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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161588/intestinal-flossing-keeps-pathogens-at-bay
#1
Mirela Kuka, Matteo Iannacone
Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) are tissue-resident immune cells that surveil the intestine and provide the first line of defense against pathogens. Reporting in Cell, van Konijnenburg et al. (2017) combine high-resolution microscopy and intersectional genetic tools to provide a detailed characterization of IEL dynamics in response to both commensal and pathogenic microorganisms.
November 20, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161322/altered-juvenile-fish-communities-associated-with-invasive-halophila-stipulacea-seagrass-habitats-in-the-u-s-virgin-islands
#2
Lauren K Olinger, Sarah L Heidmann, Allie N Durdall, Colin Howe, Tanya Ramseyer, Sara G Thomas, Danielle N Lasseigne, Elizabeth J Brown, John S Cassell, Michele M Donihe, Mareike D Duffing Romero, Mara A Duke, Damon Green, Paul Hillbrand, Kristin R Wilson Grimes, Richard S Nemeth, Tyler B Smith, Marilyn Brandt
Caribbean seagrass habitats provide food and protection for reef-associated juvenile fish. The invasive seagrass Halophila stipulacea is rapidly altering these seascapes. Since its arrival in the Caribbean in 2002, H. stipulacea has colonized and displaced native seagrasses, but the function of this invasive seagrass as a juvenile fish habitat remains unknown. To compare diversity, community structure, and abundance of juvenile fish between H. stipulacea and native seagrass beds, fish traps were deployed in four nearshore bays around St...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161308/effects-of-tones-associated-with-drilling-activities-on-bowhead-whale-calling-rates
#3
Susanna B Blackwell, Christopher S Nations, Aaron M Thode, Mandy E Kauffman, Alexander S Conrad, Robert G Norman, Katherine H Kim
During summer 2012 Shell performed exploratory drilling at Sivulliq, a lease holding located in the autumn migration corridor of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus), northwest of Camden Bay in the Beaufort Sea. The drilling operation involved a number of vessels performing various activities, such as towing the drill rig, anchor handling, and drilling. Acoustic data were collected with six arrays of directional recorders (DASARs) deployed on the seafloor over ~7 weeks in Aug-Oct. Whale calls produced within 2 km of each DASAR were identified and localized using triangulation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161065/from-nuremberg-to-guantanamo-bay-uses-of-physicians-in-the-war-on-terror
#4
Sondra S Crosby, Gilbert Benavidez
Seventy years after the Nuremberg Doctors' Trial, health professionals and lawyers working together after 9/11 played a critical role in designing, justifying, and carrying out the US state-sponsored torture program in the CIA "Black Sites" and US military detention centers, including Abu Ghraib, Bagram, and Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. We analyze the similarities between the Nazi doctors and health professionals in the War on Terror and address the question of how it happened that health professionals, including doctors, psychologists, physician assistants, and nurses, acted as agents of the state to utilize their medical and healing skills to cause harm and sanitize barbarous acts, similar to (though not on the scale of) how Nazi doctors were used by the Third Reich...
November 21, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160219/complete-sequences-of-4-viral-hemorrhagic-septicemia-virus-ivb-isolates-and-their-virulence-in-northern-pike-fry
#5
Rodman G Getchell, Emily R Cornwell, Steven Bogdanowicz, Jose Andrés, William N Batts, Gael Kurath, Rachel Breyta, Joanna G Choi, John M Farrell, Paul R Bowser
Four viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) genotype IVb isolates were sequenced, their genetic variation explored, and comparative virulence assayed with experimental infections of northern pike Esox lucius fry. In addition to the type strain MI03, the complete 11183 bp genome of the first round goby Neogobius melanostomus isolate from the St. Lawrence River, and the 2013 and 2014 isolates from gizzard shad Dorosoma cepedianum die-offs in Irondequoit Bay, Lake Ontario and Dunkirk Harbor, Lake Erie were all deep sequenced on an Illumina platform...
November 21, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159846/horizontal-and-vertical-distribution-of-sea-lice-larvae-lepeophtheirus-salmonis-in-and-around-salmon-farms-in-the-bay-of-fundy-canada
#6
E J Nelson, S M C Robinson, N Feindel, A Sterling, A Byrne, K Pee Ang
The sea louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, is parasitic to salmonid species in the Northern Hemisphere and has become a widespread biological and economic problem for the salmon farming industry. A better understanding is needed of their spatial distribution and early life history to disrupt the life cycle of the sea louse. In this study, sea lice larval densities within salmon farms, between salmon farms and reference sites, and at various depths were quantified using both plankton pumps and plankton nets. Farm sites exhibited significantly higher densities than reference sites; however, these densities dropped an order of magnitude at a distance of 100 m from the cages...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159444/are-demographic-characteristics-associated-with-advance-directive-completion-a-secondary-analysis-of-two-randomized-trials
#7
Joanna L Hart, Nicole B Gabler, Elizabeth Cooney, Brian Bayes, Kuldeep N Yadav, Cindy Bryce, Scott D Halpern
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 20, 2017: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159209/dynamics-of-pulicat-lake-mouth-analysis-using-geospatial-data-east-coast-of-india-implications-to-socio-economic-scenarios
#8
K Nagalaksmi, Madri Pramod Kumar, N Jayaraju, T Lakshmi Prasad, B Lakshmanna, G Sreenivasulu
Pulicat Lake is one of the major wetlands in India. It is the second largest brackish water lagoon in India next to Chilika Lake in Orissa state. Pulicat Lake sits beside the Bay of Bengal so, the study on the mouth is vital. The investigations were carried out by using multi-temporal satellite imageries of IRS P6, LISS III data for four years viz., 2009, 2011, 2012 and 2013. Subsequent changes in the width of the lake at the southern side were measured. It is found that the lake mouth is not static but dynamic predominantly fluctuating year by year...
December 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158728/corrigendum-analysis-of-correlation-between-an-accelerometer-based-algorithm-for-detecting-parkinsonian-gait-and-updrs-subscales
#9
Alejandro Rodríguez-Molinero, Albert Samà, Carlos Pérez-López, Daniel Rodríguez-Martín, Sheila Alcaine, Berta Mestre, Paola Quispe, Benedetta Giuliani, Gabriel Vainstein, Patrick Browne, Dean Sweeney, Leo R Quinlan, J Manuel Moreno Arostegui, Àngels Bayes, Hadas Lewy, Alberto Costa, Roberta Annicchiarico, Timothy Counihan, Gearòid Ò Laighin, Joan Cabestany
[This corrects the article on p. 431 in vol. 8, PMID: 28919877.].
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158202/dynamic-effective-connectivity-in-resting-state-fmri
#10
REVIEW
Hae-Jeong Park, Karl Friston, Chongwon Pae, Bumhee Park, Adeel Razi
Context-sensitive and activity-dependent fluctuations in connectivity underlie functional integration in the brain and have been studied widely in terms of synaptic plasticity, learning and condition-specific (e.g., attentional) modulations of synaptic efficacy. This dynamic aspect of brain connectivity has recently attracted a lot of attention in the resting state fMRI community. To explain dynamic functional connectivity in terms of directed effective connectivity among brain regions, we introduce a novel method to identify dynamic effective connectivity using spectral dynamic causal modelling (spDCM)...
November 17, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158075/intermediate-care-unit-after-cardiac-surgery-impact-on-length-of-stay-and-outcomes
#11
Carlos Labata, Teresa Oliveras, Elisabet Berastegui, Xavier Ruyra, Bernat Romero, Maria-Luisa Camara, Maria-Soledad Just, Jordi Serra, Ferran Rueda, Marc Ferrer, Cosme García-García, Antoni Bayes-Genis
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Current postoperative management of adult cardiac surgery often comprises transfer from the intensive care unit (ICU) to a conventional ward. Intermediate care units (IMCU) permit hospital resource optimization. We analyzed the impact of an IMCU on length of stay (both ICU and in-hospital) and outcomes (in-hospital mortality and 30-day readmissions) after adult cardiac surgery (IMCU-CS). METHODS: From November 2012 to April 2015, 1324 consecutive patients were admitted to a university hospital for cardiac surgery...
November 17, 2017: Revista Española de Cardiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157576/a-professionalism-and-safety-code-of-conduct-designed-for-undergraduate-nursing-students
#12
Nadia Ali Muhammad Ali Charania, Diane L Ferguson, Esther Bay, Barbara S Freeland, Kimberly Bradshaw, Karen Harden
Nationally, professionalism and safety are key concepts in nursing practice. Although they are traditionally viewed as individual concepts, we believe they are closely linked to and depend on one another. Herein, professionalism and safety are developed as a paired concept with specific indicators. The purpose of this paper is to describe the process used to develop and implement a professionalism and safety Code of Conduct for undergraduate nursing students and to share the end product of this process. Based on input from students, faculty, and health system partners in our academic-service partnership, the current definition and Code include six student behavioral domains: communication, self-awareness, self-care, professional image, responsible learning, and personal accountability...
November 2017: Journal of Professional Nursing: Official Journal of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157104/using-previous-trial-results-to-inform-hypothesis-testing-of-new-interventions
#13
Changyu Shen, Xiaochun Li
Results of industry-sponsored Phase III trials registered at clinicaltrials.gov include a rich amount of information on the efficacy of medical interventions. We propose that these results can be used to inform hypothesis testing of a new intervention through the Bayes principle. The posterior probability of positive efficacy offers an accessible interpretation of the uncertainty of efficacy and a convenient metric for global false-positive control.
November 20, 2017: Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156414/schizophrenia-heterogeneity-revisited-clinical-cognitive-and-psychosocial-correlates-of-statistically-derived-negative-symptoms-subgroups
#14
Anthony O Ahmed, Gregory P Strauss, Robert W Buchanan, Brian Kirkpatrick, William T Carpenter
Traditional efforts to delineate the clinical heterogeneity of schizophrenia have been unsuccessful because of the absence of a valid, stable, and meaningful subtyping scheme. A clinically-informed nosology supported by multivariate statistical classification methods may provide a better approach for classifying schizophrenia. The goals of the current study were to 1) use multivariate classification methods to validate a clinical subtyping scheme based on the profile of negative symptoms; and 2) following validation to contrast the statistically-derived subgroups to ascertain distinguishing demographic, clinical, cognitive, and functional characteristics...
November 12, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156136/the-discovery-of-3-4-chloro-3-methoxyphenyl-amino-1-3r-4s-4-cyanotetrahydro-2h-pyran-3-yl-1h-pyrazole-4-carboxamide-a-highly-ligand-efficient-and-efficacious-jak1-selective-inhibitor-with-favorable-pharmacokinetic-properties
#15
Tony Siu, Jason Brubaker, Peter Fuller, Luis Torres, Hongbo Zeng, Joshua Close, Dawn M Mampreian, Feng Shi, Duan Liu, Xavier Fradera, Kevin Johnson, Nathan Bays, Elma Kadic, Fang He, Peter Goldenblatt, Lynsey Shaffer, Sangita B Patel, Charles A Lesburg, Carla Alpert, Lauren Dorosh, Sujal V Deskmukh, Hongshi Yu, Joel Klappenbach, Fiona Elwood, Christopher J Dinsmore, Rafael Fernandez, Lily Moy, Jonathan R Young
The discovery of a potent selective low dose JAK1 inhibitor suitable for clinical evaluation is described. As part of an overall goal to minimize dose, we pursued a medicinal chemistry strategy focused on optimization of key parameters that influence dose size, including lowering human Clint and increasing intrinsic potency, bioavailability, and solubility. To impact these multiple parameters simultaneously, we used lipophilic ligand efficiency as a key metric to track changes in the physicochemical properties of our analogs, which led to improvements in overall compound quality...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155996/hierarchical-attention-networks-for-information-extraction-from-cancer-pathology-reports
#16
Shang Gao, Michael T Young, John X Qiu, Hong-Jun Yoon, James B Christian, Paul A Fearn, Georgia D Tourassi, Arvind Ramanthan
Objective: We explored how a deep learning (DL) approach based on hierarchical attention networks (HANs) can improve model performance for multiple information extraction tasks from unstructured cancer pathology reports compared to conventional methods that do not sufficiently capture syntactic and semantic contexts from free-text documents. Materials and Methods: Data for our analyses were obtained from 942 deidentified pathology reports collected by the National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program...
November 16, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155144/bay-60-2770-activates-two-isoforms-of-nitric-oxide-sensitive-guanylyl-cyclase-evidence-for-stable-insertion-of-activator-drugs
#17
Anne Sömmer, Peter Sandner, Sönke Behrends
Nitric oxide sensitive guanylyl cyclase (NOsGC), a hemoprotein and the major physiological receptor for nitric oxide (NO), is a heterodimer with the α1/β1 and α2/β1 isoforms known to be important for NO-signaling and conversion of GTP to cGMP in humans. Two innovative classes of compounds modulating the NO/cGMP signaling pathway have been discovered: the heme-dependent sGC stimulators, that stimulate NOsGC directly and also increase the affinity towards NO, and the heme-independent sGC activators, that are thought to bind to oxidized and heme-free NOsGC in tissues exposed to oxidative stress...
November 15, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154079/clinical-performance-of-a-next-generation-sequencing-assay-thyroseq-v2-in-the-evaluation-of-indeterminate-thyroid-nodules
#18
Aida Taye, Dillon Gurciullo, Brett A Miles, Ashita Gupta, Randall P Owen, William B Inabnet, Jessica N Beyda, Jennifer L Marti
BACKGROUND: Molecular testing with the Thyroseq v2 next generation sequencing panel ("Thyroseq") is used to estimate the risk of cancer in indeterminate thyroid nodules. METHODS: We analyzed 156 indeterminate thyroid nodules evaluated with Thyroseq, across 3 institutions. Thyroseq data and surgical pathology were matched via pathologic re-review. A result was considered Thyroseq positive if molecular alterations were annotated on the report with malignancy probability >30%...
November 16, 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153854/what-are-pharmacists-recommending-for-infant-teething-treatment
#19
Eric J Ip, Punam B Patel, Josephine J Chi, Bijal Shah-Manek, Bonnie Lau
OBJECTIVES: In 2011, the Food and Drug Administration issued a warning to avoid the use of any benzocaine-containing products for infant teething treatment owing to a risk of methemoglobinemia. Several benzocaine-containing products targeted for infant teething are currently available over the counter. Pharmacists are commonly asked for medical advice in the community, and there is no current literature evaluating what pharmacists are recommending for infant teething. The objectives of this study were to evaluate what pharmacists are currently recommending for infant teething treatment and assess what percentage would inappropriately recommend a benzocaine-containing product...
November 15, 2017: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153491/measures-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-community-viral-load-and-hiv-incidence-among-people-who-inject-drugs
#20
Cristie Glasheen, Eric O Johnson, Jennifer Lorvick, Alex H Kral
PURPOSE: To evaluate the measures of community human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viral load (VL) and the association with HIV incidence among people who inject drugs (PWID). METHODS: Data were from 1986 to 1999 Urban Health Study conducted among PWID in the San Francisco Bay Area. Extant measures of community VL use mean VL among HIV + study participants, not accounting for the proportion of HIV- individuals. We compared the strength of the associations between HIV incidence and the traditionally measured mean community VL and a new prevalence-adjusted community VL, calculated by dividing the sum of VL among HIV + participants by the total participants irrespective of HIV status...
November 3, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
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