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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786975/a-comparison-of-one-stage-vs-two-stage-individual-patient-data-meta-analysis-methods-a-simulation-study
#1
Evangelos Kontopantelis
BACKGROUND: Individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis allows for the exploration of heterogeneity and can identify subgroups that most benefit from an intervention (or exposure), much more successfully than meta-analysis of aggregate data. One-stage or two-stage IPD meta-analysis is possible, with the former using mixed-effects regression models and the latter obtaining study-estimates through simpler regression models before aggregating using standard meta-analysis methodology. However, a comprehensive comparison of the two methods, in practice, is lacking...
May 22, 2018: Research Synthesis Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786861/temporally-feathered-intensity-modulated-radiation-therapy-a-planning-technique-to-reduce-normal-tissue-toxicity
#2
Juan Carlos López Alfonso, Shireen Parsai, Nikhil Joshi, Andrew Godley, Chirag Shah, Shlomo A Koyfman, Jimmy J Caudell, Clifton D Fuller, Heiko Enderling, Jacob G Scott
PURPOSE: Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has allowed optimization of three-dimensional spatial radiation dose distributions permitting target coverage while reducing normal tissue toxicity. However, radiation-induced normal tissue toxicity is a major contributor to patients' quality of life and often a dose-limiting factor in the definitive treatment of cancer with radiation therapy. We propose the next logical step in the evolution of IMRT using canonical radiobiological principles, optimizing the temporal dimension through which radiation therapy is delivered to further reduce radiation-induced toxicity by increased time for normal tissue recovery...
May 22, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786774/computational-fluid-dynamics-modeling-of-the-human-pulmonary-arteries-with-experimental-validation
#3
Alifer D Bordones, Matthew Leroux, Vitaly O Kheyfets, Yu-An Wu, Chia-Yuan Chen, Ender A Finol
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a chronic progressive disease characterized by elevated pulmonary arterial pressure, caused by an increase in pulmonary arterial impedance. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can be used to identify metrics representative of the stage of PH disease. However, experimental validation of CFD models is often not pursued due to the geometric complexity of the model or uncertainties in the reproduction of the required flow conditions. The goal of this work is to validate experimentally a CFD model of a pulmonary artery phantom using a particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique...
May 21, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786025/resident-perspectives-on-communication-training-that-utilizes-immersive-virtual-reality
#4
Francis J Real, Dominick DeBlasio, Nicholas J Ollberding, David Davis, Bradley Cruse, Daniel Mclinden, Melissa D Klein
Background: Communication skills can be difficult to teach and assess in busy outpatient settings. These skills are important for effective counseling such as in cases of influenza vaccine hesitancy. It is critical to consider novel educational methods to supplement current strategies aimed at teaching relational skills. Methods: An immersive virtual reality (VR) curriculum on addressing influenza vaccine hesitancy was developed using Kern's six-step approach to curriculum design...
September 2017: Education for Health: Change in Training & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786019/measuring-situation-awareness-in-medical-education-objective-structured-clinical-examination-guides
#5
Margaret Frere, John Tepper, Markus Fischer, Kieran Kennedy, Thomas Kropmans
Background: Medical errors are among the most prevalent and serious adverse events in health care. Lack of situation awareness (SA) is an important factor leading to such errors. SA can be understood using Endsley's three-tier model: level 1 is perception, level 2 is comprehension, and level 3 is projection. While there is extensive literature on the theory of SA, it is difficult to measure and quantify. The purpose of this pilot study was to measure, identify, and characterize SA in some medical objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) guides, including a 1st year National University of Ireland, Galway (NUIG) OSCE...
September 2017: Education for Health: Change in Training & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785839/optimization-of-a-secondary-voi-protocol-for-lung-imaging-in-a-clinical-ct-scanner
#6
Thomas C Larsen, Vissagan Gopalakrishnan, Jianhua Yao, Catherine P Nguyen, Marcus Y Chen, Joel Moss, Han Wen
We present a solution to meet an unmet clinical need of an in-situ "close look" at a pulmonary nodule or at the margins of a pulmonary cyst revealed by a primary (screening) chest CT while the patient is still in the scanner. We first evaluated options available on current whole-body CT scanners for high resolution screening scans, including ROI reconstruction of the primary scan data and HRCT, but found them to have insufficient SNR in lung tissue or discontinuous slice coverage. Within the capabilities of current clinical CT systems, we opted for the solution of a secondary, volume-of-interest (VOI) protocol where the radiation dose is focused into a short-beam axial scan at the z position of interest, combined with a small-FOV reconstruction at the xy position of interest...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785411/low-dose-ct-perfusion-of-the-liver-using-reconstruction-of-difference
#7
Saeed Seyyedi, Eleni Liapi, Tobias Lasser, Robert Ivkov, Rajeev Hatwar, J Webster Stayman
Liver CT perfusion (CTP) is used in the detection, staging, and treatment response analysis of hepatic diseases. Unfortunately, CTP radiation exposures is significant, limiting more widespread use. Traditional CTP data processing reconstructs individual temporal samples, ignoring a large amount of shared anatomical information between temporal samples, suggesting opportunities for improved data processing. We adopt a prior-image-based reconstruction approach called Reconstruction of Difference (RoD) to enable low-exposure CTP acquisition...
May 2018: IEEE Transactions on Radiation and Plasma Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785174/communication-in-mental-health-nursing-bachelor-students-appraisal-of-a-blended-learning-training-programme-an-exploratory-study
#8
Merete Furnes, Kari Sofie Kvaal, Sevald Høye
Background: It is important that mental health nursing students at Bachelor level obtain effective communication skills. Many students dread the fact that in the mental health field they will encounter patients and relatives with various backgrounds and personalities. Large classes and limited teaching resources in nursing education are challenging. To prepare students for mental health nursing practice, a communication skills course based on the blended learning method was developed and carried out at two different campuses...
2018: BMC Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785084/impact-of-virtual-reality-simulation-on-learning-barriers-of-phacoemulsification-perceived-by-residents
#9
Danny Siu-Chun Ng, Zihan Sun, Alvin Lerrmann Young, Simon Tak-Chuen Ko, Jerry Ka-Hing Lok, Timothy Yuk-Yau Lai, Shameema Sikder, Clement C Tham
Objective: To identify residents' perceived barriers to learning phacoemulsification surgical procedures and to evaluate whether virtual reality simulation training changed these perceptions. Design: The ophthalmology residents undertook a simulation phacoemulsification course and proficiency assessment on the Eyesi system using the previously validated training modules of intracapsular navigation, anti-tremor, capsulorrhexis, and cracking/chopping. A cross-sectional, multicenter survey on the perceived difficulties in performing phacoemulsification tasks on patients, based on the validated International Council of Ophthalmology's Ophthalmology Surgical Competency Assessment Rubric (ICO-OSCAR), using a 5-point Likert scale (1 = least and 5 = most difficulty), was conducted among residents with or without prior simulation training...
2018: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784718/opinion-and-special-articles-stress-when-performing-the-first-lumbar-puncture-may-compromise-patient-safety
#10
Mikael Johannes Vuokko Henriksen, Troels Wienecke, Jesper Kristiansen, Yoon Soo Park, Charlotte Ringsted, Lars Konge
OBJECTIVE: To quantify physician stress levels when performing lumbar puncture (LP) and explore operator stress effect on patient outcomes. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional, multicenter study. Novices, intermediates, and experts in performing LP were recruited from 4 departments of neurology and emergency medicine. Stress was measured before and during performance of the LP using cognitive appraisal (CA), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Short (STAI-S) questionnaire, and the heart rate variability measure low frequency/high frequency index (LF/HF ratio)...
May 22, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784537/artificial-intelligence-a-joint-narrative-on-potential-use-in-pediatric-stem-and-immune-cell-therapies-and-regenerative-medicine
#11
REVIEW
Irena Sniecinski, Jerard Seghatchian
Artificial Intelligence (AI) reflects the intelligence exhibited by machines and software. It is a highly desirable academic field of many current fields of studies. Leading AI researchers describe the field as "the study and design of intelligent agents". McCarthy invented this term in 1955 and defined it as "the science and engineering of making intelligent machines". The central goals of AI research are reasoning, knowledge, planning, learning, natural language processing (communication), perception and the ability to move and manipulate objects...
May 9, 2018: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784222/psychiatric-patients-and-nurses-opinions-about-limit-setting-technique-in-port-said-city
#12
Sonia M El-Sayad
BACKGROUND: Limit setting facilitates the development of a therapeutic, caring and supportive relationships, it can also decrease patients' feelings of anxiety and uncertainty. It is a two-way process that should be delivered professionally by the nurse and perceived therapeutically by the patient, so patient considered a vital participant of the technique. AIM: The present study aimed at exploring psychiatric patients' and nurses' opinions as well as their information about limit setting...
June 2018: Archives of Psychiatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783867/virtual-stenting-of-intracranial-aneurysms-a-pilot-study-for-the-prediction-of-treatment-success-based-on-hemodynamic-simulations
#13
Philipp Berg, Sylvia Saalfeld, Gábor Janiga, Olivier Brina, Nicole M Cancelliere, Paolo Machi, Vitor M Pereira
Endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms using flow-diverting devices has revolutionized the treatment of large and complex lesions due to its minimally invasive nature and potential clinical outcomes. However, incomplete or delayed occlusion and persistent intracranial aneurysm growth are still an issue for up to one-third of the patients. We evaluated two patients with intracranial aneurysm located at the internal carotid artery who were treated with flow-diverting devices and had opposite outcomes...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782617/patient-specific-neurosurgical-phantom-assessment-of-visual-quality-accuracy-and-scaling-effects
#14
Felipe Wilker Grillo, Victor Hugo Souza, Renan Hiroshi Matsuda, Carlo Rondinoni, Theo Zeferino Pavan, Oswaldo Baffa, Helio Rubens Machado, Antonio Adilton Oliveira Carneiro
Background: Training in medical education depends on the availability of standardized materials that can reliably mimic the human anatomy and physiology. One alternative to using cadavers or animal bodies is to employ phantoms or mimicking devices. Styrene-ethylene/butylene-styrene (SEBS) gels are biologically inert and present tunable properties, including mechanical properties that resemble the soft tissue. Therefore, SEBS is an alternative to develop a patient-specific phantom, that provides real visual and morphological experience during simulation-based neurosurgical training...
2018: 3D printing in medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782402/understanding-conflict-management-styles-in-anesthesiology-residents
#15
Terrie Vasilopoulos, Christopher R Giordano, Jack D Hagan, Brenda G Fahy
BACKGROUND: Successful conflict resolution is vital for effective teamwork and is critical for safe patient care in the operating room. Being able to appreciate the differences in training backgrounds, individual knowledge and opinions, and task interdependency necessitates skilled conflict management styles when addressing various clinical and professional scenarios. The goal of this study was to assess conflict styles in anesthesiology residents via self- and counterpart assessment during participation in simulated conflict scenarios...
May 17, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781968/infusing-social-justice-in-undergraduate-nursing-education-fostering-praxis-through-simulation
#16
Robyn Caldwell, Courtney Cochran
SCOPE OF THE PROBLEM: Forensic clinical experiences are often inconsistent in undergraduate nursing education. Nursing students are not included in the process of forensic evidence collection, often because of the sensitive nature of the situation. Unfortunately, nursing students are forced to rely on theoretical knowledge provided by the nurse educator to understand the complexities of forensic nursing care. Nursing students must be able to identify and provide appropriate nursing care for individuals in all forensic situations...
April 2018: Journal of Forensic Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781394/effects-of-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-with-relaxation-vs-imagery-rescripting-on-psychophysiological-stress-responses-of-students-with-test-anxiety-in-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Neele Reiss, Irene Warnecke, Ana Nanette Tibubos, Theano Tolgou, Ursula Luka-Krausgrill, Sonja Rohrmann
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Psychophysiological measures were assessed in university students during a test simulation before and after group treatment for test anxiety based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), including relaxation techniques (CBT + R) or imagery rescripting (CBT + ImRs) and a moderated self-help group (SH) to understand if psychophysiological stress responses change after treatment. DESIGN: Students suffering from test anxiety were recruited (n = 180) and three different test anxiety treatments administered in 3-hr group sessions once a week over a period of five weeks...
May 21, 2018: Psychotherapy Research: Journal of the Society for Psychotherapy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781037/microrna-485-plays-tumour-suppressive-roles-in-colorectal-cancer-by-directly-targeting-gab2
#18
Jibin Li, Jian Xu, Xiaofei Yan, Keer Jin, Wenya Li, Rui Zhang
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is reported to be the third most common cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths around the world. MicroRNA-485 (miR-485) has been reported to be aberrantly expressed and play important roles in several types of human malignancy. However, the expression level, biological functions and underlying molecular mechanisms of miR-485 in CRC remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine miR-485 expression levels and their clinical significance in CRC and to explore the functions and underlying mechanisms of miR-485 in this disease...
May 17, 2018: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780937/vogt-koyanagi-harada-disease-like-presentation-in-patients-with-chronic-myeloid-leukemia
#19
Saurabh Mistry, S Sudharshan, Suganeswari Ganesan, Ashraf Banu Akbar, Jyotirmay Biswas
Purpose: To report two rare cases of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) on tyrosine kinase inhibitors presenting as bilateral serous retinal detachment and ocular inflammation, simulating Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease. Methods: Case series and review of literature. Result: Two young patients (one male and one female) with CML on treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (imatinib and dasatanib) under remission presented with bilateral sudden vision loss...
June 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780802/exploring-the-potential-of-generative-adversarial-networks-for-synthesizing-radiological-images-of-the-spine-to-be-used-in-in-silico-trials
#20
Fabio Galbusera, Frank Niemeyer, Maike Seyfried, Tito Bassani, Gloria Casaroli, Annette Kienle, Hans-Joachim Wilke
In silico trials recently emerged as a disruptive technology, which may reduce the costs related to the development and marketing approval of novel medical technologies, as well as shortening their time-to-market. In these trials, virtual patients are recruited from a large database and their response to the therapy, such as the implantation of a medical device, is simulated by means of numerical models. In this work, we propose the use of generative adversarial networks to produce synthetic radiological images to be used in in silico trials...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
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