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Joseph Ashley Kirkly, Gretchen K Bielmyer-Fraser, John F Elder, David L Bechler
This study examines the microgeographic structure of the Alapahoochee watershed, part of the Suwannee River basin, south-central GA, USA, and relates it to variations in liver metal concentrations and genetic structure of the Florida cottonmouth, Agkistrodon piscivorus conanti. One objective was to determine if liver metal concentrations in A. piscivorus differ between Grand Bay and Mud creeks, which form the watershed's upper portion. Grand Bay Creek is relatively pristine, whereas Mud Creek is polluted with various metals...
March 15, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
L A Thompson, Y Ikenaka, Y B Yohannes, T Ichise, G Ito, N Bortey-Sam, J J van Vuren, V Wepener, N J Smit, W S Darwish, S M M Nakayama, H Mizukawa, M Ishizuka
Many countries with incidence of malaria, including those surrounding Maputo Bay, use dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) to reduce mosquitoes. This study is the first to estimate the human health risk associated with consumption of marine fish from Maputo Bay contaminated with DDTs. The median for ∑DDTs was 3.8 ng/g ww (maximum 280.9 ng/g ww). The overall hazard ratio for samples was 1.5 at the 75th percentile concentration and 28.2 at the 95th percentile. These calculations show increased potential cancer risks due to contamination by DDTs, data which will help policy makers perform a risk-benefit analysis of DDT use in malaria control programs in the region...
March 15, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Taishi Nakamura, Guangshuo Zhu, Mark J Ranek, Kristen Kokkonen-Simon, Manling Zhang, Grace E Kim, Kenichi Tsujita, David A Kass
BACKGROUND: Stimulation of sGC (soluble guanylate cyclase) or inhibition of PDE5 (phosphodiesterase type 5) activates PKG (protein kinase G)-1α to counteract cardiac hypertrophy and failure. PKG1α acts within localized intracellular domains; however, its oxidation at cysteine 42, linking homomonomers, alters this localization, impairing suppression of pathological cardiac stress. Because PDE5 and sGC reside in separate microdomains, we speculated that PKG1α oxidation might also differentially influence the effects from their pharmacological modulation...
March 2018: Circulation. Heart Failure
Pontus Plavén-Sigray, Granville James Matheson, Petter Gustavsson, Per Stenkrona, Christer Halldin, Lars Farde, Simon Cervenka
BACKGROUND: Associations between dopamine receptor levels and pro- and antisocial behavior have previously been demonstrated in human subjects using positron emission tomography (PET) and self-rated measures of personality traits. So far, only one study has focused on the dopamine D1-receptor (D1-R), finding a positive correlation with the trait social desirability, which is characterized by low dominant and high affiliative behavior, while physical aggression showed a negative correlation...
2018: PloS One
Sarah H Peterson, Joshua T Ackerman, Collin A Eagles-Smith, Mark P Herzog, C Alex Hartman
Predators sample the available prey community when foraging; thus, changes in the environment may be reflected by changes in predator diet and foraging preferences. We examined Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri) prey species over an 11-year period by sampling approximately 10,000 prey fish returned to 17 breeding colonies in south San Francisco Bay, California. We compared the species composition among repeatedly-sampled colonies (≥ 4 years), using both relative species abundance and the composition of total dry mass by species...
2018: PloS One
M G Aartsen, M Ackermann, J Adams, J A Aguilar, M Ahlers, M Ahrens, I Al Samarai, D Altmann, K Andeen, T Anderson, I Ansseau, G Anton, C Argüelles, J Auffenberg, S Axani, H Bagherpour, X Bai, J P Barron, S W Barwick, V Baum, R Bay, J J Beatty, J Becker Tjus, K-H Becker, S BenZvi, D Berley, E Bernardini, D Z Besson, G Binder, D Bindig, E Blaufuss, S Blot, C Bohm, M Börner, F Bos, D Bose, S Böser, O Botner, J Bourbeau, F Bradascio, J Braun, L Brayeur, M Brenzke, H-P Bretz, S Bron, J Brostean-Kaiser, A Burgman, T Carver, J Casey, M Casier, E Cheung, D Chirkin, A Christov, K Clark, L Classen, S Coenders, G H Collin, J M Conrad, D F Cowen, R Cross, M Day, J P A M de André, C De Clercq, J J DeLaunay, H Dembinski, S De Ridder, P Desiati, K D de Vries, G de Wasseige, M de With, T DeYoung, J C Díaz-Vélez, V di Lorenzo, H Dujmovic, J P Dumm, M Dunkman, B Eberhardt, T Ehrhardt, B Eichmann, P Eller, P A Evenson, S Fahey, A R Fazely, J Felde, K Filimonov, C Finley, S Flis, A Franckowiak, E Friedman, T Fuchs, T K Gaisser, J Gallagher, L Gerhardt, K Ghorbani, W Giang, T Glauch, T Glüsenkamp, A Goldschmidt, J G Gonzalez, D Grant, Z Griffith, C Haack, A Hallgren, F Halzen, K Hanson, D Hebecker, D Heereman, K Helbing, R Hellauer, S Hickford, J Hignight, G C Hill, K D Hoffman, R Hoffmann, B Hokanson-Fasig, K Hoshina, F Huang, M Huber, K Hultqvist, M Hünnefeld, S In, A Ishihara, E Jacobi, G S Japaridze, M Jeong, K Jero, B J P Jones, P Kalaczynski, W Kang, A Kappes, T Karg, A Karle, U Katz, M Kauer, A Keivani, J L Kelley, A Kheirandish, J Kim, M Kim, T Kintscher, J Kiryluk, T Kittler, S R Klein, G Kohnen, R Koirala, H Kolanoski, L Köpke, C Kopper, S Kopper, J P Koschinsky, D J Koskinen, M Kowalski, K Krings, M Kroll, G Krückl, J Kunnen, S Kunwar, N Kurahashi, T Kuwabara, A Kyriacou, M Labare, J L Lanfranchi, M J Larson, F Lauber, D Lennarz, M Lesiak-Bzdak, M Leuermann, Q R Liu, L Lu, J Lünemann, W Luszczak, J Madsen, G Maggi, K B M Mahn, S Mancina, R Maruyama, K Mase, R Maunu, F McNally, K Meagher, M Medici, M Meier, T Menne, G Merino, T Meures, S Miarecki, J Micallef, G Momenté, T Montaruli, R W Moore, M Moulai, R Nahnhauer, P Nakarmi, U Naumann, G Neer, H Niederhausen, S C Nowicki, D R Nygren, A Obertacke Pollmann, A Olivas, A O'Murchadha, T Palczewski, H Pandya, D V Pankova, P Peiffer, J A Pepper, C Pérez de Los Heros, D Pieloth, E Pinat, M Plum, P B Price, G T Przybylski, C Raab, L Rädel, M Rameez, K Rawlins, I C Rea, R Reimann, B Relethford, M Relich, E Resconi, W Rhode, M Richman, S Robertson, M Rongen, C Rott, T Ruhe, D Ryckbosch, D Rysewyk, T Sälzer, S E Sanchez Herrera, A Sandrock, J Sandroos, S Sarkar, S Sarkar, K Satalecka, P Schlunder, T Schmidt, A Schneider, S Schoenen, S Schöneberg, L Schumacher, D Seckel, S Seunarine, J Soedingrekso, D Soldin, M Song, G M Spiczak, C Spiering, J Stachurska, M Stamatikos, T Stanev, A Stasik, J Stettner, A Steuer, T Stezelberger, R G Stokstad, A Stößl, N L Strotjohann, G W Sullivan, M Sutherland, I Taboada, J Tatar, F Tenholt, S Ter-Antonyan, A Terliuk, G Tešić, S Tilav, P A Toale, M N Tobin, S Toscano, D Tosi, M Tselengidou, C F Tung, A Turcati, C F Turley, B Ty, E Unger, M Usner, J Vandenbroucke, W Van Driessche, N van Eijndhoven, S Vanheule, J van Santen, M Vehring, E Vogel, M Vraeghe, C Walck, A Wallace, M Wallraff, F D Wandler, N Wandkowsky, A Waza, C Weaver, M J Weiss, C Wendt, J Werthebach, S Westerhoff, B J Whelan, K Wiebe, C H Wiebusch, L Wille, D R Williams, L Wills, M Wolf, J Wood, T R Wood, E Woolsey, K Woschnagg, D L Xu, X W Xu, Y Xu, J P Yanez, G Yodh, S Yoshida, T Yuan, M Zoll
We present a measurement of the atmospheric neutrino oscillation parameters using three years of data from the IceCube Neutrino Observatory. The DeepCore infill array in the center of IceCube enables the detection and reconstruction of neutrinos produced by the interaction of cosmic rays in Earth's atmosphere at energies as low as ∼5  GeV. That energy threshold permits measurements of muon neutrino disappearance, over a range of baselines up to the diameter of the Earth, probing the same range of L/E_{ν} as long-baseline experiments but with substantially higher-energy neutrinos...
February 16, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Santiago Roura, Ana Gámez-Valero, Josep Lupón, Carolina Gálvez-Montón, Francesc E Borràs, Antoni Bayes-Genis
Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) remains a major cause of heart failure and carries a poor prognosis despite important advances in recent years. Better disease characterization using novel molecular techniques is needed to refine its progression. This study explored the proteomic signature of plasma-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) obtained from DCM patients and healthy controls using size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). EV-enriched fractions were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)...
March 14, 2018: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
Cheng-Han Yu, Chi-Chi Chou, Der-Yen Lee, Kay-Hooi Khoo, Geen-Dong Chang
Phenyl vinyl sulfone (PVS) and phenyl vinyl sulfonate (PVSN) inactivate protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) by mimicking the phosphotyrosine structure and providing a Michael addition acceptor for the active-site cysteine residue of PTPs, thus forming covalent adducts between PVS (or PVSN) and PTPs. We developed a specific antiserum against PVS. This antiserum can be used in general antibody-based assays such as immunoblotting, immunofluorescence staining, and immunoprecipitation. Target identification through immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry analysis reveals potential targets of PVS, mostly proteins with reactive cysteine residues or low-pKa cysteine residues that are prone to reversible redox modifications...
March 14, 2018: Bioscience Reports
Mei Wang, Vijayasankar Raman, Jianping Zhao, Bharathi Avula, Yan-Hong Wang, Philip L Wylie, Ikhlas A Khan
Correct identification of the true bay leaf ( Laurus nobilis ) and its substitutes is important not only for the quality control of the products, but also for the safety of the consumers. L. nobilis is often substituted or confused with other species, such as Cinnamomum tamala, Pimenta racemosa, Syzygium polyanthum , and Umbellularia californica. In the present study, the potential of gas chromatography combined with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the profiling of various bay leaf products was evaluated for the first time...
March 14, 2018: Planta Medica
Kevin M Johnson
In the context of diagnostic testing, concepts such as sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, likelihood ratios and more are all interconnected, but precisely how can be confusing to the nonstatistician. This paper presents a graphical explanation. Bayes' rule, or theorem, ties several of these concepts together and should have a role in careful diagnostic thinking. It too can be understood in terms of the "two-by-two diagram" presented here.
September 26, 2017: Diagnosis
M Y Tan, D Wright, A Syngelaki, R Akolekar, S Cicero, D Janga, M Singh, E Greco, A Wright, K Maclagan, L C Poon, K H Nicolaides
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that the performance of first-trimester screening for pre-eclampsia (PE) by a method that uses Bayes' theorem to combine maternal factors with biomarkers is superior to that defined by current National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines. METHODS: This was a prospective multicenter study (screening program for pre-eclampsia (SPREE)) in seven National Health Service maternity hospitals in England, of women recruited between April and December 2016...
March 14, 2018: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Yu V Deart, M V Pereladov, V A Spiridonov, T I Antokhina, A V Rzhavsky, T A Britayev
Based on the data of benthic surveys of 2010-2012, three benthic communities: a shallow-water community with the dominance of Scoloplos spp., Nucula tennuis, and Scalibregma inflatum; a deep-water community with the dominance of Chaetosone sp.; and a community of mixed sediments, have been distinguished in soft sediments in marine lakes Sisjajarvi and Linjalampi. These communities are typically marine and similar to other communities in shallow areas of the Barents Sea. They mostly differ in a high abundance of the polychaete Scalibregma inflatum and a small number of echinoderms from the communities in other bays of the Barents Sea...
January 2018: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
Manoochehr Shirzaei, Roland Bürgmann
The current global projections of future sea level rise are the basis for developing inundation hazard maps. However, contributions from spatially variable coastal subsidence have generally not been considered in these projections. We use synthetic aperture radar interferometric measurements and global navigation satellite system data to show subsidence rates of less than 2 mm/year along most of the coastal areas along San Francisco Bay. However, rates exceed 10 mm/year in some areas underlain by compacting artificial landfill and Holocene mud deposits...
March 2018: Science Advances
Md Asaduzzaman Shishir, Md Al Mamun, Md Mahmuduzzaman Mian, Umme Tamanna Ferdous, Noor Jahan Akter, Rajia Sultana Suravi, Suvamoy Datta, Md Ehsanul Kabir
The scarcity of hygienic drinking water is a normal phenomenon in the coastal areas of Bangladesh due to the high salinity of ground water. The inhabitants of this locality, therefore, live on alternative supplies of water including rain-fed pond water, and rainwater with persistent complex microbial interactions therein, often contaminated with life-threatening pathogens. Hence, this study was aimed at analyzing the prevalence of Vibrio cholerae ( Vc ) in the alternative drinking waters of Mathbaria, a coastal subdistrict neighboring the Bay of Bengal, the efficacy of pond sand filter (PSF) and the co-association among Bacillus -like spore formers (Sf) and Vc ...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Kirill A Vinnikov, Robert C Thomson, Thomas A Munroe
Members of the family Pleuronectidae are common representatives of the marine benthic fauna inhabiting northern regions of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. The most recent comprehensive classification of the family, based entirely on morphological synapomorphies, recognized five subfamilies, 23 genera, and 61 extant species. However, several subsequent molecular studies have shown that many synapomorphic characters discovered in the morphological study might represent homoplasies, thereby questioning the reliance on these characters with the warning that they may provide misleading information for testing other morphology-based evolutionary hypotheses...
March 10, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Fajin Chen, Jing Lin, Bihua Qian, Zhai Wu, Peng Huang, Kai Chen, Tianyao Li, Minggang Cai
The Beibu Gulf (also named the Gulf of Tonkin), located in the northwest of the South China Sea, is representative of a bay suffering from turbulence and contamination associated with rapid industrialization and urbanization. In this study, we aim to provide the novel baseline levels of heavy metals for the research area. Concentrations of five heavy metals (i.e., Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd and Cr) were determined in surface sediments from 35 sites in the eastern Beibu Gulf. The heavy metal content varied from 6.72 to 25...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Can Sarica, Mazhar Ozkan, Husniye Hacioglu Bay, Umit Sehirli, Filiz Onat, M Ibrahim Ziyal
BACKGROUND: Binge eating (BE) involves the consumption of a large amount of food in a short period of time and a loss of control during the binge episode. It is a key feature of the major subtypes of eating disorders like bulimia nervosa, BE disorder, anorexia nervosa binge/purge type. Alterations in the mesocorticolimbic pathway play a crucial role in its pathophysiology. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that BE rats receiving deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the prelimbic cortex, a functional analog of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in humans, would have a reduced binge size compared with those receiving sham stimulation...
March 13, 2018: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
Ami R Zota, Ruth J Geller, Laura E Romano, Kimberly Coleman-Phox, Nancy E Adler, Emily Parry, Miaomiao Wang, June-Soo Park, Angelo F Elmi, Barbara A Laraia, Elissa S Epel
BACKGROUND: Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can target immune and metabolic pathways. However, few epidemiologic studies have examined the influence of EDCs on measures of inflammation and cellular aging during pregnancy and postpartum. OBJECTIVE: We investigated associations between prenatal exposures to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hydroxylated PBDE metabolites (OH-PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and per- and polyfluorochemicals (PFASs) with repeated biomarker measurements of inflammation and cellular aging in women during pregnancy and the postpartum period...
March 10, 2018: Environment International
Cynthia Khamala Wangamati, Johanne Sundby, Ruth Jane Prince
Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a major global health concern. Although it is prevalent in Kenya, scant literature on factors contributing to CSA vulnerability exists. Using qualitative data from 28 focus groups and ethnographic field notes, we explored and assessed community perceptions of factors contributing to CSA vulnerability in Homa Bay County, Western Kenya. Findings suggest that people living in these communities perceived CSA as being influenced by multiple factors: developmental stage, peer pressure, huge gender disparities exacerbated by negative social norms and cultural practices, the HIV epidemic and social media platforms that circulate sexualised images...
March 13, 2018: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Gordon Parker, Stacey McCraw, Adam Bayes
OBJECTIVES: To determine if differing developmental factors show specificity to differing manifestations of borderline personality disorder (BPD). METHODS: A clinical sample of 73 females diagnosed with BPD undertook a psychiatrist interview and completed self-report questionnaires, including the semi-structured Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders (DIPD-IV) assessing for BPD status. A set of negative and potentially traumatic developmental factors were included in the assessment...
March 1, 2018: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
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