modeling to identify and characterize HCV hotspots, statistically significant clusters of census tracts with elevated HCV counts and rates. We compiled sociodemographic and HCV surveillance data (n = 99,780 cases) for Massachusetts census tracts (n = 1464) from 2002 to 2013...
April 20, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427337/treatment-seeking-behaviour-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-estimated-using-a-bayesian-model
#18
Victor A Alegana, Jim Wright, Carla Pezzulo, Andrew J Tatem, Peter M Atkinson
BACKGROUND: Seeking treatment in formal healthcare for uncomplicated infections is vital to combating disease in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Healthcare treatment-seeking behaviour varies within and between communities and is modified by socio-economic, demographic, and physical factors. As a result, it remains a challenge to quantify healthcare treatment-seeking behaviour using a metric that is comparable across communities. Here, we present an application for transforming individual categorical responses (actions related to fever) to a continuous probabilistic estimate of fever treatment for one country in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA)...
April 20, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426818/alternative-glacial-interglacial-refugia-demographic-hypotheses-tested-on-cephalocereus-columna-trajani-cactaceae-in-the-intertropical-mexican-drylands
#19
Amelia Cornejo-Romero, Carlos Fabián Vargas-Mendoza, Gustavo F Aguilar-Martínez, Javier Medina-Sánchez, Beatriz Rendón-Aguilar, Pedro Luis Valverde, Jose Alejandro Zavala-Hurtado, Alejandra Serrato, Sombra Rivas-Arancibia, Marco Aurelio Pérez-Hernández, Gerardo López-Ortega, Cecilia Jiménez-Sierra
Historic demography changes of plant species adapted to New World arid environments could be consistent with either the Glacial Refugium Hypothesis (GRH), which posits that populations contracted to refuges during the cold-dry glacial and expanded in warm-humid interglacial periods, or with the Interglacial Refugium Hypothesis (IRH), which suggests that populations contracted during interglacials and expanded in glacial times. These contrasting hypotheses are developed in the present study for the giant columnar cactus Cephalocereus columna-trajani in the intertropical Mexican drylands where the effects of Late Quaternary climatic changes on phylogeography of cacti remain largely unknown...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425926/chemical-source-localization-fusing-concentration-information-in-the-presence-of-chemical-background-noise
#20
Víctor Pomareda, Rudys Magrans, Juan M Jiménez-Soto, Dani Martínez, Marcel Tresánchez, Javier Burgués, Jordi Palacín, Santiago Marco
We present the estimation of a likelihood map for the location of the source of a chemical plume dispersed under atmospheric turbulence under uniform wind conditions. The main contribution of this work is to extend previous proposals based on Bayesian inference with binary detections to the use of concentration information while at the same time being robust against the presence of background chemical noise. For that, the algorithm builds a background model with robust statistics measurements to assess the posterior probability that a given chemical concentration reading comes from the background or from a source emitting at a distance with a specific release rate...
April 20, 2017: Sensors
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