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Randomised controlled trials

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684829/the-effect-of-a-training-programme-on-school-nurses-knowledge-attitudes-and-depression-recognition-skills-the-quest-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#1
Mark Haddad, Vanessa Pinfold, Tamsin Ford, Brendan Walsh, Andre Tylee
BACKGROUND: Mental health problems in children and young people are a vital public health issue. Only 25% of British school children with diagnosed mental health problems have specialist mental health services contact; front-line staff such as school nurses play a vital role in identifying and managing these problems, and accessing additional services for children, but there appears limited specific training and support for this aspect of their role. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of a bespoke short training programme, which incorporated interactive and didactic teaching with printed and electronic resources...
April 5, 2018: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684433/oxygen-titration-after-resuscitation-from-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest-a-multi-centre-randomised-controlled-pilot-study-the-exact-pilot-trial
#2
Janet E Bray, Cindy Hein, Karen Smith, Michael Stephenson, Hugh Grantham, Judith Finn, Dion Stub, Peter Cameron
INTRODUCTION: Recent studies suggest the administration of 100% oxygen to hyperoxic levels following return-of-spontaneous-circulation (ROSC) post-cardiac arrest may be harmful. However, the feasibility and safety of oxygen titration in the prehospital setting is unknown. We conducted a multi-centre, phase-2 study testing whether prehospital titration of oxygen results in an equivalent number of patients arriving at hospital with oxygen saturations SpO2 ≥ 94%. METHODS: We enrolled unconscious adults with: sustained ROSC; initial shockable rhythm; an advanced airway; and an SpO2 ≥ 95%...
April 20, 2018: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684249/standard-head-down-tilt-versus-modified-without-head-down-tilt-postural-drainage-in-infants-and-young-children-with-cystic-fibrosis
#3
REVIEW
Diana A Freitas, Gabriela Ss Chaves, Thayla A Santino, Cibele Td Ribeiro, Fernando Al Dias, Ricardo O Guerra, Karla Mpp Mendonça
BACKGROUND: Postural drainage is used primarily in infants with cystic fibrosis from diagnosis up to the moment when they are mature enough to actively participate in self-administered treatments. However, there is a risk of gastroesophageal reflux associated with this technique.This is an update of a review published in 2015. OBJECTIVES: To compare the effects of standard postural drainage (15º to 45º head-down tilt) with modified postural drainage (15º to 30º head-up tilt) with regard to gastroesophageal reflux in infants and young children up to six years old with cystic fibrosis in terms of safety and efficacy...
March 9, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683925/short-term-8-weeks-high-intensity-interval-training-in-diseased-cohorts
#4
James E M Blackwell, Brett Doleman, Philip J J Herrod, Samuel Ricketts, Bethan E Phillips, Jonathan N Lund, John P Williams
BACKGROUND & AIM: Exercise training regimes can lead to improvements in measures of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), improved general health, and reduced morbidity and overall mortality risk. High intensity interval training (HIIT) offers a time-efficient approach to improve CRF in healthy individuals, but the relative benefits of HIIT compared to traditional training methods are unknown in across different disease cohorts. METHODS: This systematic review and meta-analysis compares CRF gains in randomised controlled trials of short-term (<8 weeks) HIIT vs...
April 21, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683475/pharmacological-interventions-for-the-prevention-of-insufficiency-fractures-and-avascular-necrosis-associated-with-pelvic-radiotherapy-in-adults
#5
REVIEW
Qurrat U van den Blink, Kate Garcez, Caroline C Henson, Susan E Davidson, Claire E Higham
BACKGROUND: Pelvic radiotherapy is a treatment delivered to an estimated 150,000 to 300,000 people annually across high-income countries. Fractures due to normal stresses on weakened bone due to radiotherapy are termed insufficiency fractures. Pelvic radiotherapy-related interruption of the blood supply to the hip is termed avascular necrosis and is another recognised complication. The reported incidences of insufficiency fractures are 2.7% to 89% and risk of developing avascular necrosis is 0...
April 23, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683474/antidepressants-for-the-treatment-of-depression-in-people-with-cancer
#6
REVIEW
Giovanni Ostuzzi, Faith Matcham, Sarah Dauchy, Corrado Barbui, Matthew Hotopf
BACKGROUND: Major depression and other depressive conditions are common in people with cancer. These conditions are not easily detectable in clinical practice, due to the overlap between medical and psychiatric symptoms, as described by diagnostic manuals such as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) and International Classification of Diseases (ICD). Moreover, it is particularly challenging to distinguish between pathological and normal reactions to such a severe illness...
April 23, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683196/hypogonadism-and-male-obesity-focus-on-unresolved-questions
#7
Mathis Grossmann
Obesity, increasing in prevalence globally, is the clinical condition most strongly associated with lowered testosterone concentrations in men, and presents as one of the strongest predictors of receiving testosterone treatment. While low circulating total testosterone concentrations in modest obesity primarily reflect reduced concentrations of sex hormone binding globulin, more marked obesity can lead to genuine hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis (HPT) suppression. HPT axis suppression is likely mediated via pro-inflammatory cytokine and dysregulated leptin signalling and aggravated by associated comorbidities...
April 23, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683152/response-effects-of-physical-activity-on-depressive-symptoms-during-breast-cancer-survivorship-a-meta-analysis-of-randomised-control-trials
#8
COMMENT
Efrossini D Patsou, Michalis V Karamouzis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: ESMO Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682897/an-aseptically-processed-acellular-reticular-allogenic-human-dermis-improves-healing-in-diabetic-foot-ulcers-a-prospective-randomised-controlled-multicentre-follow-up-trial
#9
Charles M Zelen, Dennis P Orgill, Thomas E Serena, Robert E Galiano, Marissa J Carter, Lawrence A DiDomenico, Jennifer Keller, Jarrod P Kaufman, William W Li
Aseptically processed human reticular acellular dermal matrix (HR-ADM) has been previously shown to improve wound closure in 40 diabetic patients with non-healing foot ulcers. The study was extended to 40 additional patients (80 in total) to validate and extend the original findings. The entire cohort of 80 patients underwent appropriate offloading and standard of care (SOC) during a 2-week screening period and, after meeting eligibility criteria, were randomised to receive weekly applications of HR-ADM plus SOC or SOC alone for up to 12 weeks...
April 22, 2018: International Wound Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682727/pharmacological-interventions-for-protecting-renal-function-after-cardiac-surgery-a-bayesian-network-meta-analysis-of-comparative-effectiveness
#10
REVIEW
W H Kim, M Hur, S-K Park, D E Jung, P Kang, S Yoo, J-H Bahk
Many drugs have been investigated as potentially protective of renal function after cardiac surgery. However, their comparative effectiveness has not been established. We performed an arm-based hierarchical Bayesian network meta-analysis including 95 randomised controlled trials with 28,833 participants, which allowed us to compare some agents not previously compared directly. Renal outcomes, including: the incidence of postoperative renal dysfunction and haemodialysis; serum creatinine level at 24 hours postoperatively; all-cause mortality; and length of hospital and ICU stay, were compared...
April 16, 2018: Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681432/a-systematic-review-evaluating-the-role-of-nurses-and-processes-for-delivering-early-mobility-interventions-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#11
REVIEW
Anna Krupp, Linsey Steege, Barbara King
OBJECTIVES: To investigate processes for delivering early mobility interventions in adult intensive care unit patients used in research and quality improvement studies and the role of nurses in early mobility interventions. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted. Electronic databases PubMED, CINAHL, PEDro, and Cochrane were searched for studies published from 2000 to June 2017 that implemented an early mobility intervention in adult intensive care units. Included studies involved progression to ambulation as a component of the intervention, included the role of the nurse in preparing for or delivering the intervention, and reported at least one patient or organisational outcome measure...
April 19, 2018: Intensive & Critical Care Nursing: the Official Journal of the British Association of Critical Care Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681047/the-effect-of-local-anesthetic-agent-infiltration-around-nephrostomy-tract-on-postoperative-pain-control-after-percutaneous-nephrolithotomy-a-single-centre-randomised-double-blind-placebocontrolled-clinical-trial
#12
Gokce Dundar, Kaan Gokcen, Gokhan Gokce, Emin Yener Gultekin
PURPOSE: Insufficient alleviation of pain after percutaneous nephrolithotomy causes patient dissatisfaction and generates additional morbidity factors by preventing early mobilization. This study investigated the effects of bupivacaine infiltration with two different doses around the nephrostomy tract after percutaneous nephrolithotomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients who underwent subcostal single entrance percutaneous nephrolithotomy were randomly divided into 3 groups of 20 patients...
April 22, 2018: Urology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680821/home-treatment-of-copd-exacerbation-selected-by-decaf-score-a-non-inferiority-randomised-controlled-trial-and-economic-evaluation
#13
Carlos Echevarria, Joanne Gray, Tom Hartley, John Steer, Jonathan Miller, A John Simpson, G John Gibson, Stephen C Bourke
BACKGROUND: Previous models of Hospital at Home (HAH) for COPD exacerbation (ECOPD) were limited by the lack of a reliable prognostic score to guide patient selection. Approximately 50% of hospitalised patients have a low mortality risk by DECAF, thus are potentially suitable. METHODS: In a non-inferiority randomised controlled trial, 118 patients admitted with a low-risk ECOPD (DECAF 0 or 1) were recruited to HAH or usual care (UC). The primary outcome was health and social costs at 90 days...
April 21, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680814/spect-v-q-for-the-diagnosis-of-pulmonary-embolism-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-diagnostic-accuracy-and-clinical-outcome
#14
Pierre-Yves Le Roux, Philippe Robin, Cécile Tromeur, Alexandra Davis, Helia Robert-Ebadi, Marc Carrier, Francis Couturaud, Grégoire Le Gal, Pierre-Yves Salaun
INTRODUCTION: Single photon emission computed tomography ventilation/perfusion (SPECT V/Q) imaging has many proponents within the nuclear medicine community and has already largely replaced planar V/Q scintigraphy in daily practice for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE). However, the test is still described in clinical guidelines as an experimental test because of insufficient evidence. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will conduct a systematic review and a meta-analysis of diagnostic accuracy and management outcome studies involving patients evaluated with V/Q SPECT for suspected acute PE...
April 21, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680812/a-smartphone-application-for-reporting-symptoms-in-adults-with-cystic-fibrosis-protocol-of-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#15
Jamie Wood, Sue Jenkins, David Putrino, Siobhain Mulrennan, Sue Morey, Nola Cecins, Kylie Hill
INTRODUCTION: In people with cystic fibrosis (CF), exacerbations have been shown to have profound and prolonged negative effects such as reducing physical activity and health-related quality of life, increasing the rate of decline of lung function and healthcare costs, and ultimately increasing the risk of mortality. Delayed initiation of treatment following the signs of an exacerbation has been shown to be associated with failure to recover to baseline. Therefore, the late identification and treatment of an exacerbation due to delayed presentation will potentially worsen short-term and long-term outcomes...
April 21, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680809/impact-of-dexmedetomidine-infusion-during-general-anaesthesia-on-incidence-of-postoperative-delirium-in-elderly-patients-after-major-non-cardiac-surgery-study-protocol-of-a-randomised-double-blinded-and-placebo-controlled-trial
#16
Bo-Jie Wang, Chun-Jing Li, Jian Hu, Huai-Jin Li, Chao Guo, Zhen-Han Wang, Qiao-Chu Zhang, Dong-Liang Mu, Dong-Xin Wang
INTRODUCTION: Delirium is a common complication in the elderly after surgery and is associated with worse outcomes. Multiple risk factors are related with postoperative delirium, such as exposure to general anaesthetics, pain and postoperative inflammatory response. Preclinical and clinical studies have shown that dexmedetomidine attenuated neurotoxicity induced by general anaesthetics, improved postoperative analgesia and inhibited inflammatory response after surgery. Several studies found that intraoperative use of dexmedetomidine can prevent postoperative delirium, but data were inconsistent...
April 21, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680419/a-randomised-controlled-trial-of-bright-light-therapy-and-morning-activity-for-adolescents-and-young-adults-with-delayed-sleep-wake-phase-disorder
#17
C Richardson, N Cain, K Bartel, G Micic, B Maddock, M Gradisar
A randomised controlled trial evaluated bright light therapy and morning activity for the treatment of Delayed Sleep-Wake Phase Disorder (DSWPD) in young people. 60 adolescents and young adults (range = 13-24 years, mean = 15.9 ± 2.2 y, 63% f) diagnosed with DSWPD were randomised to receive three weeks of post-awakening Green Bright Light Therapy (∼507 nm) and Sedentary Activity (sitting, watching TV), Green Bright Light Therapy and Morning Activity (standing, playing motion-sensing videogame), Red Light Therapy (∼643 nm) and Sedentary Activity or Red Light Therapy and Morning Activity...
May 2018: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680321/preoperative-radiotherapy-and-local-excision-of-rectal-cancer-long-term-results-of-a-randomised-study
#18
Przemysław Wawok, Wojciech Polkowski, Piotr Richter, Marek Szczepkowski, Janusz Olędzki, Ryszard Wierzbicki, Tomasz Gach, Andrzej Rutkowski, Adam Dziki, Leszek Kołodziejski, Rafał Sopyło, Lucyna Pietrzak, Jacek Kryński, Katarzyna Wiśniowska, Mateusz Spałek, Konrad Pawlewicz, Marcin Polkowski, Teresa Kowalska, Krzysztof Paprota, Małgorzata Jankiewicz, Andrzej Radkowski, Justyna Chalubińska-Fendler, Wojciech Michalski, Krzysztof Bujko
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: It is uncertain whether local control is acceptable after preoperative radiotherapy and local excision (LE). An optimal preoperative dose/fractionation schedule has not yet been established. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a phase III study, patients with cT1-2N0M0 or borderline cT2/T3N0M0 < 4 cm rectal adenocarcinomas were randomised to receive either 5 × 5 Gy plus 1 × 4 Gy boost or chemoradiation: 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions plus 3 × 1...
April 18, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680317/a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-phase-ii-randomised-cross-over-trial-investigating-the-use-of-duloxetine-for-the-treatment-of-chemotherapy-induced-peripheral-neuropathy
#19
Eva Battaglini, Susanna B Park, Elizabeth H Barnes, David Goldstein
BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a significant side effect of cancer treatment, potentially leading to early cessation of chemotherapy, enduring symptoms and long-lasting disability. Evidence from preclinical and clinical studies suggests that duloxetine, a serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, may be effective in the symptomatic treatment of CIPN. This double blind, placebo controlled, phase II randomised cross-over trial aims to determine whether treatment with duloxetine results in a reduction in chronic neuropathic symptoms experienced as a result of neurotoxic chemotherapy treatment...
April 19, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680262/clinical-implications-of-intravenous-drug-incompatibilities-in-critically-ill-patients
#20
REVIEW
Malik Benlabed, Maxime Perez, Romain Gaudy, Stéphanie Genay, Damien Lannoy, Christine Barthélémy, Pascal Odou, Gilles Lebuffe, Bertrand Décaudin
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review is to analyse the clinical consequences of intravenous drug incompatibilities in critically ill patients, especially the incidence of organ dysfunctions and mortality. METHODS: A review of literature was conducted according to the PRISMA statement in June 2017, using Medline, ISI Web of Science and Clinicaltrials.gov. DATA EXTRACTION: Eligible studies were case reports and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated the effects of drug incompatibilities in critically ill patients on morbidity or mortality as primary or secondary outcomes, or adverse events...
April 19, 2018: Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain Medicine
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