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Benjamin Margolin Rottman
Whether humans can accurately make decisions in line with Bayes' rule has been one of the most important yet contentious topics in cognitive psychology. Though a number of paradigms have been used for studying Bayesian updating, rarely have subjects been allowed to use their own preexisting beliefs about the prior and the likelihood. A study is reported in which physicians judged the posttest probability of a diagnosis for a patient vignette after receiving a test result, and the physicians' posttest judgments were compared to the normative posttest calculated from their own beliefs in the sensitivity and false positive rate of the test (likelihood ratio) and prior probability of the diagnosis...
October 17, 2016: Memory & Cognition
D Szalaj, M R De Orte, T A Goulding, I D Medeiros, T A DelValls, A Cesar
The study assesses the effects of carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) leaks and ocean acidification (OA) on the metal bioavailability and reproduction of the mytilid Perna perna. In laboratory-scale experiments, CCS leakage scenarios (pH 7.0, 6.5, 6.0) and one OA (pH 7.6) scenario were tested using metal-contaminated sediment elutriates and seawater from Santos Bay. The OA treatment did not have an effect on fertilisation, while significant effects were observed in larval-development bioassays where only 16 to 27 % of larva developed normally...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Shutu Xu, Qianqian Sun, Xiaohua Zhou, Xiao Tan, Man Xiao, Wei Zhu, Ming Li
The 16S rDNA, 16S-23S rDNA-ITS, cpcBA-IGS, mcy gene and several polysaccharide biosynthesis-related genes (epsL and TagH) were analyzed along with the identification of the morphology of Microcystis colonies collected in Lake Taihu in 2014. M. wesenbergii colonies could be distinguished directly from other colonies using espL. TagH divided all of the samples into two clusters but failed to distinguish different phenotypes. Our results indicated that neither morphology nor molecular tools including 16S rDNA, 16S-23S ITS and cpcBA-IGS could distinguish toxic and non-toxic species among the identified Microcystis species...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Xie-Feng Yao, Jiu-Ming Zhang, Li Tian, Jian-Hua Guo
In this study, determination of heavy metal parameters and microbiological characterization of marine sediments obtained from two heavily polluted sites and one low-grade contaminated reference station at Jiaozhou Bay in China were carried out. The microbial communities found in the sampled marine sediments were studied using PCR-DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) fingerprinting profiles in combination with multivariate analysis. Clustering analysis of DGGE and matrix of heavy metals displayed similar occurrence patterns...
October 4, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
Carlos Neira, Jennifer Cossaboon, Guillermo Mendoza, Eunha Hoh, Lisa A Levin
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have garnered much attention due to their bioaccumulation, carcinogenic properties, and persistence in the environment. Investigation of the spatial distribution, composition, and sources of PAHs in sediments of three recreational marinas in San Diego Bay, California revealed significant differences among marinas, with concentrations in one site exceeding 16,000ngg(-1). 'Hotspots' of PAH concentration suggest an association with stormwater outfalls draining into the basins...
October 14, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Yoshitaka Matsuzaki
Despite many previous in situ estimates of horizontal diffusivity below the sea surface, horizontal diffusivity at the sea surface, which is a parameter required in the prediction of oil diffusion, has not been formulated. This study conducted in situ estimations to quantify horizontal diffusivity at the sea surface. To measure the horizontal diffusivity at and below the sea surface, clusters of thin sponge rubbers (simulating spilled oil), together with drifting buoys, were deployed on successive occasions in Sagami Bay, Japan...
October 14, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Elissaveta Petrova, Arne Scholz, Juliane Paul, Andrea Sturz, Katja Haike, Franziska Siegel, Dominik Mumberg, Ningshu Liu
Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) is the rate-limiting enzyme in de novo fatty acid synthesis, and its ACC1 isoform is overexpressed in pancreatic and various other cancers. The activity of many oncogenic signaling molecules, including WNT and Hedgehog (HH), is post-translationally modified by lipidation. Here, we report that inhibition of ACC by a small molecule inhibitor, BAY ACC002, blocked WNT3A lipidation, secretion, and signaling. In pancreatic cancer cells, where WNT and HH are key oncogenic drivers, ACC inhibition simultaneously suppressed WNT and HH signaling, and led to anti-proliferative effects...
October 13, 2016: Oncotarget
Hari Bhupathi Krishnan, Alaa Alaswad, Nathan Wayne Oehrle, Jason Gillman
Legumes form symbiotic association with soil-dwelling bacteria collectively called rhizobia. This association results in the formation of nodules, unique plant-derived organs, within which the rhizobia are housed. Rhizobia encoded-nitrogenase facilitates the conversation of atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia, which is utilized by the plants for its growth and development. Fatty acids have been shown to play an important role in root nodule symbiosis. In this study, we have investigated the role of Stearoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Desaturase- isoform C (SACPD-C), a soybean enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of stearic acid into oleic acid, which is expressed in developing seeds and in nitrogen fixing nodules...
October 17, 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Patrice Chevallier, Myriam Labopin, Regis Peffault de La Tour, Bruno Lioure, Claude-Eric Bulabois, Anne Huynh, Didier Blaise, Pascal Turlure, Etienne Daguindau, Natacha Maillard, Ibrahim Yakoub-Agha, Gaelle Guillerm, Jeremy Delage, Nathalie Contentin, Jacques-Olivier Bay, Florence Beckerich, Jean-Henri Bourhis, Marie Detrait, Stéphane Vigouroux, Sylvie François, Faezeh Legrand, Thierry Guillaume, Mohamad Mohty
We have retrospectively compared survivals between acute myeloid leukemia (AML)/myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients who received either a clofarabine/busulfan (CloB2A2) or a fludarabine/busulfan (FB2A2) RIC regimen for allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Between 2009 and 2014, 355 allotransplanted cases were identified from the SFGM-TC registry as having received either the FB2A2 (n = 316, 56% males, median age: 59.2 years, AML 78.5%, first complete remission [CR1] 72%, median follow-up: 20 months) or the CloB2A2 (n = 39, 62% males, median age: 60...
October 17, 2016: Cancer Medicine
Chuanchuan Zheng, Yong Xia, Yongsheng Pan, Jinhu Chen
In this review paper, we summarized the automated dementia identification algorithms in the literature from a pattern classification perspective. Since most of those algorithms consist of both feature extraction and classification, we provide a survey on three categories of feature extraction methods, including the voxel-, vertex- and ROI-based ones, and four categories of classifiers, including the linear discriminant analysis, Bayes classifiers, support vector machines, and artificial neural networks. We also compare the reported performance of many recently published dementia identification algorithms...
March 2016: Brain Informatics
Laura A Thompson, Tracy A Romano
Increased pressure, associated with diving, can alter cell function through several mechanisms and has been shown to impact immune functions performed by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in humans. While marine mammals possess specific adaptations which protect them from dive related injury, it is unknown how their immune system is adapted to the challenges associated with diving. The purpose of this study was to measure PBMC activation (IL2R expression) and Concanavalin A induced lymphocyte proliferation (BrdU incorporation) in belugas following in vitro pressure exposures during baseline, Out of Water Examination (OWE) and capture/release conditions...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
David L Taylor, Jason McNamee, John Lake, Carissa L Gervasi, Danial G Palance
This study evaluated the relative importance of the N arragansett Bay estuary (RI and MA, USA), and associated tidal rivers and coastal lagoons, as nurseries for juvenile winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, and summer flounder, Paralichthys dentatus. Winter flounder (WF) and summer flounder (SF) abundance and growth were measured from May to October (2009-2013) and served as indicators for the use and quality of shallow-water habitats (water depth < 1.5-3.0 m). These bioindicators were then analyzed with respect to physiochemical conditions to determine the mechanisms underlying intra-specific habitat selection...
September 2016: Estuaries and Coasts: Journal of the Estuarine Research Federation
Jonathan A Otter, Philip Burgess, Frances Davies, Siddharth Mookerjee, Julie Singleton, Mark Gilchrist, Darren Parsons, Eimear T Brannigan, Julie Robotham, Alison H Holmes
OBJECTIVE: To perform an economic evaluation on the cost associated with an outbreak of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE). METHODS: We performed an observational economic evaluation of an outbreak of CPE (NDM-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae) affecting 40 patients in a group of five hospitals across three sites in West London. Costs were split into actual expenditure (including anti-infective costs, enhanced CPE screening, contact precautions, temporary ward-based monitors of hand and environmental practice, and environmental decontamination), and 'opportunity cost' (staff time, bed closures, and elective surgical missed revenue)...
October 13, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Verónica Gómez Toledo, Ileana Gutiérrez Farfán, Antonio Verduzco-Mendoza, Emilio Arch-Tirado
BACKGROUND: Tinnitus is defined as the conscious perception of a sensation of sound that occurs in the absence of an external stimulus. This audiological symptom affects 7% to 19% of the adult population. The aim of this study is to describe the associated comorbidities present in patients with tinnitus usingjoint and conditional probability analysis. PATIENTS: Patients of both genders, diagnosed with unilateral or bilateral tinnitus, aged between 20 and 45 years, and had a full computerised medical record, were selected...
October 13, 2016: Cirugia y Cirujanos
Matthew T Bizjack, Susan M Kidwell, Ronald G Velarde, Jill Leonard-Pingel, Adam Tomašových
Molluscan shell debris is an under-exploited means of detecting, sourcing, and age-dating dredged sediments in open-shelf settings. Backscatter features on the Southern California shelf are suggestive of dredged sediment hauled from San Diego Bay but deposited significantly inshore of the EPA-designated ocean disposal site. We find that 36% of all identifiable bivalve shells >2mm (44% of shells >4mm) in sediment samples from this 'short dump' area are from species known to live exclusively in the Bay; such shells are absent at reference sites of comparable water depth, indicating that their presence in the short-dump area signals non-compliant disposal rather than natural offshore transport or sea level rise...
October 10, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Mehmet Bosnak, Seher Erdogan, E Habibe Aktekin, Ali Bay
We report two children who were diagnosed as having primary hemophagocytic syndrome and who successfully underwent therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE). The first patient was a 6-month-old girl diagnosed with HLH who was admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit. The patient's clinical condition worsened on the 9th day of the HLH-2004 treatment protocol. Her ferritin level was found 50.000 ng/mL, and TPE was performed for 9 sessions, after which her clinical condition and laboratory findings improved. The patient is still on the HLH-2004 protocol and waits for a suitable stem cell transplantation donor...
September 28, 2016: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
Christine V Fiorello, Kate Freeman, Becky A Elias, Emily Whitmer, Michael H Ziccardi
The safety of chemical dispersants used during oil spill responses is largely unknown in birds. We captured common murres in Monterey Bay, CA and exposed them to Corexit EC9500a, crude oil, or a combination in artificial seawater. We performed ophthalmic examinations and measured intraocular pressures and tear production before and after exposure. Loglinear analysis found that exposure to oil or dispersant was related to the development of conjunctivitis and corneal ulcers. Odds ratios for birds exposed to oil or dispersant were positive and significant for the development of conjunctivitis, while odds ratios for the development of corneal ulcers were positive and significant only for birds exposed to a high concentration of oil...
October 12, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Gregory Francis
Recent reform efforts in psychological science have led to a plethora of choices for scientists to analyze their data. A scientist making an inference about their data must now decide whether to report a p value, summarize the data with a standardized effect size and its confidence interval, report a Bayes Factor, or use other model comparison methods. To make good choices among these options, it is necessary for researchers to understand the characteristics of the various statistics used by the different analysis frameworks...
October 14, 2016: Behavior Research Methods
Dhikra Souidenne, Isabelle Florent, Marc Dellinger, Mohamed Salah Romdhane, Philippe Grellier, Hidetaka Furuya
Dicyemids are common parasites found in the kidneys of many cephalopods. Species identification previously relied on old species descriptions containing considerable confusions, casting doubt on taxonomy and identification. Detailed morphological description and genotyping of all developmental stages are required for an exact taxonomy. To this end, we undertook the redescription of the dicyemid Dicyemennea eledones (Wagener, 1857), infecting the cephalopod Eledone cirrhosa (Lamarck). Samples were collected off Concarneau in the Bay of Biscay, France, and off La Goulette in the Gulf of Tunis, Tunisia...
November 2016: Systematic Parasitology
Frederike Ricarda Boehm, Leonardo Sandrini-Neto, Tom Moens, Paulo da Cunha Lana
Mangrove forests are highly productive and play a major role in global carbon cycling. Their carbon accumulation can be influenced through the consumption of nutrient-poor leaves and propagules by herbivore crabs. Anthropogenic nutrient input from sewage contamination is widespread in these often naturally nutrient-limited ecosystems. We hypothesised that sewage-mediated nutrient input to mangrove stands of Paranaguá Bay (southern Brazil), would alter the nutrient sources available for crabs, e.g. through microphytobenthos increase, and that this would reflect in their feeding behaviour...
September 19, 2016: Marine Environmental Research
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