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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342233/quantumclone-clonal-assessment-of-functional-mutations-in-cancer-based-on-a-genotype-aware-method-for-clonal-reconstruction
#1
Paul Deveau, Leo Colmet Daage, Derek Oldridge, Virginie Bernard, Angela Bellini, Mathieu Chicard, Nathalie Clement, Eve Lapouble, Valerie Combaret, Anne Boland, Vincent Meyer, Jean-Francois Deleuze, Isabelle Janoueix-Lerosey, Emmanuel Barillot, Olivier Delattre, John Maris, Gudrun Schleiermacher, Valentina Boeva
Motivation: In cancer, clonal evolution is assessed based on information coming from single nucleotide variants and copy number alterations. Nonetheless, existing methods often fail to accurately combine information from both sources to truthfully reconstruct clonal populations in a given tumor sample or in a set of tumor samples coming from the same patient. Moreover, previously published methods detect clones from a single set of variants. As a result, compromises have to be done between stringent variant filtering (reducing dispersion in variant allele frequency estimates, VAFs) and using all biologically relevant variants...
January 12, 2018: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341815/development-and-validation-of-simulated-virtual-patients-to-impart-early-clinical-exposure-in-endocrine-physiology
#2
Akriti Gupta, Satendra Singh, Farah Khaliq, Upreet Dhaliwal, S V Madhu
In the country presently, preclinical medical students are not routinely exposed to real patients. Thus, when they start clinical postings, they are found to have poor clinical reasoning skills. Simulated virtual patients (SVPs) can improve clinical skills without endangering real patients. This pilot study describes the development of two SVPs in endocrine physiology and their validation in terms of acquisition of clinical knowledge and student engagement. Two SVPs, Nandini Sharma (unintentional weight gain) and Sunil Yadav (polyuria), were created and published on the i-Human Patients platform through an iterative, interdisciplinary, and transdisciplinary collaborative process using the conceptual framework of Kim et al...
March 1, 2018: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341795/the-ability-to-provide-quality-chest-compressions-over-lacrosse-shoulder-pads
#3
Richard J Boergers, Thomas G Bowman, Monica Lininger
CONTEXT:   Performance of quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation is essential for improving patient outcomes. Performing compressions over football equipment inhibits compression depth and rate, but lacrosse equipment has not yet been studied. OBJECTIVE:   To assess the effect of lacrosse shoulder pads on the ability to provide quality chest compressions on simulation manikins. DESIGN:   Crossover study. SETTING:   Simulation laboratory...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341179/better-characterization-of-vinflunine-pharmacokinetics-variability-and-exposure-toxicity-relationship-to-improve-its-use-analyses-from-18-trials
#4
A Schmitt, L Nguyen, G Zorza, P Ferré, A Pétain
AIMS: Vinflunine is a novel tubulin-targeted inhibitor indicated as a single agent for the treatment of bladder cancers after failure of prior platinum-based therapy. Its pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) have been independently characterized through several phase I and phase II studies. However, no global pharmacometric analysis had been conducted yet. METHODS: Vinflunine concentrations and safety data from 18 phase I and phase II studies were used to conduct population PK and PK/PD analysis, using Nonmem...
January 17, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340941/internal-medicine-residents-attitudes-toward-simulated-depressed-cardiac-patients-during-an-objective-structured-clinical-examination-a-randomized-study
#5
Kathleen Crapanzano, Dixie Fisher, Rebecca Hammarlund, Eric P Hsieh, Win May
BACKGROUND: Physician biases toward mental conditions such as depression have been shown to adversely affect medical outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationship between residents' explicit bias toward depressed patients and their clinical skills on a cardiac case during an objective structured clinical exam (OSCE). DESIGN: Prospective parallel randomized controlled study. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred eighty-five internal medicine residents from three residency programs in two states...
January 16, 2018: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340526/simulating-the-behavior-of-patients-who-leave-a-public-hospital-emergency-department-without-being-seen-by-a-physician-a-cellular-automaton-and-agent-based-framework
#6
Milad Yousefi, Moslem Yousefi, F S Fogliatto, R P M Ferreira, J H Kim
The objective of this study was to develop an agent based modeling (ABM) framework to simulate the behavior of patients who leave a public hospital emergency department (ED) without being seen (LWBS). In doing so, the study complements computer modeling and cellular automata (CA) techniques to simulate the behavior of patients in an ED. After verifying and validating the model by comparing it with data from a real case study, the significance of four preventive policies including increasing number of triage nurses, fast-track treatment, increasing the waiting room capacity and reducing treatment time were investigated by utilizing ordinary least squares regression...
January 11, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340126/hepatosplenic-gamma-delta-t-cell-lymphoma-hsgdtcl-two-rare-case-reports-from-western-india
#7
Irappa Madabhavi, Gaurang Modi, Harsha Panchal, Apurva Patel, Swaroop Revannasiddaiah, Asha Anand, Sonia Parikh, Kshitij Joshi, Malay Sarkar
Peripheral T cell lymphomas are a heterogeneous group of post-thymic, mature lymphoid malignancies, accounting for approximately 10-15% of all non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma (HSGDTCL) is a rare entity, which is characterized by primary extra nodal disease with typical sinusoidal or sinusal infiltration of the liver and the spleen, respectively by expression of the T-cell receptor γδ chain, and by a number of other frequent clinicopathologic features, including aggressive course of disease...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Hematology-oncology and Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339575/dynamic-pet-image-reconstruction-integrating-temporal-regularization-associated-with-respiratory-motion-correction-for-applications-in-oncology
#8
Thibaut Merlin, Dimitris Visvikis, Philippe Fernandez, Frederic Lamare
Respiratory motion reduces both the qualitative and quantitative accuracy of PET images in oncology. This impact is more significant for quantitative applications based on kinetic modeling, where dynamic acquisitions are associated with limited statistics due to the necessity of enhanced temporal resolution. The aim of this study is to address these drawbacks by combining within a unique reconstruction algorithm in dynamic PET imaging, a respiratory motion correction approach, as well as a temporal regularization...
January 17, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339570/comparison-of-monte-carlo-and-analytical-dose-computations-for-intensity-modulated-proton-therapy
#9
Pablo P Yepes, Antony H Adair, David R Grosshans, Dragan Mirkovic, Falk Poenisch, Uwe Titt, Qianxia Wang, Radhe Mohan
To evaluate the effect of approximations in clinical analytical calculations performed by a Treatment Planning System (TPS) on dosimetric indices in Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy. Methods: TPS calculated dose distributions were compared with dose distributions as estimated by Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, calculated with the Fast Dose Calculator (FDC) a system previously benchmarked to full MC. This study analyzed a total of 525 patients for four treatment sites (brain, head-and-neck, thorax and prostate)...
January 17, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339394/population-pharmacokinetics-of-finafloxacin-in-healthy-volunteers-and-patients-with-complicated-urinary-tract-infections
#10
Max Taubert, Mark Lückermann, Andreas Vente, Axel Dalhoff, Uwe Fuhr
Background: Finafloxacin is a novel fluoroquinolone with increased antibacterial activity at acidic pH and reduced susceptibility to several resistance mechanisms. A phase II study revealed a good efficacy/safety profile in patients with complicated urinary tract infections (cUTI) while pharmacokinetics was characterized by highly variable concentration vs. time profiles, suggesting the need for an elaborated pharmacokinetic model.Methods: Data from three clinical trials were evaluated; 127 healthy volunteers were dosed orally (N=77) or intravenously (N=50) and 139 patients with cUTI received finafloxacin intravenously...
January 16, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339047/the-impact-of-semilateral-decubitus-position-on-the-dose-volume-parameters-of-the-heart-and-lung-for-left-sided-breast-cancer-patients-a-comparative-dosimetric-study
#11
Azza Helal, Mohamed Farouk, Sherief H Gamie, Mahran Abdo, Lila Mosa, Amr Abdul Aziz
PURPOSE: When treating breast cancer with radiation therapy, the impact of treatment position on heart and lung dose-volume parameters (DVPs) is largely dependent on the maximal heart distance (MHD) and central lung distance (CLD). We evaluate how much heart and lung sparing can be achieved using the semilateral decubitus (SLD) position without and with breath hold compared with the standard supine position for left-sided breast cancer patients. A secondary aim was to investigate the impact of MHD and CLD on heart and lung DVPs...
December 2, 2017: Practical Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338974/usefulness-of-the-grand-piano-sign-for-determining-femoral-rotational-alignment-in-total-knee-arthroplasty
#12
Takaaki Ohmori, Tamon Kabata, Yoshitomo Kajino, Tadashi Taga, Daisuke Inoue, Takashi Yamamoto, Tomoharu Takagi, Junya Yoshitani, Takuro Ueno, Hiroyuki Tsuchiya
BACKGROUND: The "grand-piano sign" is a well-known indicator of proper rotational femoral alignment. We investigated changes in the shape of the femoral anterior cutting plane by changing the rotational alignment, anterior portion depth, and cutting plane flexion angle. METHODS: We simulated various cutting planes after cutting the anterior portion of the femur next to the distal femoral osteotomy in 50 patients with varus knee and also a femoral anterior osteotomy with four degree (S group) and seven degree (T group) flexion angles regarding the mechanical axis...
January 12, 2018: Knee
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338969/current-and-future-challenges-of-radiation-oncology-in-iran-a-report-from-the-iranian-society-of-clinical-oncology
#13
A Ameri, M Barzegartahamtan, M Ghavamnasiri, R Mohammadpour, H Dehghan, A Sebzari, K Novin, M Aloosh
AIMS: Growth of the cancer incidence rate in Iran has been very high in recent years. Therefore, the Iranian health care system should be prepared for the treatment of a huge number of patients in the foreseeable future. One of the most important treatment options for cancer is radiation. However, there is no comprehensive information on infrastructure for radiation oncology in this country. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 2015, a questionnaire was designed by the Iranian Society of Clinical Oncology (ISCO) and all radiation oncology centres in the country were visited to determine four important components of radiation oncology services, including facilities, equipment, personnel and patients...
January 12, 2018: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338852/simulation-based-multidisciplinary-team-training-decreases-time-to-critical-operations-for-trauma-patients
#14
Margaret Murphy, Kate Curtis, Mary K Lam, Cameron S Palmer, Jeremy Hsu, Andrea McCloughen
BACKGROUND: Simulation has been promoted as a platform for training trauma teams. However, it is not clear if this training has an impact on health service delivery and patient outcomes. This study evaluates the association between implementation of a simulation based multidisciplinary trauma team training program at a metropolitan trauma centre and subsequent patient outcomes. METHOD: This was a retrospective review of trauma registry data collected at an 850-bed Level 1 Adult Trauma Centre in Sydney, Australia...
January 8, 2018: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338697/additional-dexamethasone-in-chemotherapies-with-carboplatin-and-paclitaxel-could-reduce-the-impaired-glycometabolism-in-rat-models
#15
Yanxiu Guo, Haoxia Zeng, Xiaohong Chang, Chaohua Wang, Heng Cui
BACKGROUND: Side-effects have been considered as the limitation of the chemotherapy agents' administration and life quality in patients with ovarian cancers. In order to explore the influence of the chemotherapy agents commonly used in ovarian cancer patients on the blood glucose metabolism in rat models, we conducted this study which simulated the conditions of clinical protocols. METHODS: Eighty clean-grade female Wistar rats were randomized into 8 groups: Group 1 (Negative control), Group 1' (Dexamethasone), Group 2 (Carboplatin), Group 2' (Carboplatin-plus-dexamethasone), Group 3 (Paclitaxel), Group 3' (Paclitaxel-plus-dexamethasone), Group 4 (Combined therapy), Group 4' (Combined-therapy-plus-dexamethasone)...
January 16, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337286/estimation-of-parameters-for-plasma-glucose-regulation-in-type-2-diabetics-in-presence-of-meal
#16
Prova Biswas, Ashoke Sutradhar, Pallab Datta
In this study, the authors propose a methodology for the estimation of glucose masses in stomach (both in solid and liquid forms), intestine, plasma and tissue; insulin masses in portal vein, liver, plasma and interstitial fluid using only plasma glucose measurement. The proposed methodology fuses glucose-insulin homoeostasis model (in the presence of meal intake) and plasma glucose measurement with a Bayesian non-linear filter. Uncertainty of the model over individual variations has been incorporated by adding process noise to the homoeostasis model...
February 2018: IET Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337170/virtual-cerebral-aneurysm-clipping-with-real-time-haptic-force-feedback-in-neurosurgical-education
#17
Matthias Gmeiner, Johannes Dirnberger, Wolfgang Fenz, Maria Gollwitzer, Gabriele Wurm, Johannes Trenkler, Andreas Gruber
OBJECTIVE: Realistic, safe and efficient modalities for simulation-based training are highly warranted to enhance the quality of surgical education and should be incorporated in resident training. The aim of this study was to develop a patient-specific virtual cerebral aneurysm-clipping simulator with haptic force-feedback and real-time deformation of the aneurysm and vessels. METHODS: A prototype simulator was developed from 2012-2016. Evaluation of virtual clipping by blood flow simulation was integrated in this software and the prototype was evaluated by 18 neurosurgeons...
January 11, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336877/sin-quadratic-model-for-chest-tomosynthesis-respiratory-signal-analysis-and-its-application-in-four-dimensional-chest-tomosynthesis-reconstruction
#18
Xi Tao, Hua Zhang, Genggeng Qin, Jianhua Ma, Qianjin Feng, Wufan Chen
Chest tomosynthesis (CTS) is a newly developed imaging technique which provides pseudo-3D volume anatomical information of thorax from limited-angle projections and contains much less of superimposed anatomy than the chest X-ray radiography. One of the relatively common problems in CTS is the patient respiratory motion during image acquisition, which negatively impacts the detectability. In this work, we propose a sin-quadratic model to analyze the respiratory motion during CTS scan, which is a real time method where the respiratory signal is generated by extracting the motion of diaphragm from projection radiographs...
January 11, 2018: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336696/controlled-adverse-environment-chambers-in-dry-eye-research
#19
Margarita Calonge, Marc Labetoulle, Elisabeth M Messmer, Sunil Shah, Yonca A Akova, Kostas G Boboridis, Jesús Merayo-Lloves, Pasquale Aragona, José Benítez-Del-Castillo, Gerd Geerling, Maurizio Rolando, Christophe Baudouin
Dry eye disease (DED) is a common condition with signs and symptoms that vary depending on a wide range of environmental factors to which people are exposed in their daily lives. Factors such as variable temperature, airflow velocity, relative humidity, seasonality, and pollutants can alter the rate of tear film evaporation, improving or exacerbating symptoms of DED. Results from currently available clinical tests do not always correlate well with patient-reported symptoms, and the continually changing environment and variability in DED symptoms present challenges for the design and conduct of clinical trials...
January 16, 2018: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335933/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-bariatric-surgery-for-morbid-obesity
#20
Adnan Alsumali, Tewodros Eguale, Sigrid Bairdain, Mihail Samnaliev
BACKGROUND: In the USA, three types of bariatric surgeries are widely performed, including laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG), laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB), and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB). However, few economic evaluations of bariatric surgery are published. There is also scarcity of studies focusing on the LSG alone. Therefore, this study is evaluating the cost-effectiveness of bariatric surgery using LRYGB, LAGB, and LSG as treatment for morbid obesity...
January 15, 2018: Obesity Surgery
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