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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914366/rapid-and-low-cost-biosensor-for-the-detection-of-staphylococcus-aureus
#1
Ghadeer A R Y Suaifan, Sahar Alhogail, Mohammed Zourob
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is one of the most common etiological agents in hospital-acquired infections and food-borne illness. S. aureus toxins and virulence proteases often circulate in host blood vessels leading to life-threatening diseases. Standard identification approaches include bacterial culturing method, which takes several days. Other nucleic acid-based methods were expensive and required trained personnel. To surmount these limitations, a paper-based biosensor was developed. The sensing mechanism was based on the proteolytic activity of S...
November 21, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914235/hyaluronan-as-a-promising-excipient-for-ocular-drug-delivery
#2
REVIEW
Michaela Guter, Miriam Breunig
Hyaluronan (HA) is a naturally occurring polysaccharide and well known for its exceptional properties such as high biocompatibility and biodegradability, along with a low immunogenicity. Besides its use for various biomedical applications it recently came into focus as a favorable excipient for the formulation of various ocular therapeutics. This review article summarizes the ocular distribution of HA and its most heavily investigated binding protein "cluster of differentiation 44" (CD44) which is the rationale for the clinical use of HA, primarily as an additive in ocular applications ranging from eye drops to contact lenses...
November 30, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913961/prediction-of-postoperative-clinical-recovery-of-drop-foot-attributable-to-lumbar-degenerative-diseases-via-a-bayesian-network
#3
Shota Takenaka, Hiroyuki Aono
BACKGROUND: Drop foot resulting from degenerative lumbar diseases can impair activities of daily living. Therefore, predictors of recovery of this symptom have been investigated using univariate or/and multivariate analyses. However, the conclusions have been somewhat controversial. Bayesian network models, which are graphic and intuitive to the clinician, may facilitate understanding of the prognosis of drop foot resulting from degenerative lumbar diseases. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) To show a layered correlation among predictors of recovery from drop foot resulting from degenerative lumbar diseases; and (2) to develop support tools for clinical decisions to treat drop foot resulting from lumbar degenerative diseases...
December 2, 2016: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913937/hypotensive-effect-and-accumulation-of-dinitrosyl-iron-complexes-in-blood-and-tissues-after-intravenous-and-subcutaneous-injection
#4
A A Timoshin, V L Lakomkin, A A Abramov, E K Ruuge, A F Vanin
Subcutaneous injection of Oxacom with glutathione-bound dinitrosyl iron complex as the active principle produced a slower drop of mean BP and longer accumulation of protein-bound dinitrosyl iron complexes in whole blood and tissues than intravenous injection of this drug, while durations of hypotensive effect in both cases were practically identical. In contrast to intravenous injection of the drug, its subcutaneous administration was not characterized by a high concentration of protein-bound dinitrosyl iron complexes in the blood at the onset of experiment; in addition, accumulation of these NO forms in the lungs was more pronounced after subcutaneous injection than after intravenous one...
December 2, 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913901/3d-active-passive-response-of-human-knee-joint-in-gait-is-markedly-altered-when-simulated-as-a-planar-2d-joint
#5
H Marouane, A Shirazi-Adl, M Adouni
Musculoskeletal models of the lower extremity make a number of important assumptions when attempting to estimate muscle forces and tibiofemoral compartmental loads in activities such as gait. The knee is commonly idealized as a planar 2D joint in the sagittal plane with no consideration of motions and equilibrium in remaining planes. With muscle forces predicted, the static equilibrium in the frontal plane is then used to estimate compartmental loads neglecting also joint passive resistance and assuming condylar contact centers...
December 2, 2016: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913443/gelatinous-drop-like-corneal-dystrophy-a-review
#6
REVIEW
Hrishikesh Kaza, Manas R Barik, Mamatha M Reddy, Ruchi Mittal, Sujata Das
Gelatinous drop-like corneal dystrophy (GDLD) is a rare autosomal recessive form of corneal dystrophy characterised by subepithelial and stromal amyloid deposits. It is relatively common in Japan. It usually presents in the first two decades of life with subepithelial nodular lesions that later coalesce to form mulberry-like opacities. Although various surgical modalities have been attempted, recurrence remains a major challenge.
December 2, 2016: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913321/deterioration-of-r-wave-detection-in-pathology-and-noise-a-comprehensive-analysis-using-simultaneous-truth-and-performance-level-estimation
#7
Muhammad Kashif, Stephan Jonas, Thomas Deserno
OBJECTIVE: For long-term electrocardiography (ECG) recordings, accurate R-wave detection is essential. Several algorithms have been proposed but not yet compared on large, noisy, or pathological data, since manual ground truth establishment is impossible on such large data. METHODS: We apply the simultaneous truth and performance level estimation (STAPLE) method to ECG signals comparing 9 R-wave detectors: Pan & Tompkins (1985), Chernenko (2007), Arzeno et al. (2008), Manikandan et al...
December 1, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913152/development-and-validation-of-an-objective-scoring-tool-for-robot-assisted-radical-prostatectomy-prostatectomy-assessment-and-competency-evaluation-pace
#8
Ahmed A Hussein, Khurshid R Ghani, James Peabody, Richard Sarle, Ronney Abaza, Daniel Eun, Jim Hu, Michael Fumo, Brian Lane, Jeffrey Montgomery, Nobuyuki Hinata, Deborah Rooney, Bryan Comstock, Hei Kit Chan, Sridhar S Mane, James L Mohler, Gregory Wilding, David Miller, Khurshid A Guru
INTRODUCTION: and Background: Comprehensive training and skill acquisition by urologic surgeons are vital to optimize surgical outcomes and patient safety. We sought to develop and validate an objective and procedure specific tool to assess the quality of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP)-Prostatectomy Assessment and Competence Evaluation (PACE) METHODS: Development and content validation of PACE was performed by deconstruction of RARP into seven key domains utilizing the Delphi methodology...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913026/assessing-membrane-fouling-and-the-performance-of-pilot-scale-membrane-bioreactor-mbr-to-treat-real-municipal-wastewater-during-winter-season-in-nordic-regions
#9
Khum Gurung, Mohamed Chaker Ncibi, Mika Sillanpää
In this study, the performance of a pilot-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) to treat real municipal wastewater was assessed at low temperatures (7 to 20°C) in Nordic regions. First, the effect of low temperatures on membrane fouling was evaluated by monitoring trans-membrane pressure. A significant membrane fouling was observed when the sludge temperature inside the MBR unit was below 10°C with a 75% permeability drop, thus indicating high deterioration of the membrane performance at low temperatures. Moreover, increasing values of sludge volume index (SVI) during low temperatures showed high deterioration of sludge settleability...
November 29, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912734/prevalence-and-predictive-importance-of-anemia-in-swedish-nursing-home-residents-a-longitudinal-study
#10
Björn Westerlind, Carl Johan Östgren, Sigvard Mölstad, Patrik Midlöv
BACKGROUND: Anemia is common in elderly people and especially in nursing home residents. Few studies have been performed on the consequences of anemia in a nursing home population. This study explored the prevalence of anemia in nursing homes in Sweden, including risk factors and mortality associated with anemia or hemoglobin (Hb) decline. METHODS: Three hundred ninety patients from 12 nursing homes were included during 2008-2011. Information about medication, blood samples, questionnaire responses and information about physical and social activities was recorded...
December 2, 2016: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912196/nox-isoforms-in-the-development-of-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm
#11
Kin Lung Siu, Qiang Li, Yixuan Zhang, Jun Guo, Ji Youn Youn, Jie Du, Hua Cai
Oxidative stress plays an important role in the formation of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), and we have recently established a causal role of uncoupled eNOS in this severe human disease. We have also shown that activation of NADPH oxidase (NOX) lies upstream of uncoupled eNOS. Therefore, identification of the specific NOX isoforms that are required for eNOS uncoupling and AAA formation would ultimately lead to novel therapies for AAA. In the present study, we used the Ang II infused hph-1 mice to examine the roles of NOX isoforms in the development of AAA...
November 19, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912122/ring-like-structured-chitosan-metal-hydrogel-mass-production-formation-mechanism-and-applications
#12
Hao Zhou, LiLi Xu, Yuezhong Wen, Kunde Lin, Xiaomei Zeng
To improve the solid/liquid separation of chitosan adsorbents as well as the adsorption ability, chitosan was molded in several shapes. However, the ring-like structures of chitosan which have relatively larger surface area and higher chemical accessibility, but low-pressure drops than their plate-like counterparts has not been reported. In this study, we put forward a novel concept to fabricate a kind of highly efficient ring-like structured chitosan hydrogel through a sulfate ionic crosslinking method, its mass production and formation mechanism has been fully proposed...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911347/smartphone-applications-for-immersive-virtual-reality-therapy-for-internet-addiction-and-internet-gaming-disorder
#13
Melvyn W B Zhang, Roger C M Ho
There have been rapid advances in technologies over the past decade and virtual reality technology is an area which is increasingly utilized as a healthcare intervention in many disciplines including that of Medicine, Surgery and Psychiatry. In Psychiatry, most of the current interventions involving the usage of virtual reality technology is limited to its application for anxiety disorders. With the advances in technology, Internet addiction and Internet gaming disorders are increasingly prevalent. To date, these disorders are still being treated using conventional psychotherapy methods such as cognitive behavioural therapy...
November 25, 2016: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911106/time-course-of-conjunctival-hyperemia-induced-by-a-rho-kinase-inhibitor-anti-glaucoma-eye-drop-ripasudil-0-4
#14
Etsuko Terao, Shunsuke Nakakura, Yasuko Fujisawa, Yuki Fujio, Kanae Matsuya, Yui Kobayashi, Hitoshi Tabuchi, Tsuyoshi Yoneda, Atsuki Fukushima, Yoshiaki Kiuchi
PURPOSE: We investigated the detailed time course of conjunctival hyperemia induced by ripasudil 0.4%, a novel Rho-kinase inhibitor anti-glaucoma eye drop, in healthy subjects. METHODS: We recruited 51 healthy subjects and administered ripasudil 0.4% in their right eye. We evaluated conjunctival hyperemia using slit lamp photography and measured the intraocular pressure (IOP) using the Icare PRO Rebound Tonometer at baseline and after 5, 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min...
December 2, 2016: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910996/speckle-tracking-echocardiography-predicts-early-subclinical-anthracycline-cardiotoxicity-in-patients-with-breast-cancer
#15
Qi Tang, Yan Jiang, Yali Xu, Hongmei Xia
PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess the early changes of left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) mechanics associated with anthracycline treatment for breast cancer and to determine whether two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2D-STE) analysis could predict chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity. BACKGROUND: Anthracycline generates progressive LV dysfunction associated with a poor prognosis. Early detection of minor change of myocardial mechanics is thus important...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Clinical Ultrasound: JCU
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910667/x-ray-self-emission-imaging-used-to-diagnose-3-d-nonuniformities-in-direct-drive-icf-implosions
#16
A K Davis, D T Michel, R S Craxton, R Epstein, M Hohenberger, T Mo, D H Froula
As hydrodynamics codes develop to increase understanding of three-dimensional (3-D) effects in inertial confinement fusion implosions, diagnostics must adapt to evaluate their predictive accuracy. A 3-D radiation postprocessor was developed to investigate the use of soft x-ray self-emission images of an imploding target to measure the size of nonuniformities on the target surface. Synthetic self-emission images calculated from 3-D simulations showed a narrow ring of emission outside the ablation surface of the target...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910614/upgraded-millimeter-wave-interferometer-for-measuring-the-electron-density-during-the-beam-extraction-in-the-negative-ion-source
#17
T Tokuzawa, M Kisaki, K Nagaoka, K Tsumori, Y Ito, K Ikeda, H Nakano, M Osakabe, Y Takeiri, O Kaneko
The upgraded millimeter-wave interferometer with the frequency of 70 GHz is installed on a large-scaled negative ion source. Measurable line-averaged electron density is from 2 × 10(15) to 3 × 10(18) m(-3) in front of the plasma grid. Several improvements such as the change to shorter wavelength probing with low noise, the installation of special ordered horn antenna, the signal modulation for a high accuracy digital phase detection, the insertion of insulator, and so on, are carried out for the measurement during the beam extraction by applying high voltage...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910552/versatile-wetting-measurement-of-microplate-wells
#18
Enoch Ming Wei Ng, Brandon Huey-Ping Cheong, Yang Yu, Oi Wah Liew, Tuck Wah Ng
A method to measure the contact angle, which is indicative of wetting, using small liquid volumes dispensed directly on microplate wells is described and demonstrated. Experiments with enhanced green protein samples of volumes 4.4-6 μl showed no measured variance in the contact angle. Experiments with phosphate buffer solution with varied concentrations of a non-ionic detergent (Tween 20) dissolved, however, revealed smaller contact angles with increased detergent concentration. It is experimentally shown that drops can be located up to 7° from the lowest position of the well without affecting the accuracy of contact angle measurements...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910329/a-new-application-of-retarding-field-analyzer-for-the-electron-and-ion-temperature-measurement-on-the-j-text-tokamak
#19
Hai Liu, Zhipeng Chen, Ge Zhuang, Zhongyong Chen, Chijin Xiao
A new application of retarding field analyzer for the electron and ion temperature measurement (named eiRFA) has been realized on the J-TEXT tokamak. A novel bias arrangement is adopted for the eiRFA to implement the simultaneous measurement of the electron and ion temperatures in the scrape-off layer, as well as the floating potential, plasma space potential, and sheath potential drop coefficient. It shows that the temperatures measured by eiRFA are reasonable and the plasma space potential obtained by two means is in good self-consistent...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910256/simultaneous-upgrading-of-furanics-and-phenolics-via-hydroxyalkylation-aldol-condensation-reactions
#20
Tuong V Bui, Tawan Sooknoi, Daniel E Resasco
The simultaneous conversion of cyclopentanone and m-cresol has been investigated on a series of solid acid catalysts. Both compounds are representative of biomass-derived streams. Cyclopentanone can be readily obtained from sugar-derived furfurals via Piancatelli rearrangement under reducing conditions. Cresol represents the family of phenolics, typically obtained from the depolymerization of lignin. In the first biomass conversion strategy proposed here, furfural is converted in high yields and selectivity to cyclopentanone (CPO) over metal catalysts such as Pd-Fe/SiO2 catalyst at 600 psia H2 and 150oC...
December 1, 2016: ChemSusChem
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