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Bayesian modeling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054640/apportioning-source-of-erosion-induced-organic-matter-in-the-hilly-gully-region-of-loess-plateau-in-china-insight-from-lipid-biomarker-and-isotopic-signature-analysis
#1
Chun Liu, Zhongwu Li, Xiaofeng Chang, Xiaodong Nie, Lin Liu, Haibing Xiao, Danyang Wang, Hao Peng, Guangming Zeng
Understanding the dynamics of organic matter (OM) at global and local scales is one of the challenges in the environmental sciences and i.e. terrestrial biogeochemistry. The accurate identification of OM is an essential element to achieve this goal. In our study, a novel application for quantitatively apportioning sources of eroded sedimentary OM from an eco-geomorphologic perspective was shown successfully via a coupled molecular n-alkane biomarkers and stable isotopic signatures ((13)C and (15)N) along with elemental compositions (TOC and TN) using a Bayesian mixing model (SIAR)...
October 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054389/optimizing-surgical-quality-datasets-to-care-for-older-adults-lessons-from-the-american-college-of-surgeons-nsqip-geriatric-surgery-pilot
#2
Julia R Berian, Lynn Zhou, Melissa A Hornor, Marcia M Russell, Mark E Cohen, Emily Finlayson, Clifford Y Ko, Thomas N Robinson, Ronnie A Rosenthal
BACKGROUND: Surgical quality datasets can be better tailored toward older adults. The American College of Surgeons (ACS) NSQIP Geriatric Surgery Pilot collected risk factors and outcomes in 4 geriatric-specific domains: cognition, decision-making, function, and mobility. This study evaluated the contributions of geriatric-specific factors to risk adjustment in modeling 30-day outcomes and geriatric-specific outcomes (postoperative delirium, new mobility aid use, functional decline, and pressure ulcers)...
September 28, 2017: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053049/a-bayesian-meta-analysis-method-for-estimating-risk-difference-of-rare-events
#3
Yuanyuan Tang, Qi Tang, Yao Yu, Shihua Wen
Bayesian meta-analysis has been more frequently utilized for synthesizing safety and efficacy information to support landmark decision-making due to its flexibility of incorporating prior information and availability of computing software. However, when the outcome is binary and the events are rare, where event counts can be zero, conventional meta-analysis methods including Bayesian methods may not work well. Several methods have been proposed to tackle this issue but the prior knowledge of event rate was not utilized to increase precision of risk difference estimates...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052561/a-bayesian-stepwise-discriminant-model-for-predicting-risk-factors-of-preterm-premature-rupture-of-membranes-a-case-control-study
#4
Li-Xia Zhang, Yang Sun, Hai Zhao, Na Zhu, Xing-De Sun, Xing Jin, Ai-Min Zou, Yang Mi, Ji-Ru Xu
BACKGROUND: Preterm premature rupture of membrane (PPROM) can lead to serious consequences such as intrauterine infection, prolapse of the umbilical cord, and neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. Genital infection is a very important risk which closely related with PPROM. The preliminary study only made qualitative research on genital infection, but there was no deep and clear judgment about the effects of pathogenic bacteria. This study was to analyze the association of infections with PPROM in pregnant women in Shaanxi, China, and to establish Bayesian stepwise discriminant analysis to predict the incidence of PPROM...
October 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052316/does-an-intervention-designed-to-improve-self-management-social-support-and-awareness-of-palliative-care-address-needs-of-persons-with-heart-failure-family-caregivers-and-clinicians
#5
Margaret Sebern, Nasir Sulemanjee, Mark J Sebern, Mauricio Garnier-Villarreal, Carol J Whitlatch
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The study aims were to conduct a formative evaluation of the iPad-Enhanced Shared Care Intervention for Partners (iSCIP) among persons with heart failure (HF), family caregivers, and clinicians. Together, persons with HF and family caregivers are referred to as partners. BACKGROUND: There is growing awareness of the caregiver's contributions to HF self-management, social support, and reciprocal benefits of interventions that involve both partners...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052021/a-new-approach-to-predict-user-mobility-using-semantic-analysis-and-machine-learning
#6
Roshan Fernandes, Rio D'Souza G L
Mobility prediction is a technique in which the future location of a user is identified in a given network. Mobility prediction provides solutions to many day-to-day life problems. It helps in seamless handovers in wireless networks to provide better location based services and to recalculate paths in Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET). In the present study, a framework is presented which predicts user mobility in presence and absence of mobility history. Naïve Bayesian classification algorithm and Markov Model are used to predict user future location when user mobility history is available...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051796/active-mean-fields-for-probabilistic-image-segmentation-connections-with-chan-vese-and-rudin-osher-fatemi-models
#7
Marc Niethammer, Kilian M Pohl, Firdaus Janoos, William M Wells
Segmentation is a fundamental task for extracting semantically meaningful regions from an image. The goal of segmentation algorithms is to accurately assign object labels to each image location. However, image-noise, shortcomings of algorithms, and image ambiguities cause uncertainty in label assignment. Estimating the uncertainty in label assignment is important in multiple application domains, such as segmenting tumors from medical images for radiation treatment planning. One way to estimate these uncertainties is through the computation of posteriors of Bayesian models, which is computationally prohibitive for many practical applications...
2017: SIAM Journal on Imaging Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051679/multivariate-functional-response-regression-with-application-to-fluorescence-spectroscopy-in-a-cervical-pre-cancer-study
#8
Hongxiao Zhu, Jeffrey S Morris, Fengrong Wei, Dennis D Cox
Many scientific studies measure different types of high-dimensional signals or images from the same subject, producing multivariate functional data. These functional measurements carry different types of information about the scientific process, and a joint analysis that integrates information across them may provide new insights into the underlying mechanism for the phenomenon under study. Motivated by fluorescence spectroscopy data in a cervical pre-cancer study, a multivariate functional response regression model is proposed, which treats multivariate functional observations as responses and a common set of covariates as predictors...
July 2017: Computational Statistics & Data Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051108/a-bayesian-model-that-jointly-considers-comparative-effectiveness-research-and-patients-preferences-may-help-inform-grade-recommendations-an-application-to-rheumatoid-arthritis-treatment-recommendations
#9
Glen S Hazlewood, Claire Bombardier, George Tomlinson, Deborah Marshall
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the preferred treatment for early rheumatoid arthritis (ERA) using a novel Bayesian approach that jointly considers patients' preferences and comparative effectiveness research STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We estimated the preferred treatment by using patients' preferences measured in a discrete-choice experiment to apply weights to benefit and harm outcomes from a network meta-analysis, and other considerations (dosing, rare adverse events). Using Bayesian analyses, we considered the variability in patients' preferences and the imprecision in both patients' preferences and the treatment effects; all key considerations in the GRADE approach...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049392/multiple-co-clustering-based-on-nonparametric-mixture-models-with-heterogeneous-marginal-distributions
#10
Tomoki Tokuda, Junichiro Yoshimoto, Yu Shimizu, Go Okada, Masahiro Takamura, Yasumasa Okamoto, Shigeto Yamawaki, Kenji Doya
We propose a novel method for multiple clustering, which is useful for analysis of high-dimensional data containing heterogeneous types of features. Our method is based on nonparametric Bayesian mixture models in which features are automatically partitioned (into views) for each clustering solution. This feature partition works as feature selection for a particular clustering solution, which screens out irrelevant features. To make our method applicable to high-dimensional data, a co-clustering structure is newly introduced for each view...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049343/a-sequential-monte-carlo-approach-to-gene-expression-deconvolution
#11
Oyetunji E Ogundijo, Xiaodong Wang
High-throughput gene expression data are often obtained from pure or complex (heterogeneous) biological samples. In the latter case, data obtained are a mixture of different cell types and the heterogeneity imposes some difficulties in the analysis of such data. In order to make conclusions on gene expresssion data obtained from heterogeneous samples, methods such as microdissection and flow cytometry have been employed to physically separate the constituting cell types. However, these manual approaches are time consuming when measuring the responses of multiple cell types simultaneously...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049333/synchrotron-imaging-and-markov-chain-monte-carlo-reveal-tooth-mineralization-patterns
#12
Daniel R Green, Gregory M Green, Albert S Colman, Felicitas B Bidlack, Paul Tafforeau, Tanya M Smith
The progressive character of tooth formation records aspects of mammalian life history, diet, seasonal behavior and climate. Tooth mineralization occurs in two stages: secretion and maturation, which overlap to some degree. Despite decades of study, the spatial and temporal pattern of elemental incorporation during enamel mineralization remains poorly characterized. Here we use synchrotron X-ray microtomography and Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling to estimate mineralization patterns from an ontogenetic series of sheep molars (n = 45 M1s, 18 M2s)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048176/meta-analysis-of-the-effect-of-natural-frequencies-on-bayesian-reasoning
#13
Michelle McDowell, Perke Jacobs
The natural frequency facilitation effect describes the finding that people are better able to solve descriptive Bayesian inference tasks when represented as joint frequencies obtained through natural sampling, known as natural frequencies, than as conditional probabilities. The present meta-analysis reviews 20 years of research seeking to address when, why, and for whom natural frequency formats are most effective. We review contributions from research associated with the 2 dominant theoretical perspectives, the ecological rationality framework and nested-sets theory, and test potential moderators of the effect...
October 19, 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047364/mapping-child-maltreatment-risk-a-12-year-spatio-temporal-analysis-of-neighborhood-influences
#14
Enrique Gracia, Antonio López-Quílez, Miriam Marco, Marisol Lila
BACKGROUND: 'Place' matters in understanding prevalence variations and inequalities in child maltreatment risk. However, most studies examining ecological variations in child maltreatment risk fail to take into account the implications of the spatial and temporal dimensions of neighborhoods. In this study, we conduct a high-resolution small-area study to analyze the influence of neighborhood characteristics on the spatio-temporal epidemiology of child maltreatment risk. METHODS: We conducted a 12-year (2004-2015) small-area Bayesian spatio-temporal epidemiological study with all families with child maltreatment protection measures in the city of Valencia, Spain...
October 18, 2017: International Journal of Health Geographics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047071/category-effects-on-stimulus-estimation-shifting-and-skewed-frequency-distributions-a-reexamination
#15
Sean Duffy, John Smith
Duffy, Huttenlocher, Hedges, and Crawford (Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 17(2), 224-230, 2010) report on experiments where participants estimate the lengths of lines. These studies were designed to test the category adjustment model (CAM), a Bayesian model of judgments. The authors report that their analysis provides evidence consistent with CAM: that there is a bias toward the running mean and not recent stimuli. We reexamine their data. First, we attempt to replicate their analysis, and we obtain different results...
October 18, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046631/development-of-a-bayesian-estimator-for-audio-visual-integration-a-neurocomputational-study
#16
Mauro Ursino, Andrea Crisafulli, Giuseppe di Pellegrino, Elisa Magosso, Cristiano Cuppini
The brain integrates information from different sensory modalities to generate a coherent and accurate percept of external events. Several experimental studies suggest that this integration follows the principle of Bayesian estimate. However, the neural mechanisms responsible for this behavior, and its development in a multisensory environment, are still insufficiently understood. We recently presented a neural network model of audio-visual integration (Neural Computation, 2017) to investigate how a Bayesian estimator can spontaneously develop from the statistics of external stimuli...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045669/genetic-decoupling-of-thermal-hardiness-across-metamorphosis-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#17
Philip J Freda, Jackson T Alex, Theodore J Morgan, Gregory J Ragland
As organisms age the environment fluctuates, exerting differential selection across ontogeny. In particular, highly seasonal environments expose life stages to often drastically different thermal environments. This developmental variation is particularly striking in organisms with complex life cycles, wherein life history stages also exhibit distinct morphologies, physiologies, and behaviors. Genes acting pleiotropically on thermal responses may produce genetic correlations across ontogeny, constraining the independent evolution of each life stage to their respective thermal environments...
October 16, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045456/inference-of-epidemiological-parameters-from-household-stratified-data
#18
James N Walker, Joshua V Ross, Andrew J Black
We consider a continuous-time Markov chain model of SIR disease dynamics with two levels of mixing. For this so-called stochastic households model, we provide two methods for inferring the model parameters-governing within-household transmission, recovery, and between-household transmission-from data of the day upon which each individual became infectious and the household in which each infection occurred, as might be available from First Few Hundred studies. Each method is a form of Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo that allows us to calculate a joint posterior distribution for all parameters and hence the household reproduction number and the early growth rate of the epidemic...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045445/occupancy-modeling-reveals-territory-level-effects-of-nest-boxes-on-the-presence-colonization-and-persistence-of-a-declining-raptor-in-a-fruit-growing-region
#19
Megan E Shave, Catherine A Lindell
Nest boxes for predators in agricultural regions are an easily implemented tool to improve local habitat quality with potential benefits for both conservation and agriculture. The potential for nest boxes to increase raptor populations in agricultural regions is of particular interest given their positions as top predators. This study examined the effects of cherry orchard nest boxes on the local breeding population of a declining species, the American Kestrel (Falco sparverius), in a fruit-growing region of Michigan...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044715/bayesian-genome-wide-association-analysis-for-body-weight-in-farmed-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-l
#20
G M Yoshida, J P Lhorente, R Carvalheiro, J M Yáñez
We performed a genome-wide association study to detect markers associated with growth traits in Atlantic salmon. The analyzed traits included body weight at tagging (BWT) and body weight at 25 months (BW25M). Genotypes of 4662 animals were imputed from the 50K SNP chip to the 200K SNP chip using fimpute software. The markers were simultaneously modeled using Bayes C to identify genomic regions associated with the traits. We identified windows explaining a maximum of 3.71% and 3.61% of the genetic variance for BWT and BW25M respectively...
October 17, 2017: Animal Genetics
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